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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Wenchen Guo and Mengxin Chen

This paper aims to clarify the factors that affect the formation of organizational human capital competitive advantage (OHCCA) and construct its structural dimensions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the factors that affect the formation of organizational human capital competitive advantage (OHCCA) and construct its structural dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

This research method adopted grounded theory using 20 interviews of managers from 10 companies. Relevant literature was reviewed to conduct open coding, Axial coding and selective coding to ensure OHCCA concept and dimensions.

Findings

Studies have shown that OHCCA formation of results from investment and collaboration of three levels: organization, teams and departments and employees. OHCCA formation is composed of three dimensions of organizational human capital investment: planning, practice and stock.

Research limitations/implications

This research enriches the organizational human capital and competitive advantage theories.

Practical implications

The practical significance is to provide theoretical and practical guidance for organizations in creating OHCCAs.

Originality/value

This research is the first to propose and define the OHCCA concept and construct a three-dimensional structure model. Furthermore, this research has revealed the leading factors that affect OHCCA's formation process.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Christopher M. Harris and Lee Warren Brown

While research has shown that multiple actors, both internal and external to the organization, influence performance, oftentimes, these actors are studied in isolation…

Abstract

Purpose

While research has shown that multiple actors, both internal and external to the organization, influence performance, oftentimes, these actors are studied in isolation. This paper aims to examine the performance implications of both top management team (TMT) and chief executive officer (CEO) human capital. In addition, the authors consider external actors' influence on performance by examining corporate political activity (CPA).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football teams, examining human capital data on the head coaches and the assistant coaches, combined with the schools' participation in NCAA football committees.

Findings

The study findings indicate that organizations engage in various market and nonmarket strategies in concert, and that different strategies result in performance outcome differences. Specifically, we examine how the use of CEO and TMT human capital and CPA interact and influence performance.

Practical implications

The authors examine the moderating effects of political activity on the human capital–performance relationship for both top leaders and TMTs. Organizations benefit from investing in the human capital of their leaders internally and CPA externally.

Originality/value

While organizations engage in market and nonmarket actions in concert, management research has generally studied these concepts in isolation. This paper suggests that both market and nonmarket activities can influence performance.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2017

Carolyn M. Youssef-Morgan, Paul P. Poppler, Ernie Stark and Greg Ashley

Much like “Yeti,” the Abominable Snowman whose footprints are everywhere but itself nowhere to be seen, unfounded assertions of human capital as valuable contributors to…

Abstract

Much like “Yeti,” the Abominable Snowman whose footprints are everywhere but itself nowhere to be seen, unfounded assertions of human capital as valuable contributors to strategic success continue to proliferate. Many of these treatments are nonbinding, nonmeasureable, idiosyncratic, tautological, and therefore nearly impossible to use for any comparative market valuation. In this chapter, we selectively review the interdisciplinary literature on exemplars of human-derived capital. We systematically examine specific epistemological strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in recognized theories, measures, and practices. In particular, a multidisciplinary, multilevel, connectionist point of view is suggested. We present the case for an evidence-based classification system of human-derived capital at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels. Our framework goes beyond static stock models by emphasizing dynamic human-derived capital flows, as well as their within-level and cross-level linkages, all within the context of a modern society that increasingly is networked, fluent with technology, and prodigious with social media.

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Alix Valenti and Stephen V. Horner

Human capital has been traditionally viewed in terms of how an individual’s investment in knowledge, skills and abilities can lead to higher pay or promotions. More…

Abstract

Purpose

Human capital has been traditionally viewed in terms of how an individual’s investment in knowledge, skills and abilities can lead to higher pay or promotions. More recently, human capital has been regarded as a unit-level resource using the term “human capital resources” to consider the aggregate effects of human capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the collective human capital present in a firm’s board of directors as a valuable resource leading to superior firm outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examined the effects on firm innovation of the scientific expertise of corporate directors, average board tenure and the presence of a firm’s founder on the board. Data from a sample of pharmaceutical firms were analyzed with the dependent variable, innovation, measured as patent applications and both individual and unit-level human capital measures of the predictor variables.

Findings

The results show that the presence of a founder-director is positively related to innovation and more pronounced when combined with the board’s scientific expertise. Board tenure shows a relationship to innovation and is more evident in combination with the board’s aggregate level of scientific expertise. The effect of directors’ scientific expertise is also greater when measured at the board level of scientific expertise.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should examine these relationships within a broader context extending the research to other industries thereby incorporating wider variation in both the antecedents and measures of innovation. In addition, future studies might investigate a likely non-monotonic relationship of board tenure with strategic outcomes, recognizing the non-linear nature of effects of board tenure.

Practical implications

In addition to the theoretical and empirical implications, this research may also inform practicing managers charged with constituting their boards of directors and provide some guidance for the recruitment and retention of board members. The research may also assist top managers and investors in knowing when the presence of a founder on the board is useful and supportive of the firm’s strategic direction.

Originality/value

The study extends scholarly understanding of human capital theory beyond the top management team to boards of directors demonstrating the importance not only of directors’ individual capital but also how it combines with that of other directors. Moreover, it enhances understanding of board characteristics beyond the bounds of demographic characteristics to show that additional qualities affect firm strategy. This research also informs managers, boards and investors how boards might be more effectively constituted to impact firm strategy.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

MIECZYSLAW DOBIJA

Progress in human resources accounting must continue to find a clear constructive definition of terms pertaining to human capital and human assets. The present paper is…

Abstract

Progress in human resources accounting must continue to find a clear constructive definition of terms pertaining to human capital and human assets. The present paper is comprised of considerations leading to the proposal of more general definitions of capital that involve human capital. As a complement to Fisher's concept of capital measurement, the present definition explains capital based on the capitalization process. Capitalization should be viewed as an essential attribute of capital. Human resources accounting (HRA) can benefit from improvements in the definition of certain terms related to human capital. Of particular importance is a proposal of a more general definition of capital. The definition leads to an alternative measure,which is more useful in the HRA field than the Lev‐Schwartz model. The proposed measure compliments Fisher's concept of capital measurement and utilizes a compound interest approach. Capital is perceived as a value of economic means capitalized in physical and human resources. The rate of capitalization is determined through natural and social conditions of the environment. The mode of capital measurement results from the above definitions. Moreover, the measure of human capital appears as a generalization of the historical cost concept. The valuation model of human capital involves capitalized costs of living, costs of professional education and value of experience measured by a slightly modified learning curve. Having human capital redefined and measured in these terms, we can introduce human resources into the balance sheet using a set of relevant journal entries.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Michel Ferrary

The purpose of this paper is explore an organizational design that allows firms to invest in transferable strategic human capital. Strategic human capital requires…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is explore an organizational design that allows firms to invest in transferable strategic human capital. Strategic human capital requires considerable investment in training costs, effective compensation, opportunities for professional development and expectancy of long employment relationship within a firm. A firm can undertake investment in strategic knowledge and workers can engage in learning only in these circumstances. However, there are a number of risks that are associated with investment in strategic human capital within a firm. In this paper, the author argues that providing strategic human capital to other firms within alliances could be a strategy for leveraging resource. Strategic knowledge facilitates transactions between firms possessing co-specialized human capital and tangible resources. Organizational design of an alliance based on co-specialization allows to balance costs and returns for the human capital supplier, as well as for beneficiary and workers. Within an alliance, the human capital supplier provides workers to a beneficiary firm and coordinates their activities. Supplier specialized in human capital investment ensures improved performance, productivity and efficiency of workers. Possibility to form a greater pool of labor force and to centralize training allows optimizing cost and sharing risks associated with investment activity among alliance participants. Human resource practices in an alliance system foster long-term employment relationship. Entering an alliance increases number of job positions, professional development opportunities through horizontal mobility, promotion and learning opportunities for workers. Finally, alliances allow leveraging investment in human capital beyond a single organization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conceptualizes the use of alliance based on co-specialization as a strategy to optimize investment in strategic human capital resource. It draws upon the resource-based view (Barney, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1995) and transaction cost theory (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1981) to examine an alliance as a strategy for leveraging the human capital resources for accessing new markets, building reputation and sharing the risks across more than one organization.

Findings

First, the paper reviews the theoretical literature on human capital as a strategic resource (Becker, 1962; Coff, 1997), its sourcing on internal and external labor markets and respective employment systems (Delery and Doty, 1996; Doeringer and Piore, 1971). Second, it focuses on the features of human capital resource (Barney, 1986; Chi, 1994; Doz and Hamel, 1998). Third, it conceptualizes the use of alliances based on co-specialization as organizational structures for investment in human capital across organizations and examines respective employment system and HR practices (Delery and Doty, 1996; Doeringer and Piore, 1971). As result, the author argues that an alliance can be an alternative mean to optimize returns on investment in human capital with strategic transferable knowledge. By consequence, the author describes an alliance employment system and illustrates the arguments with a case of human capital trading in a co-specialization alliance under a long-term management contract in the luxury hotel industry.

Originality/value

This paper discusses collaborative ventures as a sourcing strategy of the human capital. An alliance strategy is relevant for sourcing the strategic human capital resources. Human capital resource can be accessed by firms through transfer of skills and organizational routines within collaborative agreements, such as alliances based on co-specialization. In this case, alliance is an organizational architecture between organizations that improves the efficiency and productivity, reduces marginal cost on training due to larger scale of operations and reduces risk by splitting investment in human capital and by offering more career and development opportunities for strategic knowledge workers.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Mark R. Mallon, Stephen E. Lanivich and Ryan L. Klinger

Sustainable Family Business Theory states that human, social, and financial capital are important for new family venture growth, yet there may be multiple combinations…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable Family Business Theory states that human, social, and financial capital are important for new family venture growth, yet there may be multiple combinations that could be beneficial. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether all three types of resources are always needed for growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis, a configurational method, is used to investigate which combinations of human, social, and financial capital consistently lead to new family venture growth.

Findings

Multiple distinct combinations of resources – usually containing some form of human capital along with either social or financial capital – were sufficient for new family ventures to grow.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to a more accurate Sustainable Family Business Theory in terms of the resource bundles needed to achieve growth. Not all three primary resources are needed at founding for the venture to grow. Results suggest a need for renewed focus on human capital in family venture research, as well as further investigations of the resource configurations uncovered here and their effects on family firm outcomes.

Practical implications

Given the costs associated with acquiring resources, the findings can inform family entrepreneurs and other stakeholders purposed with assisting new family ventures regarding optimal avenues of achieving growth.

Originality/value

This study advances theory by demonstrating which combinations of primary resources lead to new family venture growth. The findings shed light on how human, social, and financial capital may substitute for each other, as well as how the value of each depends on the presence or absence of the others.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry and Muhammad Azam Roomi

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of human capital development in organizations. It is based on some conceptual aspects of human resource

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of human capital development in organizations. It is based on some conceptual aspects of human resource accounting and considers how investments in the development of human capital can be measured in order to investigate the financial returns for organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is exploratory in nature as this is the first of its kind in the Pakistani manufacturing sector. The technique of convenience sampling was used to collect the data due to time and resource limitations. The sample comprises of 30 leading companies in the Pakistani textile sector. A self‐administered postal questionnaire was designed for the research survey. The results focus on the benefits derived by using the capital investment appraisal techniques of human resource accounting including: return on investment, benefit to cost ratio, weighted average cost of capital, and bottom line evaluations.

Findings

The results provide evidence of an association between investment in the development of human capital and the benefits, which organizations can reap from such investments. It further finds that the organizations investing in training and development programs provide high employee productivity that ultimately contributes towards high‐organizational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the research design, the results may exhibit a lack of generalizability to other sectors. As the results cannot be applied to other organizations, further research can be done by using the same techniques.

Originality/value

This paper is a groundbreaking work in Pakistan and thereby an addition to the existing global literature on human resource accounting. This research provides new directions for the literature in this area, by encouraging a debate about the importance of investing in the development of human capital.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

America Alvarez

This paper aims to study corporate response to intellectual capital and social responsibility disclosure recommendations regarding employees. Such an analysis would reveal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study corporate response to intellectual capital and social responsibility disclosure recommendations regarding employees. Such an analysis would reveal which forms of corporate interest induce a company to disclose: reflecting the firm’s value to satisfy priority shareholders’ needs of information or improving the corporate social image to meet the demands of stakeholders other than capital providers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper quantify the extent to which 105 Spanish listed companies present in their annual reports information about employees. Human resource disclosure attending the recommendations of social disclosure and information linked to value creation following the information included in the intellectual capital models are distinguished. A content analysis of 105 companies’ annual reports was conducted. Once the information was quantified, the author considers which theoretical arguments of voluntary/social disclosure motive that a company follows have different recommendations about human resource disclosure.

Findings

The findings reflect the existent recommendations are not enough for companies to disclose about human resources. Spanish companies pay more attention to social issues about employee than to others human capital aspects usually integrated in the intellectual capital.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to extend the period of analysis to study the trend in human resource disclosure and to use an alternative measure of disclosing as the information quality.

Practical implications

These findings concluded that the fundamental aim of Spanish companies is to reflect social behaviour regarding employees. Less important appears to be to inform about business capacity, through human element, for creating value. The necessity of explicit disclosure requirements to Spanish companies’ disclosure on human resources is also detected.

Originality/value

Some studies have been carried out to analyse disclosure on intellectual capital or on social issues but not since a broad perspective. Furthermore, these studies have not been done in Spain. The author may confirm that the influence of some stakeholders in this country is conditioning corporate disclosure.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Lisa Bryant-Kutcher, Denise A. Jones and Sally K. Widener

Economic theory posits that production factors that are both difficult to imitate and capable of creating organizational efficiencies can generate economic rents and…

Abstract

Economic theory posits that production factors that are both difficult to imitate and capable of creating organizational efficiencies can generate economic rents and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Using survey data for 106 firms, we measure four dimensions of strategic human capital and find that the market values strategic human capital that has the capability to create efficiencies in the organization and is also difficult for competitors to imitate. We discuss implications for the reporting of human capital in intellectual capital reports and offer suggestions for future research.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-267-8

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