The author argues that we must stop and take a look at what our insistence on human labour as the basis of our society is doing to us, and begin to search for possible alternatives. We need the vision and the courage to aim for the highest level of technology attainable for the widest possible use in both industry and services. We need financial arrangements that will encourage people to invent themselves out of work. Our goal, the article argues, must be the reduction of human labour to the greatest extent possible, to free people for more enjoyable, creative, human activities.
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
The purpose of this paper is to offer a unique perspective on the role of entrepreneurs’ hard work for the relationship between entrepreneur human capital and venture…
The purpose of this paper is to offer a unique perspective on the role of entrepreneurs’ hard work for the relationship between entrepreneur human capital and venture success. To this end, this study examined whether entrepreneurs with high human capital work harder than entrepreneurs with low human capital, the effect of entrepreneurs’ hard work on venture performance, and whether entrepreneurs’ hard work mediates the relationship between entrepreneur human capital and venture performance.
In this explorative study, the role of entrepreneurs’ hard work as a mediator that transfers entrepreneur human capital into venture success was examined in a sample of 2,648 single-founder startups in the USA and 21,184 observations during the period of 2004-2011.
The effect of entrepreneurs’ industry experience on entrepreneurs’ hard work was significantly positive, while the effect of entrepreneurs’ general education on entrepreneurs’ hard work was significantly negative. Moreover, entrepreneurs’ hard work was a significant predictor of venture success. Finally, the results showed that entrepreneurs’ hard work partially mediates the positive relationship between entrepreneurs’ industry experience and venture success.
On one hand, the link between human capital and firm performance has been studied thoroughly and findings so far support the positive link between them. On the other hand, there has been continuous criticism that human capital gained much of its attention at the expense of human labor. There is a paucity of research, however, that investigating the dynamics of the relationships between human capital and human labor. This study provides an empirical explanation of such dynamics of the relationships of human characteristics in the context of entrepreneurship.
The purpose of this paper, starting from a theoretical framework, is to analyze the spillover effects of human capital brought by labor mobility and their influence on the…
The purpose of this paper, starting from a theoretical framework, is to analyze the spillover effects of human capital brought by labor mobility and their influence on the public education investment.
Based on the endogenous growth theory, the paper establishes a regional human capital spillover model to examine the spillover effects of human capital coming along with the regional labor mobility and the changes of public education investment decision brought by the spillover effects in China.
It has been found that the regional mobility of labor has made the developed areas gain the spillover benefits of human capital investment from the underdeveloped areas with their superiority of social and economic environment and restrained the incentives for public education investment in the underdeveloped areas, thus the different areas walk on a different growth path, with the expansion of the difference in the economic and education investment growth.
This paper analyzes the possible influences from the spillover of human capital on the economic growth and educational investment and finds a high possibility for the underdeveloped areas to get into a “low development trap” of education investment. The key to solving the problem is to internalize the externalities by the active public policy, in order to realize equal education, rational investment and balanced development.
This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the…
This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the graduation rate of their children increased from 7% to 50%; and the fraction of adulthood wives devoted to market-oriented work increased from 7% to 23% (by one measure).
These trends are addressed within a unified framework to examine the ability of several proposed mechanisms to quantitatively replicate these changes. Based on careful calibration, the choices of successive generations of representative husband-and-wife households over the quantity and quality of their children, household production, and the extent of mother’s involvement in market-oriented production are simulated.
Rising wages, declining mortality, a declining gender wage gap, and increased efficiency and public provision of schooling cannot, individually or in combination, reduce fertility or increase stocks of human capital to levels seen in the data. The best fit of the model to the data also involves: (1) a decreased tendency among parents to view potential earnings of children as the property of parents and (2) rising consumption shares per dependent child.
Greater attention should be given the determinants of parental control of the work and earnings of children for this period.
One contribution is the gathering of information and strategies necessary to establish an initial baseline, and the time paths for parameters and targets for this period beset with data limitations. A second contribution is identifying the contributions of various mechanisms toward reaching those calibration targets.
It is widely accepted among critical human–animal scholars that an absolute ontological distinction between humans and animals, the human–animal dualism, is an ideological construction. However, even some of the most radical animalists make use of a softer version of it when they explain animal exploitation and domination in capitalism. By criticizing the reintroduction of the human–animal dualism through the back door, I reopen the terrain for a historical–materialist explanation of bourgeois animal exploitation and domination that does not conceptualize them as a matter of species in the first place. Rather, with reference and in analogy to ecosocialist arguments on the greenhouse effect, it is demonstrated that a specific faction of capital – animal capital – which uses animals and animal products as means of production, is the root cause, key agent, and main profiteer of animal exploitation and domination in the current mode of production. Thus, the reworked concept of animal capital presented here differs from the original, postoperaist notion introduced by Nicole Shukin since it is based on a classic sociorelational and value theoretical understanding of capitalism. According to this approach, animals are integrated socioeconomically into the capitalist class society via a relation of superexploitation to capital, which can be called the capital–animal relation.
Here Marx's philosophy is dissected from the angle of bourgeois capitalism which he, Marx, sought to overcome. His social, political and economic ideas are criticised. Although it is noted that Marx wanted to ameliorate human suffering, the result turned out to be Utopian, contrary to his own intentions. Contrary to Marx, it is individualism that makes the best sense and capitalism that holds out the best hope for coping with most of the problems he sought to solve. Marx's philosophy is alluring but flawed at a very basic level, namely, where it denies the individuality of each person and treats humanity as “an organic body”. Capitalism, while by no means out to guarantee a perfect society, is the best setting for the realisation of the diverse but often equally noble human goals of its membership.
This chapter considers the impetus for the inclusion of labour rights and secure work rights, with a particular focus on countering human trafficking and what is now…
This chapter considers the impetus for the inclusion of labour rights and secure work rights, with a particular focus on countering human trafficking and what is now widely known as ‘modern slavery’ in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs comprise 17 goals and 169 targets set to assist nation states in achieving sustainable development in the ‘five P’ areas: People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership. In this chapter we analyse goals and targets that focus on modern slavery and adult human trafficking (in particular sex trafficking and trafficking for forced labour), and review the SDGs in the context of existing international counter-trafficking and slavery mechanisms. We consider what this novel framework has to offer when it comes to addressing these forms of exploitation. In so doing, the chapter considers the likely impact of the SDGs to preventing and countering these exploitative practices, and its potential usefulness within the broader spectrum of counter-trafficking/slavery mechanisms. We suggest that the SDGs are yet another international instrument that makes strong rhetorical commitments to the intersections of labour, migration and exploitation, but lacks clarity and operational strength it needs to lead the path in reduction, if not elimination of such exploitative practices. Finally, we analyse the extent to which this instrument continues to ignore the factors that contribute to or sustain the conditions for exploitation, namely the impact of migration policies and the gendered nature of the issue.
A framework is presented for thestrategic use of technology choices aspotential solutions for human resourcesproblems arising from demographictrends and labour market…
A framework is presented for the strategic use of technology choices as potential solutions for human resources problems arising from demographic trends and labour market conditions. Rather than having technology choice decisions driven by largely financial or engineering concerns, the framework starts with the availability of human resources as its major consideration in choosing technologies which will eliminate jobs which organisations may not be able to fill, and augment or capitalise on skills the workforce does possess. Combining human resource planning and technology planning can thus help organisations achieve a strategic advantage.