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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Sharmila Gamlath

– The research aims to include good governance as a facet in the measurement of human development.

Abstract

Purpose

The research aims to include good governance as a facet in the measurement of human development.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified Human Development Index (MHDI) was computed by including a governance dimension computed using the six governance indicators published by the World Bank. The rankings using the new index were obtained and compared to the rankings of the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP's) HDI.

Findings

The rank correlation of the original and modified indices was very high, but there were many big rank changes for individual countries in each HDI group. These rank changes could be largely reconciled in the light of the rankings of these countries in the Corruption Perceptions Index and the Democracy Index.

Research limitations/implications

The research considers the measurement of human development at a point in time alone and incorporates 2010 governance indicators into the 2011 HDI, which could lead to a discrepancy in time periods considered. Furthermore, the governance indicators are measures of perceptions which can be subjective. The Practical implications paper does not delve into the country-specific factors that may have caused big rank changes.

Practical implications

The paper builds a case for incorporating, or at least providing the option of including a governance dimension in the HDI.

Originality/value

The paper is a novel attempt to incorporate good governance as a dimension in the HDI. It reasserts the need for policy-makers and governments to realize that peoples' capabilities cannot be realized in the absence of good governance, and that whilst improving other facets of human development, much attention needs to be paid towards establishing good governance.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Merwan Engineer, Ian King and Nilanjana Roy

The human development index (HDI) and gender‐related development index (GDI) have become accepted as leading measures for ranking human well being in different countries…

1110

Abstract

Purpose

The human development index (HDI) and gender‐related development index (GDI) have become accepted as leading measures for ranking human well being in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to identify the planning policies that improve these indices and to also suggest modifications to the indices that yield more sensible policies.Design/methodology/approach – This paper solves the first‐best welfare problem in which the planner maximizes a development index subject to resource constraints.Findings – Planning strategies that maximize the HDI tend towards minimizing consumption and maximizing expenditures on education and health. Interestingly, such strategies also tend towards equitable allocations, even though inequality aversion is not modelled in the HDI. The paper shows that the GDI generates optimal plans with similar properties, and determine when the GDI and HDI generate consistent optimal plans. A problematic feature of the optimal plans is that the income component in the HDI (or GDI) does not play its intended role of securing resources for a decent standard of living. Rather, it acts to distort the allocation between health and education expenditure. The paper argues that it is better to drop income from the index. Alternatively, the paper considers net income, income net of education and health expenditures, as indicating capabilities not already reflected in the index. Finally, it compares how the modified indices and the HDI rank countries.Originality/value – The paper is believed to be the first to integrate development indices into national development planning.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Humayon A. Dar

It is widely recognised that the human development index (HDI) does not totally capture the rich content of the human development concept, necessitating a more adequate…

1873

Abstract

It is widely recognised that the human development index (HDI) does not totally capture the rich content of the human development concept, necessitating a more adequate measure of human development. This paper introduces an ethics‐augmented human development index (E‐HDI) as a new indicator of socio‐economic change and development. The E‐HDI incorporates freedom, faith, environmental concerns and the institution of family in the HDI and ranks countries of the world accordingly. It is envisaged to be of practical use in national policy making and may also be related to agenda of the bilateral and international development agencies. Just as the HDI has managed to shift discussions beyond gross national product, the E‐HDI is expected to inject ethical concerns more explicitly into policy making in the contexts in which the human development reports are used.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Necati Aydin

Given the fact that the Islamic economic paradigm differs from the secular capitalist paradigm in terms of its emphasis on morality and spirituality, the author thinks…

1178

Abstract

Purpose

Given the fact that the Islamic economic paradigm differs from the secular capitalist paradigm in terms of its emphasis on morality and spirituality, the author thinks that the current Human Development Index (HDI) does not capture human development from an Islamic perspective. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to provide a paradigmatic, theoretical, and conceptual model for the suggested Islamic HDI (iHDI) and second, to present several proxy variables for multi-dimensional iHDI and test the proposed index through empirical data for ten Muslim countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The author developed eight-dimensional composite iHDIs based on the understanding of human nature from the Tawhidi anthropology. These dimensions included physical, reasoning, spiritual, ethical, animal, social, deciding, and oppressive selves. The author measured them using nine different indices, three of which came from the conventional HDI (cHDI). The author then compared the rankings of those Muslim countries in iHDI to those in cHDI.

Findings

The iHDI rankings for all Muslim countries except two differed from those in cHDI. The difference was more substantial for countries with higher economic development. Thus, improved cHDI rankings for Muslim countries based on their economic development do not necessarily mean that they move toward ideal human development. This finding confirms the need for an alternative human development indexing approach from an Islamic perspective.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is likely to initiate movement to develop an alternative HDI from Islamic perspective.

Practical implications

The paper findings have important policy implications for Muslim countries.

Originality/value

It is the first empirical paper showing how to develop an alternative HDI from an Islamic perspective.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Wahyu Jatmiko and A. Azizon

Previous studies have challenged the Human Development Index’s (HDI) ability to emulate the achievement of falāh (happiness). This paper aims to evaluate the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have challenged the Human Development Index’s (HDI) ability to emulate the achievement of falāh (happiness). This paper aims to evaluate the role of religious values in establishing a positive link between the current measurement of development and falāh.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this study derives an improved value-loaded development measure from the concept of Maqasid al-Shari’ah (the higher objectives of Islamic law). Second, this paper compares the calculated Maqasid al-Shari’ah Index (MSI) with the HDI of some Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries by using the parametric pair difference z-test and t-test along with the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Finally, the relationship of both indices and the proxy of falāh are examined by using the ordinary least square and the generalised method of moments estimations.

Findings

As far as the religious-led development is concerned, the HDI underestimates OIC countries’ development progress. Here, the MSI can better embody the attainment of falāh than the HDI.

Research limitations/implications

This study only covers limited OIC countries due to the data availability issue.

Practical implications

The cultural-based development stemming from the religious values proves useful for putting the government effort towards the attainment of the objective of human well-being in the right direction.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study examining the empirical relationship between the MSI and falāh.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Nagendra Kumar Maurya and Karuna Shanker Kanaujiya

The present research has been conceptualized to make an inter-district analysis in terms of IHDI of Uttar Pradesh. It aims to provide district-wise estimates of HDI and…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research has been conceptualized to make an inter-district analysis in terms of IHDI of Uttar Pradesh. It aims to provide district-wise estimates of HDI and IHDI with the latest available data, which may prove to be a critical policy input to the policy makers that how different districts are performing in terms of education, health and standard of living parameters and help in implementing tailor made policy actions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes the Census of India data and unit-level data of National Sample Survey (NSS) for constructing HDI and IHDI. The broad framework for computing IHDI in this study is similar to the approach of UNDP's HDR 2010. To adjust the inequality aspect, the Atkinson inequality aversion parameter has been estimated at indicator level on the basis of NSS unit record data.

Findings

The study reveals that inequality discounted income index is on an average 30 percent lower than unadjusted income index. However, quite high variation exists in case of education and health. The difference ranges from 30 percent to 40 percent in the case of education and from 3 to 36 percent in the health dimension. The surprising fact which study finds that health infrastructure and education infrastructure are poorly correlated with their respective outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a policy suggestion that increasing investment on educational and health infrastructure will not have any significant impact on their respective outcomes unless distributional inequalities are reduced. The study also suggests that rising income inequalities are threat to inclusive growth and sustainable development goals agenda. Thus, it recommends policy makers to take pro-active timely policy measures to reduce income inequalities. The educational achievement should be fixed in terms of average years of schooling and expected years of schooling rather than in terms of literacy rate.

Originality/value

The present research is an original work. This is the first study in the case of Uttar Pradesh which attempted to estimate district-wise IHDI following the internationally accepted UNDP (2010) methodology.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Nina Bohdan and Veronika Garkavaya

This chapter discusses the positioning of Belarus in the international context of socioeconomic development based on an assessment of the country's dynamics in world…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the positioning of Belarus in the international context of socioeconomic development based on an assessment of the country's dynamics in world rankings. The country's presence in the recognized world rankings and its holding high positions in them is an obvious advantage for achieving a favorable investment image. Ratings characterize the country's comparative position at the international level in a number of areas: from credit capacity to human capital development.

There has been analyzed the position of the Republic of Belarus in several recognized international comparisons, such as Human Development Index, Doing Business, ICT Development Index, Global Innovation Index, Sustainable Development Goals Index, Corruption Perceptions Index, Rule of Law Index, Worldwide Governance Indicators, and others.

However, Belarus is not yet participating in the international competitiveness assessment through such popular international ratings as Global Competitiveness Index and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The research findings show that the strongest aspects of the socioeconomic development of Belarus are in place due to the high educational level of the human capital development, gender equality, and the implementation of the UN sustainable development goals. The analysis also shows that the weaknesses of institutional environment and public administration do not enable the full implementation of the planned goals of socioeconomic development.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Belarus
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-695-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Abhijit Bhattacharya

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from…

Abstract

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from resource-based economy to knowledge-based economy after rapid growth of ICT. ICT can be considered as an umbrella that incorporates any communication device such as radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems etc., and also various services and appliance with them such as video conferencing and distance learning (Akarowhe, 2017). ICT is a technological system that is able to meet the gap of formal communication system and ultimately affects the level of standard of living. Human development can be defined as a process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Whereas, human development index (HDI) is a statistical tool used to measure a country's human development based on the health of people, their level of education attainment, and level of income. The present chapter tries to find out the impact of ICT on human development for selected high HDI and medium HDI countries during the period 2001–2018. Applying panel data technique result shows that ICT has a positive and significant impact on human development.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Narendranathan Maniyalath and Roshni Narendran

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are…

1959

Abstract

Purpose

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are analyzed to determine whether the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts female entrepreneurship rates. The purpose of this paper is to indicate how other socioeconomic variables that measure human development interact with national income to predict female entrepreneurship rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the 2012 GEM data set, which provides information on female entrepreneurship rates in 61 countries. To test relevant hypotheses, dependent and socio-demographic variables were sourced from international databases to perform quantitative cross-country regression analyses.

Findings

National income significantly predicted female entrepreneurship rates in the univariate analysis. However, this relationship became non-significant when development indices were added to the model. In contrast, the HDI, the Gender Inequality Index, and national religious composition were robust, significant predictors.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that human and gender development indices, and national religious composition, are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates than national income. Thus, studies on female entrepreneurship rates should account and adjust for human development and gender equality indices. As religiosity continues to be pervasive within multiple nations, policymakers should consider this when developing interventions geared toward promoting female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This paper identifies factors other than economic determinism to explain variance in female entrepreneurship rates and demonstrates that human development and gender inequality indices are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Ali Awdeh and Zouhour Jomaa

The majority of MENA countries suffer low levels of human development, coupled with scarcity of funding resources, low level of governance, and poor institutional…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of MENA countries suffer low levels of human development, coupled with scarcity of funding resources, low level of governance, and poor institutional environment. Consequently, this research aims at detecting the impact of development finance resources and institutional quality on the human development in the MENA region, in order to examine if/why the MENA countries fail to efficiently exploit all the available financial inflows to promote human development and boost living standards.

Design/methodology/approach

This study tests the short- and long-run impact of six financing resources representing injections in the economy and four institutional quality variables on the human development index in the MENA region. It adopts co-integration analysis, vector error correction model, and Granger causality test on a sample of 13 MENA countries over the period 1996–2019.

Findings

This research finds that domestic credit to private sector and exports of goods and services do not have any significant added value for human development in the MENA region. In contrast, government expenditures and migrant remittances are found to be crucial in promoting human development in both the short- and long-run. FDI and ODA do enhance human development, but only in the short-run. In parallel, control of corruption, government effectiveness and regulation quality are essential boosters of human development in the MENA region, but with different importance, while political stability was found to be irrelevant.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first study that examines the impact of financial inflows and institutional quality on the overall human development index in the MENA region. The contribution of this paper lies in unlocking for policymakers the potential impactful financing resources to serve national developmental plans, in an endeavour to catch up to the SDGs amid the additional challenges imposed by governance and institutional environment.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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