The purpose of this paper is to study planar sensor geometries for the measurement of film thickness in a viscous oil–water flow. The study is relevant due to there are…
The purpose of this paper is to study planar sensor geometries for the measurement of film thickness in a viscous oil–water flow. The study is relevant due to there are only a few measurement techniques for oil-water flow and these techniques involve oil with low viscosity (close to the water viscosity). Specifically, some techniques have been used in the studies of annular flow (gas–liquid and liquid–liquid flows), but applications in other flow patterns were not encountered.
Different sensor geometries were numerically simulated to compare their characteristics and choose the best to measure the water film thickness in the oil–water flow through an impedance-based technique. Finite element method was used for resolving the tridimensional electric field over each sensor. The compared characteristics were the penetration depth, the sensitivity, the minimum spatial resolution (high spatial resolution) and the quasi-linear curve.
The best geometry tested has a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 mm, a penetration depth of 700 µm and a quasi-linear response in the measuring range. This geometry was tested by means of conductance and capacitance static experiments. From these experiments, it could be determined that conductance and the capacitance systems are promising for measuring water film thickness in an oil–water flow.
Several measurement techniques such as micro-PIV, planar laser-induced fluorescence and planar conductive or capacitive sensors that are supposed to be adaptable to the liquid–liquid flow have been proposed recently. Micro-PIV and planar-induced fluorescence need transparent pipes and fluids. On the other hand, conductive or capacitive methods have been only applied to low viscosity fluids. In that context, this paper proposes to study a new technique for non-intrusive measurement of the liquid-liquid flow. The main goal is the validation of the new planar sensor as a reference tool for the development of instrumentation for oilfield application.
Studies of Spanish literature during the late nineteenth century and the first one-third of the twentieth century are evolving from research on canonical writers to the…
Studies of Spanish literature during the late nineteenth century and the first one-third of the twentieth century are evolving from research on canonical writers to the study of “odd and forgotten” authors, themes and genres during what is now called the Other Silver Age. This paper aims to focus on the work undertaken in the field of literary translation by the women writers of this period.
Mnemosyne is an open-access digital library that allows data modeling for specific collections (women translators, science fiction, etc.) in support of research and teaching on Silver Age Spain. The first version of the library is stored on the server at the Universidad Complutense Library, and it is linked to the collections of the digital library HathiTrust and Biblioteca Nacional de España. Behind the scenes of Mnemosyne’s public presence online, the project is developing with the aid of the tool Clavy which is a rich internet application that is able to import, preserve and edit information from big data collections of digital objects so as to build bridges between institutional and digital repositories and create collections of enriched digital content. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/queesmnemosine.php
The Collection Women Translators in Spain (1868-1936) inside Mnemosyne selects, categorizes and makes visible in digital format women translators and literary translations that belong to a forgotten repertoire to allow the historical review of the period. The digital collection of Spanish Women Translators pretends to be a field of international experimentation for the creation of interoperable semantic networks through which a large group of scholars could generate innovative research and theoretical reading models for literary texts. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/colecciones.php
Clavy also provides a basic system of data visualization, edition and navigation. There are plans to integrate @Note, a collaborative annotation application, into Clavy. These two computational tools were developed by the software languages research group ILSA at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Its been followed NEWW Women Writers’ categories concerning biographical categories as successful standard for ensuring interoperability in the near future: children, marital status, social class, religion, profession and other activities, financial aspects, memberships. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/ver_documento.php?documento=208369
These women also showed their interest in the writings of contemporary women by translating their works into Spanish or glossing foreign ideas about how the modern woman should be, think or behave. This digital collection shows the first steps of the intellectual women in the South of Europe.
To incorporate specially tailored metadata for the women translators’ collection into Mnemosyne, it will be necessary to use of Clavy’s extensibility to account for the particularities of the women translators’ collection. This is where prior knowledge of this literature’s historical and cultural context proves indispensable. In particular, the specific metadata model for the women translators’ collection incorporates elements that reflect the literary, historical and cultural characteristics of the collections.