Search results

1 – 10 of 249
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Deborah Naybor

Women from many cultures have historically been closely tied to the land and the environment through their role as subsistence farmers. But as the more developed nations…

Abstract

Women from many cultures have historically been closely tied to the land and the environment through their role as subsistence farmers. But as the more developed nations have shifted to commercial agriculture and improved technology, farming has become a male-dominated industry. China’s shift from traditional family-operated farms to government-controlled collectives required a system of incentives to encourage agricultural labor to remain and prevent mass exodus to the cities. Hukou was created in the 1950s as a system of governmental registration for restricting the internal migration of labor within China, identifying citizens’ residency by place of birth. Residents of rural or urban locations are classified agricultural or nonagricultural labor, respectively. But as China’s industrialization has grown and technology has reduced the need for human agricultural labor, the need and desire for urban employment has intensified. For women, relocating has changed marriage practices, influenced child rearing, and altered their right to land tenure in their home region. This paper examines the role of gender in the changing use of hukou in the development of China, focusing on the impact of women’s patterns of migration on land tenure. Although hukou policies are still changing and there is a lack of data on the most recent changes, initial studies show that there are few who wish to give up their rural hukou in order to obtain urban hukou. Changes over the past decade indicate that rural woman are not only taking on more of the agricultural workload as men are drawn to urban employment, but also that they are less likely to care about environmental degradation in China.

Details

Environment, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-775-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Ke Shen, H. Brin Xu, Omkar Joshi and Feinian Chen

Purpose: This study investigates how couple similarity in various aspects affects their life satisfaction and how these impacts vary across educational groups among the

Abstract

Purpose: This study investigates how couple similarity in various aspects affects their life satisfaction and how these impacts vary across educational groups among the young married couples in Shanghai.

Methodology: This study employs the pooled data from three waves of the Fudan Yangtze River Delta Social Transformation Survey which sampled Shanghai youths born between 1980 and 1989, the first single-child generation. Couple similarity is evaluated through the comparison in age, hukou status, education, and income quartile between the husband and wife. Ordered logistic regression model is applied to assess the impacts of couple similarity on life satisfaction.

Findings: Marriage hypergamy in age, education, and income barely have any impacts on couples’ life satisfaction, while hukou comparison, as an important indication of social stratification in Shanghai, is strongly associated with life satisfaction. The couple in which husband holds the urban hukou and wife rural hukou as well as the couple in which both partners hold the urban hukou are significantly happier than those in which both partners hold the rural hukou. Such a positive impact is partially explained by the higher husband’s decision-making power in male-advantaged families. Moreover, husband’s urban hukou status is especially important for those without college education, but not for those with college education.

Values: This chapter highlights the importance of hukou hypergamy in life satisfaction for married couples, in particular, lower-educated couples in Shanghai. These findings reveal an implicit but persistent preference for male-dominated family model, where husbands retain a higher decision-making power that, in turn, promotes life satisfaction for both partners.

Details

Chinese Families: Tradition, Modernisation, and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-157-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Yulin Liu and Min Zhang

This paper aims to examine the effect of China’s unique household registration system (hukou) on stock market participation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of China’s unique household registration system (hukou) on stock market participation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an effort to estimate the effect of hukou on households' financial behavior, we draw on data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and use probit model and tobit model to test the effect of hukou on households stock market participation.

Findings

The results are with strong interpretative power over the limited participation of stock market in China-investors living in urban areas with urban hukou are more likely to participate in stock markets and allocate a larger fraction of financial assets to stocks and remarkably robust to a battery of robustness checks. The dual structure of social security caused by the household registration system could explain this result. Furthermore, marriage plays such a role of integrating social resources attached to hukou that only the marriage of individuals with urban hukou could significantly promote households' participation in the stock market. For married families, a household in which both husband and wife have urban hukou has a greater possibility to invest in stocks relative to those with rural hukou.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in two ways. First, much literature focuses on the stock market limited participation puzzle and gives explanations from the perspectives of individual heterogeneity and financial markets. This paper examines the effect of hukou. Such an idea is instructive to some developing countries where residents are treated differently because of the institutional reason. Second, the effects we find are economically meaningful. Our estimates indicate that medical insurance attached to hukou can explain almost 58% of the impact of hukou, which suggests that the key to reforming China's current household registration system is to make welfare separate from hukou. Moreover, homogamy based on hukou widens the gap of households' risky assets, which provides a new view to understand the income gap in the cities of China and the heterogeneous effect of marriage on stock market participation.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Jin Song and Shi Li

The purpose of this paper is to take occupation opportunity as an indicator to examine the impact of hukou on labor market segmentation in China. It estimates the scale of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take occupation opportunity as an indicator to examine the impact of hukou on labor market segmentation in China. It estimates the scale of the impact and identifies the way of the impact. Especially, the paper takes hukou uniform reform as an example and tests whether hukou reforms helped in eliminating labor market segmentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data sets this paper adopted are the 2000 Census and 2005 Mini Census data in China. Linear model and Probit model are used in estimating hukou's impact. Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition is used in decomposing the difference in occupation distribution among hukou statuses. DID evaluation method is used in comparing the region with hukou uniform reform and the region without to capture the influence of the reform.

Findings

The result shows that occupation segmentation based on hukou significantly exists in urban labor market. Hukou uniform reform improved the occupation opportunity of local rural workers but migrating rural workers were somehow crowded out. Migrating urban workers did not benefit from the reform. To conclude these, the reform released employment segmentation between rural and urban workers within the reformed region but strengthened the segmentation between the local residents and outcomers which could influence future labor source and scale in reformed area.

Originality/value

The paper evaluates the hukou uniform reform's impact on the labor market using an empirical way for the first time and makes concrete policy recommendations based on these findings.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Jie Shen and Chris Leggett

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of China's official household residential status (hukou) on perceived human resource management (HRM) practices…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of China's official household residential status (hukou) on perceived human resource management (HRM) practices, perceived organizational justice (POJ) and its moderation of the relationship between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study were collected from 775 employees in 36 companies in China. Missing data analysis was conducted in order to identify the pattern associated with personal demographic variables. A one-way between-groups MANOVA was performed to investigate hukou differences in the perceptions of HRM practices and POJ. Confirmative factor analysis was conducted on POJ's three-factor measurement model to examine the distinctiveness of the study variables.

Findings

Employees registered as agricultural, i.e. rural, hukou, who have migrated to and found employment in urban areas, perceive HRM practices and distributive and procedural justice less favourably than do non-agricultural, i.e. urban, hukou. It also finds that hukou status moderates the effect of HRM on POJ. The findings therefore are that HRM that differentiates rural hukou and urban hukou results in different impressions of their employing organizations, and that hukou status changes the strengths of the relationship between HRM and employees' perceived fairness in their organizations.

Research limitations/implications

The use of the single data source is more likely to result in common method variance which may bias the strength of the relationships that this study proposed. Moreover, this study contributes to the literature with regard to the moderating effects of personal demographic variables on the relationship between organizational policies and POJ, but hukou is the only personal variable examined and therefore the generalisation of the study's findings may be limited. Future research should examine the moderating effects of other personal factors.

Originality/value

The moderating effect of personal demographic variables has been constantly examined in management and psychology research, but with a focus on employees' work attitudes and behaviour. For example, gender was found to moderate the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention. The extent to which personal demographic variables might moderate the relationship between organizational policies and POJ has not hitherto been examined. This study fills this void.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Kunling Zhang, Chunlai Chen, Jian Ding and Zhinan Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic impacts of China’s hukou system and propose the possible direction for future reform.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic impacts of China’s hukou system and propose the possible direction for future reform.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops a framework to incorporate the hukou system into the economic growth model. Using prefecture city-level panel data covering 241 cities over the period 2004–2016 and applying the fixed effects and instrumental variable regression techniques, the authors investigated empirically the impacts of the hukou system on city economic growth.

Findings

The study provides three main findings. First, the city sector conditionally benefits from labour mobility deregulation that allows migrants to work in cities. Second, the hukou system has different impacts on economic growth among cities with different sizes and administrative levels. Third, to offset the costs of providing exclusive public services to the migrants, the big or high-administrative-level cities can use their high-valued hukou to attract the high-skilled migrants, but the small- or low-administrative-level cities do not have this advantage.

Practical implications

This study suggests that the key for further hukou system reform is how to deal with the hukou–welfare binding relationship.

Originality/value

The authors developed a theoretical framework and conducted an empirical analysis on the direct relationship between the hukou system and economic growth to reveal the mechanism of how does the hukou system influence the city economic growth and answer the question of why is the hukou system reform so hard in China. The framework also sheds some lights on explaining the success and failure of the hukou system reforms in the past 40 years.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Lijian Qin, Suwen Pan, Chenggang Wang and Zhongyi Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adverse selection in participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS), as well as in outpatient and inpatient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the adverse selection in participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS), as well as in outpatient and inpatient service utilization, in Chaoyang, Beijing, China.

Design/methodology/approach

Probit model is established to test whether the rural Hukou family member in Combined Household (CH) is statistically different from the Pure Rural Household (PRH) in enrollment in NRCMS. Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model is adopted to examine the difference in the utilization of outpatient and inpatient between the rural Hukou family members in the two kinds of households.

Findings

This paper finds that the rural Hukou family member in CH has more probability to enroll in NRCMS than the counterpart in PRH. In the period of six months, the rural Hukou family member in CH exceeds PRH by 0.73 times in outpatient visit number per capita. The former average spends yuan 157 more in outpatient service and is reimbursed yuan 53 more from NRCMS than the latter. Moreover, on average, rural Hukou family member has no difference in the inpatient service utilization between the two kinds of households in the period of 12 months.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically test the adverse selection in China's medical insurance market from the perspective of two different types of households, which are CH and PRH.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 March 2019

Xinru Han, Sansi Yang, Yongfu Chen and Yongchun Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of China’s urban segregation caused by hukou restrictions on food consumption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of China’s urban segregation caused by hukou restrictions on food consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the 2007–2009 Urban Household Survey data from six China provinces conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the authors adopt a propensity score matching (PSM) method to correct for potential selection bias. A Rosenbaum bounds test is applied to evaluate the sensitivity of the PSM results to unobserved variables.

Findings

The results show that holding rural hukou (RHs) reduces the consumption of livestock products and vegetables and fruit by 8.8 and 4.8 percent, respectively. The status of hukou does not affect the consumption of grain and edible oil. Hukou impacts on food consumption are heterogeneous across income levels, with low-income and middle-income households more vulnerable to urban segregation and hukou discriminations. A stronger motivation for precautionary saving and higher welfare expenditures that not compensated by social security lead to the lower food consumption by migrant households with RHs.

Originality/value

This paper advances the research frontier by investigating the impacts of hukou system on the structure of food consumption, which accurately reflects the household welfare.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Mian Zhang and Xiyue Ma

The overall goal of this chapter is twofold. First, the authors aim to identify indigenous phenomena that influence employee turnover and retention in the Chinese context…

Abstract

The overall goal of this chapter is twofold. First, the authors aim to identify indigenous phenomena that influence employee turnover and retention in the Chinese context. Second, the authors link these phenomena to the contextualization of job embeddedness theory. To achieve the goal, the authors begin by introducing three macro-level forces (i.e., political, economic, and cultural forces) in China that help scholars analyze contextual issues in turnover studies. The authors then provide findings in the literature research on employee retention studies published in Chinese academic journals. Next, the authors discuss six indigenous phenomena (i.e., hukou, community in China, migrant workers, state-owned companies, family benefit prioritization, and guanxi) under the three macro-level forces and offer exploratory propositions illustrating how these phenomena contribute to understanding employee retention in China. Finally, the authors offer suggestions on how contextualized turnover studies shall be conducted in China.

Details

Global Talent Retention: Understanding Employee Turnover Around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-293-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Xiaogang Wu and Zhuoni Zhang

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the analyses of the sample data from population censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the mini-census in 2005. We pay particular attention to educational inequality based on gender and the household registration system (hukou) in the context of educational expansion. Results show a substantial increase in educational opportunities over time at all levels. In particular, women have gained relatively more; gender inequality has decreased over time, and the gap in college enrollments was even reversed to favor women in 2005. However, rural–urban inequality was enlarged in the 1990s. The educational expansion has mainly benefited females and urban residents.

Details

Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-977-0

1 – 10 of 249