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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2009

Diana L. Haytko and Christina S. Simmers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of human interaction versus interactions with technology in overall customer satisfaction with banking services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of human interaction versus interactions with technology in overall customer satisfaction with banking services, specifically, tellers versus Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) vs online transactions. All types of interactions are important in services, yet their level of importance is changing as the environment change.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted through surveys with students who had a bank checking account; six item measures were used to examine human interaction, interaction with an ATM, interaction with an online banking service and overall satisfaction with the specific bank. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the interactions on overall satisfaction.

Findings

The findings from the two studies show that while the human encounter was more important before online banking became so prevalent, the convenience of online banking has displaced the importance of human interaction. However, there were gender differences in that males, more than females, remain influenced by teller transactions.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilizes student samples, which could be biased. However, students are also users of banking services so they represent a traditional target market for financial service firms.

Practical implications

The results are informative for managers when planning and implementing new online services in the financial industry.

Originality/value

This paper draws together research on interpersonal interactions and technological interactions to examine the effects on overall satisfaction. Given the proliferation of technological advances, understanding how these technologies impact customer satisfaction is vital.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Suniti Hewett, Karen Becker and Adelle Bish

The purpose of this paper is to study the use of blended learning in the workplace and questions whether interpersonal interaction facilitates learner engagement…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the use of blended learning in the workplace and questions whether interpersonal interaction facilitates learner engagement (specifically behavioral, cognitive and/or emotional engagement), and if so, the means by which this occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was taken to this exploratory study, a single-case study design was utilized, and data collection methods involved interviews with facilitators and past participants of a blended workplace learning (BWL) program.

Findings

Human interaction in the BWL program included learner–facilitator, learner–learner and learner–colleague interaction. Where human interaction was present, it was reported to be linked with more active behavioral engagement, higher cognitive engagement and stronger and more positive emotional engagement than where human interaction was absent.

Research limitations/implications

The single-case study design does not allow for generalizability of findings. Reliance on self-reported data through interviews without cross-validation from other forms of measurement is a further limitation of the study.

Practical implications

Effective blended learning programs for workplaces are those that provide opportunities for learners to engage through human interaction with facilitators, other learners and colleagues. The findings advance current knowledge of BWL, and have implications for human resource development professionals, and designers and facilitators of blended learning programs for workplaces.

Originality/value

The study contributes to existing literature on blended learning in the workplace and emphasizes the importance of ensuring that human interaction is still an element of blended learning to maximize the benefits to learners and organizations.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2013

Ryan Turner

This piece is a review of the animal selfhood literature in sociology, organized into four main parts. First, I review the sociological literature of human–animal…

Abstract

This piece is a review of the animal selfhood literature in sociology, organized into four main parts. First, I review the sociological literature of human–animal interactions, in which sociologists claim that animals possess selves. Second, I review how sociologists have referred to the self, from which I construct five criteria of selfhood, including self as attribution, self-awareness, intersubjectivity, self-concept/reflexivity, and narration. Third, I address how animals have selves using these criteria, drawing on sociological and ethological evidence. Fourth, I critique the animal interaction sociologists’ specific claims of animal selfhood, including their epistemological failure to distinguish between human accounts of animal subjectivities and animal subjectivities, and their empirical failure to show how animals act toward themselves. Ultimately, I conclude that animal selves, particularly in an elemental Meadian sense, are potentially real, but in most cases are unobservable or unverifiable phenomena.

Details

40th Anniversary of Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-783-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Galen R. Collins

Service robotics, a branch of robotics that entails the development of robots able to assist humans in their environment, is of growing interest in the hospitality…

Abstract

Purpose

Service robotics, a branch of robotics that entails the development of robots able to assist humans in their environment, is of growing interest in the hospitality industry. Designing effective autonomous service robots, however, requires an understanding of Human–Robot Interaction (HRI), a relatively young discipline dedicated to understanding, designing, and evaluating robotic systems for use by or with humans. HRI has not yet received sufficient attention in hospitality robotic design, much like Human–Computer Interaction (HCI) in property management system design in the 1980s. This article proposes a set of introductory HRI guidelines with implementation standards for autonomous hospitality service robots.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of key user-centered HRI guidelines for hospitality service robots were extracted from 52 research articles. These are organized into service performance categories to provide more context for their application in hospitality settings.

Findings

Based on an extensive literature review, this article presents some HRI guidelines that may drive higher levels of acceptance of service robots in customer-facing situations. Deriving meaningful HRI guidelines requires an understanding of how customers evaluate service interactions with humans in hospitality settings and to what degree those will differ with service robots.

Originality/value

Robots are challenging assumptions on how hospitality businesses operate. They are being increasingly deployed by hotels and restaurants to boost productivity and maintain service levels. Effective HRI guidelines incorporate user requirements and expectations in the design specifications. Compilation of such information for designers of hospitality service robots will offer a clearer roadmap for them to follow.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Xueting Dou and Jonathon Day

This paper aims to synthesize the key findings of prior research on the topic of human-wildlife interactions (HWI) in natural places for tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to synthesize the key findings of prior research on the topic of human-wildlife interactions (HWI) in natural places for tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of systematic review was used to search for, appraise and analyze the relevant research evidence. A total of 47 English-language academic journal articles, published between 2003 and 2018, with free online access to full texts in the database of Hospitality and Tourism Complete have been reviewed. Thematic analysis was adopted to synthesize the textual data.

Findings

The reviewed articles cover a wide geographical spread, diverse wildlife species and interaction types, and various research focuses including ecological impacts, human dimensions and management issues of wildlife tourism. The interactions between wildlife and human systems in the context of tourism constitute a complicated social-ecological system, in which both the humans and animals can be affected positively and negatively. Management and scientific research provide the nexus between the ecological and human dimensions of wildlife tourism. While opportunities for sustainable development abound, challenges are not to be neglected.

Originality/value

Due to the complexity of wildlife encounters for tourist purposes, the extant literature indicates a diverse and fragmented view from which integrated implications are difficult to obtain. This paper presents the first overarching review in English of the literature on human-wildlife interactions for tourism and provides a big picture understanding of what has been and what is needed to be done in terms of both wildlife tourism research and practices.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 July 2019

Michelle M.E. van Pinxteren, Ruud W.H. Wetzels, Jessica Rüger, Mark Pluymaekers and Martin Wetzels

Service robots can offer benefits to consumers (e.g. convenience, flexibility, availability, efficiency) and service providers (e.g. cost savings), but a lack of trust…

Abstract

Purpose

Service robots can offer benefits to consumers (e.g. convenience, flexibility, availability, efficiency) and service providers (e.g. cost savings), but a lack of trust hinders consumer adoption. To enhance trust, firms add human-like features to robots; yet, anthropomorphism theory is ambiguous about their appropriate implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate what is more effective for fostering trust: appearance features that are more human-like or social functioning features that are more human-like.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental field study, a humanoid service robot displayed gaze cues in the form of changing eye colour in one condition and static eye colour in the other. Thus, the robot was more human-like in its social functioning in one condition (displaying gaze cues, but not in the way that humans do) and more human-like in its appearance in the other (static eye colour, but no gaze cues). Self-reported data from 114 participants revealing their perceptions of trust, anthropomorphism, interaction comfort, enjoyment and intention to use were analysed using partial least squares path modelling.

Findings

Interaction comfort moderates the effect of gaze cues on anthropomorphism, insofar as gaze cues increase anthropomorphism when comfort is low and decrease it when comfort is high. Anthropomorphism drives trust, intention to use and enjoyment.

Research limitations/implications

To extend human–robot interaction literature, the findings provide novel theoretical understanding of anthropomorphism directed towards humanoid robots.

Practical implications

By investigating which features influence trust, this study gives managers insights into reasons for selecting or optimizing humanoid robots for service interactions.

Originality/value

This study examines the difference between appearance and social functioning features as drivers of anthropomorphism and trust, which can benefit research on self-service technology adoption.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2021

Gaby Odekerken-Schröder, Kars Mennens, Mark Steins and Dominik Mahr

Recent service studies suggest focusing on the service triad consisting of technology-customer-frontline employee (FLE). This study empirically investigates the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent service studies suggest focusing on the service triad consisting of technology-customer-frontline employee (FLE). This study empirically investigates the role of service robots in this service triad, with the aim to understand the augmentation or substitution role of service robots in driving utilitarian and hedonic value and ultimately customer repatronage.

Design/methodology/approach

In study 1, field data are collected from customers (n = 108) who interacted with a service robot and FLE in a fast casual dining restaurant. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to test hypotheses about the impact of service robots' anthropomorphism, social presence, value perceptions and augmentation opportunities in the service triad. In study 2, empirical data from a scenario-based experimental design (n = 361) complement the field study by further scrutinizing the interplay between the service robot and FLEs within the service triad.

Findings

The study provides three important contributions. First, the authors provide empirical evidence for the interplay between different actors in the “customer-FLE-technology” service triad resulting in customer repatronage. Second, the empirical findings advance the service management literature by unraveling the relationship between anthropomorphism and social presence and their effect on perceived value in the service triad. And third, the study identifies utilitarian value of service robots as a driver of customer repatronage in fast casual dining restaurants.

Practical implications

The results help service managers, service robot engineers and designers, and policy makers to better understand the implications of anthropomorphism, and how the utilitarian value of service robots can offer the potential for augmentation or substitution roles in the service triad.

Originality/value

Building on existing conceptual and laboratory studies on service robots, this is one of the first field studies on the service triad consisting of service robots – customers – frontline employees. The empirical study on service triads provides evidence for the potential of FLEs to augment service robots that exhibit lower levels of functional performance to achieve customer repatronage. FLEs can do this by demonstrating a high willingness to help and having excellent interactions with customers. This finding advocates the joint service delivery by FLE – service robot teams in situations where service robot technology is not fully optimized.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Chris Meyer, David Cohen and Sudhir Nair

The paper aims to fill this gap by positing a framework that considers the service automation decision as a matter of knowledge management: a choice between human resident…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to fill this gap by positing a framework that considers the service automation decision as a matter of knowledge management: a choice between human resident and codified knowledge assets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a conceptual paper, grounded in the knowledge-based view.

Findings

The paper uses the information processing theory, which argues that the level of uncertainty in a process should dictate the type of knowledge deployed, as the contingency for the automation choice, and customer interaction uncertainty as the driver of that contingency. From these ideas, propositions are generated relating customer interaction uncertainty and service automation. Further implications for artificial intelligence (AI) are also explored.

Originality/value

The framework illuminates and informs the strategic choices regarding service automation, including the use of AI in professional services, a timely and highly important topic. It offers a valuable model for practitioners and contributes to the academic literature by pointing the way for future directions for scholarly research.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Xiangyu Liu, Ping Zhang, Guanglong Du, Ziping He and Guohao Chen

The purpose of this paper is to provide a novel training-responding controlling approach for human–robot interaction. The approach is inspired by the processes of muscle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a novel training-responding controlling approach for human–robot interaction. The approach is inspired by the processes of muscle memory and conditioned reflex. The approach is significant for dealing with the problems of robot’s redundant movements and operator’s fatigue in human–robot interaction system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presented a directional double clustering algorithm (DDCA) to achieve the training process. The DDCA ensured that the initial clustering centers uniformly distributed in every desired cluster. A minimal resource allocation network was used to construct a memory responding algorithm (MRA). When the human–robot interaction system needed to carry out a task for more than one time, the desired movements of the robot were given by the MRA without repeated training. Experimentally demonstrated results showed the proposed training-responding controlling approach could successfully accomplish human–robot interaction tasks.

Findings

The training-responding controlling approach improved the robustness and reliability of the human–robot interaction system, which presented a novel controlling method for the operator.

Practical implications

This approach has significant commercial applications, as a means of controlling for human–robot interaction could serve to point to the desired target and arrive at the appointed positions in industrial and household environment.

Originality/value

This work presented a novel training-responding human-robot controlling method. The human-robot controlling method dealt with the problems of robot’s redundant movements and operator’s fatigue. To the authors’ knowledge, the working processes of muscle memory and conditioned reflex have not been reported to apply to human-robot controlling.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2005

Jutta Weber

In recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and especially in robotics we can observe a tendency towards building intelligent artefacts that are meant to be…

Abstract

In recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and especially in robotics we can observe a tendency towards building intelligent artefacts that are meant to be social, to have ‘human social’ characteristics like emotions, the ability to conduct dialogue, to learn, to develop personality, character traits, and social competencies. Care, entertainment, pet and educational robots are conceptualised as friendly, understanding partners and credible assistants which communicate ‘naturally’ with users, show emotions and support them in everyday life. Social robots are often designed to interact physically, affectively and socially with humans in order to learn from them. To achieve this goal, roboticists often model the human‐robot interaction on early caregiver‐infant interactions. In this paper I want to analyse prominent visions of these ‘socio‐emotional’ machines as well as early prototypes and commercial products with regard to the human‐machine interface. By means of this I will ask how feminist critiques of technology could be applied to the field of social robotics in which concepts like sociality or emotion are crucial elements while, at the same time, these concepts play an important role in feminist critiques of technology.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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