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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Xiaodong Zhou, Huaqiang Shi, Xun Fu, Danmei Wu and Zhengshui Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of MoS2 nano‐sized hollow spheres in liquid paraffin (LP) and the corresponding action mechanism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of MoS2 nano‐sized hollow spheres in liquid paraffin (LP) and the corresponding action mechanism. Morever, its feasibity of industrial application as an oil additive in the industrial lubrication field is also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of MoS2 nano‐sized hollow spheres (NH‐MoS2) modified by Cyanex 301(di‐(2,4,4‐trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid) with size of 200 ∼ 300 nm in LP are studied and compared with those of the commercial colloidal MoS2 (CC‐MoS2) on a four‐ball tester and an Optimol SRV Oscillating friction and wear tester in a ball‐on disk configuration. The worn surfaces of the lower flat disc are examined with a scanning electron microscopy and an X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively.

Findings

Results show that NH‐MoS2 is a better extreme‐pressure additive and anti‐wear (AW) and friction‐reducing additive in LP than CC‐MoS2. Under the optimum concentration of 0.5 per cent for both NH‐MoS2 and CC‐MoS2 and the load of 400 N, the friction coefficient of NH‐MoS2 + LP and CC‐MoS2 + LP decreases about 43.8 and 6.3 per cent, and the wear volume loss decreases about 60.3 and 12.0 per cent compared with the pure LP. The boundary lubrication mechanism for NH‐MoS2 + LP can be deduced as the effective chemical adsorption protective film formed by the long chain alkyls R and active elements (S and P) in the modification layer and tribochemical reaction film containing the tribochemical products of the additive. Moreover, sliding and rolling frictions co‐exist in NH‐MoS2 + LP, doing contributions to the good tribological properties as well.

Originality/value

In this paper, the Cyanex 301‐modified MoS2 nano‐sized hollow spheres with diameter of 200 ∼ 300 nm are firstly added into LP to investigate its tribological properties. The excellent AW and friction‐reducing properties indicate that this MoS2 hollow spheres product is a good oil additive, and the fundamental data presented here will be useful for its further industrial application in the future.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Huaqiang Li, Yiting Zhong and Chunmei Fan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the formation mechanism of the host country people's coping behavior regarding the construction of transnational railways to help…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the formation mechanism of the host country people's coping behavior regarding the construction of transnational railways to help engineering managers and decision makers improve their risk management and lead to sustainable transnational railway construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopted the grounded theory methodology to analyze the news stories reported by “Belt and Road Portal” and “The New York Times” about eight transnational railways. They were China–Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan (Central Asia), Mecca-to-Medina (West Asia), Hungarian–Serbia (Europe), China–Nepal (South Asia), Bi-Oceanic (South America), Mombasa–Nairobi (Africa), China–Laos (Southeast Asia) and Panama railways (North America). The keywords for news search were the names of each railway. After eliminating the problem sentences with semantic repetition and ambiguity, 2,631 effective sentences were formed to screen the information and code. The process included open, axial and selective coding.

Findings

It was concluded that the core structure of the formation mechanism was “situation,” “influence factor,” “cognition” and “coping behavior.” The country-of-origin image has served as an adjustment function in the analysis for the host country people. Governance strategies were suggested focusing on risk prevention, risk mitigation and risk response according to social risk management.

Research limitations/implications

The rise of transnational railway construction is encouraged by the process of globalization. But during the long construction period, the host country people's coping behavior would develop into social conflicts and mass incidents, becoming a significant obstacle to construction objectives. Thus, studying the formation mechanism of public coping behaviors can better take measures to prevent social risks.

Originality/value

The contributions of this research are three aspects: first, a formation mechanism of the host country people's coping behavior based on grounded theory is presented. Second, the country-of-origin image is found to be a factor that cannot be ignored in a transnational context. The formation mechanism of public coping behaviors is improved compared to risk management in the domestic situation. Finally, the host country people pay more attention to the motivations of country-of-origin's controlling interests and their own emotions compared with internal stakeholders.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Linhao Ouyang, Zijian Zhang, Xiaoling Huang and Shi Xie

The purpose of this study is to restore the spatial distribution of overseas remittance businesses in Shantou during the 1940s. It explores various socioeconomic factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to restore the spatial distribution of overseas remittance businesses in Shantou during the 1940s. It explores various socioeconomic factors that influenced the concentration of local remittance business investment in real estate. By reconstructing the spatial distribution of remittance business activities in Shantou, this study hopes to lay a foundation for further analysis of the business strategies of Chaoshan merchants.

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws on information from the published Swatow Guide, archival sources and cadastral maps to identify the location of remittance enterprises and the native place and overseas networks of property owners.

Finding

This study reveals that the spatial distribution of the remittance enterprises was determined by the native place origins of local property owners, and that the inflow of overseas Chinese capital contributed to real estate development in Shantou.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the limited access to Chinese official archives, this paper manages to identify several building blocks and neighbors in Shantou for spatial analysis.

Practical implications

This study is the first attempt to use the geographical information system (GIS) method in Chinese urban history research and hopes to establish a larger historical database of Shantou as a sample for comparison.

Originality/value

This investigation advances the spatial study of urban history and overseas Chinese remittances in the maritime society of South China.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Chi-Han AI and Hung-Che Wu

External knowledge should not be limited in one zone or level. Researchers have paid more attention to the perspective of multilevel cluster networks. However, little…

Abstract

Purpose

External knowledge should not be limited in one zone or level. Researchers have paid more attention to the perspective of multilevel cluster networks. However, little research has empirically studied the various dimensions of external knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to study different levels of external knowledge, their relation with trade and non-trade interdependence and their relation with different kinds of innovations, namely, exploitation and exploration.

Design/methodology/approach

Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted in this study. In terms of the quantitative research method, data were collected from 168 companies in the Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park of China using convenience sampling. As for the qualitative research method, a total of 35 interviews were carried out in this study.

Findings

The quantitative results indicate that different levels of external knowledge in the Shenzhen Hi-Tech Park have different effects. First of all, the results indicate that cross-national connections have a positive influence on trade interdependence, which helps firms to produce exploration. Second, cross-regional connections have a positive influence on both trade and non-trade interdependence, which further help firms to create innovative exploitation and exploration. Third, inter-regional connections have a positive influence on non-trade interdependence, which helps firms to increase innovative exploitation. The qualitative result makes a plausible explanation for the quantitative results. The interview results indicate that as the telecommunications industry has so much to do with China’s national security, there are several initiatives of market protection strategies and political interventions, which help firms to form different levels of knowledge flow in Shenzhen.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations of this study which primarily relate to the case study method. The results can be contextually generalized to the domestic-oriented cluster in developing countries.

Practical implications

This study has several managerial implications. First, this research ensures that it is important to consider the multilevel nature of external knowledge before starting with the decision-making process of a firm in a cluster. Second, all levels of administrators and managers in a company should investigate what kinds of involvement and innovation are needed and most highly valued for organizational development. Third, the research framework of this study can be applied to understand which level of external knowledge influences organizational performance.

Originality/value

This study is an initial attempt to provide an examination of external knowledge, organizational involvement and innovation performance of an industrial cluster via a mixed method.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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