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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Chih-Ming Chen, Jung-Ying Wang and Yu-Chieh Lin

Developing attention-aware systems and interfaces based on eye tracking technology could revolutionize mainstream human–computer interaction to make the interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing attention-aware systems and interfaces based on eye tracking technology could revolutionize mainstream human–computer interaction to make the interaction between human beings and computers more intuitive, effective and immersive than can be achieved traditionally using a computer mouse. This paper aims to propose an eye-controlled interactive reading system (ECIRS) that uses human eyes instead of the traditional mouse to control digital text to support screen-based digital reading.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of an experimental group and a control group of learners who, respectively, used the ECIRS and a mouse-controlled interactive reading system (MCIRS) to conduct their reading of two types of English-language text online – pure text and Q&A-type articles on reading comprehension, cognitive load, technology acceptance, and reading behavioural characteristics. Additionally, the effects of learners with field-independent (FI) and field-dependence (FD) cognitive styles who, respectively, used the ECIRS and MCIRS to conduct their reading of two types of English-language text online – pure text and Q&A-type articles on reading comprehension are also examined.

Findings

Analytical results reveal that the reading comprehension of learners in the experimental group significantly exceeded those in the control group for the Q&A article, but the difference was insignificant for the pure text article. Moreover, the ECIRS improved the reading comprehension of field-independent learners more than it did that of field-dependent learners. Moreover, neither the cognitive loads of the two groups nor their acceptance of the technology differed significantly, whereas the reading time of the experimental group significantly exceeded that of the control group. Interestingly, for all articles, the control group of learners read mostly from top to bottom without repetition, whereas most of the learners in the experimental group read most paragraphs more than once. Clearly, the proposed ECIRS supports deeper digital reading than does the MCIRS.

Originality/value

This study proposes an emerging ECIRS that can automatically provide supplementary information to a reader and control a reading text based on a reader’s eye movement to replace the widely used mouse-controlled reading system on a computer screen to effectively support digital reading for English language learning. The implications of this study are that the highly interactive reading patterns of digital text with ECIRS support increase motivation and willingness to learn while giving learners a more intuitive and natural reading experience as well as reading an article online with ECIRS support guides learners’ attention in deeper digital reading than does the MCIRS because of simultaneously integrating perceptual and cognitive processes of selection, awareness and control based on human eye movement.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jaime A. Ramirez, Dalmy F. Carvalho Jr and Elson J. Silva

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in a three dimensional (3D) anatomical human eye

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in a three dimensional (3D) anatomical human eye model exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields at 1.9, 2.4 and 5.1 GHz, in particular devices such as tablets, smart phones, etc., which are based on Wi-Fi and 4G technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A new 3D model of the human eye composed of nine different tissues with a high resolution of 0.5 mm is presented, including a precise definition of the cornea and lens and also distinguishing the cornea from the aqueous humor and the sclera from the retina and choroid. The EM problem is solved from the Maxwell’s equations which gives the electric field and in turn enables the calculation of the SAR in any part of the eye model. The thermal problem is solved from the bioheat (Pennes’) equation taking the SAR as an input of the power dissipated by the EM field. In both cases the finite difference time domain method is employed.

Findings

A plane-wave field located 30 cm away from the eye is considered as the source for the far-field EM exposure. The results for maximum SAR indicate that the smallest value is 0.06 W/kg in the lens for 1.9 GHz whereas the highest value encountered is 0.43 W/kg in the vitreous humor for 5.1 GHz. In the worst case, the maximum SAR in the lens is 0.28 W/kg for 5.1 GHz. In all cases, the SAR values are within the limits defined by international standards. In terms of maximum temperature, the highest value found is 0.01 C in the cornea, aqueous humor and lens for 5.1 GHz.

Originality/value

The work presents a thorough numerical calculation of the temperature increase in the human eye induced by devices that are based on Wi-Fi and 4G technology operating at 1.9-5.1 GHz.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

VIJAY K. GARG

A finite difference solution for steady natural convective flow within the human eye, modelled as a sphere with a specified temperature distribution over its surface, has…

Abstract

A finite difference solution for steady natural convective flow within the human eye, modelled as a sphere with a specified temperature distribution over its surface, has been obtained. The stream function—vorticity formulation of the equations of motion for the unsteady axisymmetric flow is used; interest lying in the final steady solution. Forward differences are used for the time derivatives and second‐order central differences for the space derivatives. The alternating direction implicit method is used for solution of the discretization equations. Local one‐dimensional grid adaptation is used to resolve the steep gradients in some regions of the flow at large Rayleigh numbers. The break‐up into multi‐cellular flow is found at high Rayleigh numbers. Results identify regions of stagnant fluid in locations similar to those of blind spots in the eye.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Ko-Chiu Wu and Yi-Hsieh Huang

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of a large e-book touch-wall, on which the visualized interface provides information in a fun, hedonic-oriented fashion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of a large e-book touch-wall, on which the visualized interface provides information in a fun, hedonic-oriented fashion on readers of different ages browsing in a public library. The authors examined how emotions exert influence on the information-seeking behaviors of readers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigated the emotions and responsive eye movements of 38 readers in various age groups when operating the touch-wall interface of New Taipei City Library. They were monitored using an eye-tracker and a camera that videotaped their spontaneous facial expressions. A facial affect scoring technique was used to measure emotions and statistical analysis was used to explore the relationships among the scope of eye movements, emotions and information-seeking behavior of readers of different ages.

Findings

Results revealed that participants experienced an array of emotions, such as contemplative, doubtful or peaceful. The older the participant was, the smaller the scope of eye movements was. Scope was also affected by emotions (both positive and negative).

Originality/value

These results serve as useful reference for exploration into human – information interaction, perceived ease of use, affected searching and the formulation of knowledge structures in visualized interfaces.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 70 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

J.H. Abawajy

The purpose of this paper is to explore characteristics of human‐computer interaction when the human body and its movements become input for interaction and interface…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore characteristics of human‐computer interaction when the human body and its movements become input for interaction and interface control in pervasive computing settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper quantifies the performance of human movement based on Fitt's Law and discusses some of the human factors and technical considerations that arise in trying to use human body movements as an input medium.

Findings

The paper finds that new interaction technologies utilising human movements may provide more flexible, naturalistic interfaces and support the ubiquitous or pervasive computing paradigm.

Practical implications

In pervasive computing environments the challenge is to create intuitive and user‐friendly interfaces. Application domains that may utilize human body movements as input are surveyed here and the paper addresses issues such as culture, privacy, security and ethics raised by movement of a user's body‐based interaction styles.

Originality/value

The paper describes the utilization of human body movements as input for interaction and interface control in pervasive computing settings.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Jasmina Ilicic and Stacey M. Brennan

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and examine the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on self-celebrity connection. A celebrity’s direct (vs averted) eye gaze can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and examine the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on self-celebrity connection. A celebrity’s direct (vs averted) eye gaze can be used as a tactic in social media posts to increase self-celebrity connection and behavioral intentions. Examining the effectiveness of a celebrity’s eye gaze is important, as celebrities regularly use social media to manage their brand image and to build a relationship with consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 examines the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze (direct vs averted) on self-celebrity connection. Study 2 investigates the role of celebrity authenticity in explaining the effect of a celebrity’s eye gaze on consumer–celebrity brand relationships. Study 3 examines the moderating role of a non-Duchenne smile (fake, social smile) in diluting the effect of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze on self-celebrity connection and the downstream consequences on behavioral intentions.

Findings

The findings from Study 1 indicate that a celebrity’s direct (averted) eye gaze strengthens (weakens) self-celebrity connection. Study 2 provides evidence of celebrity authenticity as the explanation for stronger consumer–celebrity connection when a celebrity is featured with a direct eye gaze. The results of Study 3 show that a fake smile in a celebrity’s social media posts can weaken relationships with and behavioral intentions toward celebrities with a direct eye gaze.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited, as it focuses only on eye gaze and smiles as non-verbal cues depicted in celebrity images on social media.

Practical implications

This paper has important implications for celebrities, celebrity brand managers (including digital/social media marketing managers and public relations professionals) and advertisers. Celebrities, celebrity brand managers and advertisers should develop social media posts that can strengthen consumer–celebrity relationships and positively influence behaviors toward the celebrity through: 1) ensuring that photographs are taken with the celebrity looking directly into the camera at the target (audience); and 2) avoiding posting images of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze with a non-Duchenne (fake) smile.

Originality/value

This paper introduces and provides evidence of a celebrity’s direct eye gaze–self-celebrity relationship effect. Tactics, such as eye gaze, can strengthen consumer–celebrity relationships, which is crucial in building brand equity and in increasing financial value for the celebrity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Zehui Zhan, Jun Wu, Hu Mei, Qianyi Wu and Patrick S.W. Fong

This paper aims to investigate the individual difference on digital reading, by examining the eye-tracking records of male and female readers with different reading…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the individual difference on digital reading, by examining the eye-tracking records of male and female readers with different reading ability (including their pupil size, blink rate, fixation rate, fixation duration, saccade rate, saccade duration, saccade amplitude and regression rate).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 74 participants were selected according to 6,520 undergraduate students’ university entrance exam scores and the follow-up reading assessments. Half of them are men and half are women, with the top 3% good readers and the bottom 3% poor readers, from different disciplines.

Findings

Results indicated that the major gender differences on reading abilities were indicated by saccade duration, regression rate and blink rate. The major effects on reading ability have a larger effect size than the major effect on gender. Among all the indicators that have been examined, blink rate and regression rates are the most sensitive to the gender attribute, while the fixation rate and saccade amplitude showed the least sensitiveness.

Originality/value

This finding could be helpful for user modeling with eye-tracking data in intelligent tutoring systems, where necessary adjustments might be needed according to users’ individual differences. In this way, instructors could be able to provide purposeful guidance according to what the learners had seen and personalized the experience of digital reading.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Hanho Jeong

This paper aims to assess the usability of electronic books (e‐books) and paper books (p‐books) with objective measures, including user comprehension, eye fatigue, and perception.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the usability of electronic books (e‐books) and paper books (p‐books) with objective measures, including user comprehension, eye fatigue, and perception.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 56 sixth‐year public school students participated in this study. This paper was conducted in the following order: pre‐CFF measurement, p‐/e‐book reading, post‐CFF measurement, quiz, and questionnaire. A standard CFF device, a computer with a monitor for reading e‐books, p‐books, desks, and chairs were provided.

Findings

This paper found that there is a significant “book effect” on quiz scores; compared to e‐books, p‐books appear to enable better reading comprehension. Regarding eye fatigue, students had significantly greater eye fatigue after reading e‐books than after reading p‐books. Students were satisfied with the e‐book, but they preferred p‐books.

Research limitations/implications

Students would show satisfaction with e‐books and acknowledge their usefulness, but still prefer p‐books. However, a clearer understanding of this paradox in perception is needed. Further studies should try to explore the students' perceptions of e‐books.

Practical implications

Surprisingly, though, Korean students studied herein, who have had a higher level of exposure to technology than those in other countries, did not show positive behavioral intentions toward e‐books. Overall, the responses from the Korean students suggest that there was general satisfaction with reading e‐books on screen. However, this study also found a discordance in the students' perceptions of e‐books. In this study, most students grew tired of reading on the screen; this tiredness could have an adverse effect on both reading comprehension and the perception of e‐books. In further analyzing user responses, many of the critical remarks were found to refer to the screen/text size or clarity rather than to the e‐book itself.

Originality/value

Although this study suggests that students in general are not yet ready to entirely give up p‐books, e‐books are becoming increasingly common. However, great challenges remain in terms of making e‐book content more available and in enabling improved comprehension and reducing eye fatigue.

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Kristian Pentus, Kerli Ploom, Tanel Mehine, Madli Koiv, Age Tempel and Andres Kuusik

This paper aims to test the similarity of the results of on-screen eye tracking compared to mobile eye tracking in the context of first fixation location on stimuli.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the similarity of the results of on-screen eye tracking compared to mobile eye tracking in the context of first fixation location on stimuli.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted altogether with 117 participants, where the authors compared both methods: stationary eye tracking (Tobii Pro X2-60) and mobile eye tracking (Tobii Pro Glasses 2).

Findings

The studies revealed that the reported average first fixation locations from stationary and mobile eye tracking are different. Stationary eye tracking is more affected by a centre fixation bias. Based on the research, it can be concluded that stationary eye tracking is not always suitable for studying consumer perception and behaviour because of the centre viewing bias.

Research limitations/implications

When interpreting the results, researchers should take into account that stationary eye tracking results are affected by a centre fixation bias. Previous stationary eye tracking research should be interpreted with the centre fixation bias in mind. Some of this previous work should be retested using mobile eye tracking. If possible small-scale pilot studies should be included in papers to show that the more appropriate method, less affected by attention biases, was chosen.

Practical implications

Managers should trust research where the ability of package design to attract attention on a shelf is tested using mobile eye tracking. The authors suggest using mobile eye tracking to optimise store shelf planograms, point-of-purchase materials, and shelf layouts. In package design, interpretations of research using stationary eye tracking should consider its centre fixation bias. Managers should also be cautious when interpreting previous stationary eye tracking research (both applied and scientific), knowing that stationary eye tracking is more prone to a centre fixation bias.

Originality/value

While eye tracking research has become more and more popular as a marketing research method, the limitations of the method have not been fully understood by the field. This paper shows that the chosen eye tracking method can influence the results. No such comparative paper about mobile and stationary eye tracking research has been done in the marketing field.

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