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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Moinak Maiti and A. Balakrishnan

The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses various statistical techniques (e.g. multifactor regression model, 3D graphs, GRS test and residual graphs) to test the role of human capital in asset prices.

Findings

A six-factor model designed for capturing the size, value, profitability, investment and human capital patterns in average portfolio returns performs better than both Fama–French’s (1993) three- and Fama–French’s (2015) five-factor model. The main problem of six-factor model is its failure in capturing the average returns on “microcap with low-value stocks that are highly profitable invests aggressively for asset growth but invests much lesser for human growth” and “microcap with unprofitable stocks whose returns behave like those of low-value firms with conservative investment”. The study finds the investment factor (CMA) of Fama–French’s (2015) five-factor model as the redundant factor for describing the portfolio average returns in the study sample.

Research limitations/implications

The paper argues that human capital also plays a role in predicting returns. This has significant public policy content.

Originality/value

The present study is novel for several reasons: first, it includes six-factor model descriptions; second, no comprehensive asset pricing study is done with human capital in Asian emerging markets, especially in India. Perhaps, this is the first study to examine whether portfolio returns are affected by the human capital in the Indian context. Third, the study period and methodology used are completely different from the previous studies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Santhakumar Shijin, Arun Kumar Gopalaswamy and Debashis Acharya

The purpose of this paper is to test a discrete time asset pricing model where a non‐marketable asset (human capital), along with other factors predicting stock returns

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a discrete time asset pricing model where a non‐marketable asset (human capital), along with other factors predicting stock returns, explain risk return relationship. The paper will add to the literature on risk return relationship with human capital by investigating the hypothesis that human capital is a significant factor affecting stock prices.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic inter‐linkages of factors representing financial and human components of wealth in predicting stock returns is tested in the Indian market for the period of 1996:04 to 2005:06. The procedures employed include Granger causality tests, impulse response functions and seemingly unrelated regression estimates.

Findings

Empirical findings validate the model that including human capital as a proxy for aggregate wealth in the economy can better predict stock prices than the standard empirical capital asset pricing model. There is a Granger cause relationship between security prices and labor income and it is further concluded that labor and dividend are significant factors affecting security prices.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to study the human capital aspect in predicting stock returns in the Indian market. In addition, the paper provides important insights into the causal relationship of human capital and market return in explaining the risk return relationship.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Abstract

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Fostering Productivity: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-840-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jialu Liu

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the surface, there are certain underlying forces driving individual decisions. The purpose of this paper is to provide some understanding of the relationship between human capital, migration, and occupational choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper starts with an overlapping generations model. Human capital plays various roles across different occupations – it does not affect the income of farmers, it affects income of workers linearly, and it has increasing returns in rural non‐farm business. The paper then derives income profiles for individuals with heterogeneous human capital, and finds the human capital thresholds of occupations. The paper calibrates the model to China, and simulates the model to answer two questions: how does an improving human capital distribution affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants? How does a fast‐growing urban wage rate affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants?

Findings

First, depending on the initial human capital level, policies aiming to enhance human capital may have different impacts on migration. If the initial human capital level is low, these policies will yield more permanent migrants; on the contrary, if the initial human capital is at a relatively high level, then a shrinking permanent migrant class with a growing entrepreneur class can be expected. This results in an inverted U‐shaped relation between the initial human capital level and the size of the permanent migrant class. Second, even though the non‐farm business of return migrants helps raise rural wages, the income inequality between rural and urban areas is not eliminated and migration is persistent. Third, borrowing constraints limit the size of rural non‐farm businesses and slow down the development of rural industry. The fourth and final point is that, migration costs discourage labor mobility and reduce the quantities of both permanent migrants and entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This is an original paper on this subject.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Maiju Johanna Perälä

This paper aims to investigate whether empirical evidence for scale economies can be found across countries and if so, whether this evidence varies across the stage of development.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether empirical evidence for scale economies can be found across countries and if so, whether this evidence varies across the stage of development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses statistical methods to make comparisons between countries.

Findings

The empirical results suggest overall evidence towards aggregate increasing returns across all samples. Within the Cobb‐Douglas framework, stronger evidence for aggregate increasing returns is found among samples depicting economies in the early stages of development. The CES framework in turn supports aggregate scale economies for advanced economies, while unitary elasticity of substitution cannot be rejected for less developed economies, giving further support for the Cobb‐Douglas estimates.

Research limitations/implications

Given that evidence for scale economies is found within different estimation frameworks for different groups of economies, comparative judgment is prevented. The results nevertheless provide evidence on the overall relevance of scale economies within and across groups of economies, while also giving a clear indication of the relevance of stage of development in economic growth and development analysis.

Originality/value

The most fundamental insight of the empirical results presented in this paper is that there is no reason to assume that the determinants of growth or the parameters guiding economies' adjustments towards their steady states or growth paths will be similar for economies at different stages of development, given their significant structural differences, whether in terms of production structures and characteristics or consumption patterns.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Matthias Cinyabuguma, William Lord and Christelle Viauroux

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the…

Abstract

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the graduation rate of their children increased from 7% to 50%; and the fraction of adulthood wives devoted to market-oriented work increased from 7% to 23% (by one measure).

These trends are addressed within a unified framework to examine the ability of several proposed mechanisms to quantitatively replicate these changes. Based on careful calibration, the choices of successive generations of representative husband-and-wife households over the quantity and quality of their children, household production, and the extent of mother’s involvement in market-oriented production are simulated.

Rising wages, declining mortality, a declining gender wage gap, and increased efficiency and public provision of schooling cannot, individually or in combination, reduce fertility or increase stocks of human capital to levels seen in the data. The best fit of the model to the data also involves: (1) a decreased tendency among parents to view potential earnings of children as the property of parents and (2) rising consumption shares per dependent child.

Greater attention should be given the determinants of parental control of the work and earnings of children for this period.

One contribution is the gathering of information and strategies necessary to establish an initial baseline, and the time paths for parameters and targets for this period beset with data limitations. A second contribution is identifying the contributions of various mechanisms toward reaching those calibration targets.

Details

Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2012

Andrew H. Chen and John W. Kensinger

Although employee stock ownership may result in increased cash flows due to enhanced organizational productivity or improved governance, this benefit is counterbalanced by…

Abstract

Although employee stock ownership may result in increased cash flows due to enhanced organizational productivity or improved governance, this benefit is counterbalanced by the increased risk premium due to a higher correlation between the returns to the firm and the returns to human capital in general. For corporations that employ people with commonplace skills, employee stock ownership results in increased systematic risk, so the optimal level of employee stock ownership is small. When skills are unique, however (so the returns have low correlation with the returns to human capital in general), the optimal level of employee stock ownership is high, with strong incentives for outsourcing – not just the routine easily repeatable tasks but also research, product development, and other highly specialized tasks requiring knowledge not present within the firm. These conclusions hold even without conflicts of interest between owners and employees, but are strengthened in the presence of such conflicts. Incentives for greater employee ownership are further strengthened by the higher costs of becoming or remaining a public corporation that have been imposed by the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002. This analysis provides a framework for optimizing employee incentives from stock ownership.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-752-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dmitry V. Didenko

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and…

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and households. It contributes to the literature discussing theoretical issues and empirical patterns of modernization, human development, as well as the transition from a centralized to a market economy. The empirical evidence is based on extensive utilization of the dataset introduced in Didenko, Földvári, and Van Leeuwen (2013). Our findings provide support for the view expressed in Gerschenkron (1962) that in late industrializers the government tended to substitute for the lack of capital and infrastructure by direct interventions. At least from the late nineteenth century the central government's and local authorities' budgets played the primary role. However, the role of nongovernment sources increased significantly since the mid-1950s, i.e., after the crucial breakthrough to an industrial society had been made. During the transition to a market economy in the 1990s and 2000s the level of government contributions decreased somewhat in education, and more significantly in research and development, but its share in overall financing expanded. In education corporate funds were largely replaced by those from households. In health care, Russia is characterized by an increasing share of out-of-pocket payments of households and slow development of organized forms of nonstate financing. These trends reinforce obstacles to Russia's future transition, as regards institutional change toward a more significant and sound role of the corporate sector in such branches as R&D, health care, and, to a lesser extent, education.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Inés P. Murillo

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the link between human capital depreciation and the educational level of Spanish salaried workers.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the link between human capital depreciation and the educational level of Spanish salaried workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Wage equations are estimated by sector and occupation, following the empirical framework proposed by Neuman and Weiss. Data in this study refer to the Spanish labour market, using two cross‐sectional employee‐firm matched data.

Findings

The estimates provided in this paper suggest that human capital depreciation rates are not homogeneous for the whole sample; in contrast, they vary across educational levels, being greater as the workers' school attainment increases.

Research limitations/implications

The main restriction of the paper is the limited availability of quality longitudinal data to estimate human capital depreciation.

Practical implications

Knowledge acquired by workers may quickly become obsolete in a context of technological change. Thus, the paper's main findings support the need for ongoing training programs to update workers' skills to changing market requirements.

Originality/value

The added value of this paper is two‐fold. On the one hand, returns to education and human capital depreciation for the Spanish labour force are estimated using a pseudo‐panel created from two cross‐sectional data bases. On the other hand, earnings equations are estimated by sector and occupation in order to calculate human capital depreciation rates; this procedure allows the authors to take into account the worker's occupation and their level of education as well as technological differences associated with their job.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Andrew Clark

Russia has undergone tumultuous changes during the transition process. This has been nowhere more evident than within the labour market. The transition has now progressed…

Abstract

Russia has undergone tumultuous changes during the transition process. This has been nowhere more evident than within the labour market. The transition has now progressed to such an extent that it is possible to examine whether the issues of a re‐capitalisation and restructuring of human capital have been addressed. This paper uses the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey to assess rates of return to human capital investments for the years 1994‐1998. It utilises standard earnings functions to assess the returns to education as well as to specific levels of post‐compulsory education and training. This article places specific emphasis on firm level training and the role of the firm, for the purpose of this special issue. Results suggest, in the case of Russia, that significant and positive returns to education and training exist comparable in magnitude to those in other transition countries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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