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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Zhihua Tao, Guanting Liu, Yuanxun Li and Hua Su

The adsorption and acceleration behavior of 3-mercaptopropyl sulfonate (MPS) were investigated by electrochemical tests for microvia filling by copper electroplating.

Abstract

Purpose

The adsorption and acceleration behavior of 3-mercaptopropyl sulfonate (MPS) were investigated by electrochemical tests for microvia filling by copper electroplating.

Design/methodology/approach

The synergistic effects of one suppressor of propylene oxide ethylene oxide propylene oxide named PEP and MPS as the accelerator during copper electroplating were also investigated by electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cyclic voltammetric stripping (CVS) and Galvanostatic measurements (GMs).

Findings

The research results suggest that the adsorption of MPS onto the Cu-RDE metal surface was a spontaneous process and the adsorbing of MPS on cathode was proposed to physical-chemistry adsorption in the plating formula. There was no potential difference (i.e. ?? = 0) of GMs until MPS was injected into the plating solution suggest that copper deposition is not diffusion-controlled in the presence of PEP–Cl–JGB.

Originality/value

A new composition of plating bath was found to be effective to perform bottom-up copper filling of microvias in the fabrication of PCB in electronic industries. The adsorption of MPS into the Cu-RDE metal surface was a spontaneous process and the adsorbing of MPS on cathode was studied by EIS and the results proposed to physical-chemistry adsorption in the plating formula. An optimal plating solution composed of CuSO4, H2SO4, chloride ions, PEP, MPS and JGB was obtained, and the microvia could be fully filled using the plating formula.

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Basharat Ullah, Faisal Khan, Bakhtiar Khan and Muhammad Yousuf

The purpose of this paper is to analyze electromagnetic performance and develop an analytical approach to find the suitable coil combination and no-load flux linkage of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze electromagnetic performance and develop an analytical approach to find the suitable coil combination and no-load flux linkage of the proposed hybrid excited consequent pole flux switching machine (HECPFSM) while minimizing the drive storage and computational time which is the main problem in finite element analysis (FEA) tools.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a new HECPFSM based on conventional consequent pole flux switching permanent machine (FSPM) is proposed, and lumped parameter magnetic network model (LPMNM) is developed for the initial analysis like coil combination and no-load flux linkage. In LPMNM, all the parts of one-third machine are modeled which helps in reduction of drive storage, computational complexity and computational time without affecting the accuracy. Second, self and mutual inductance are calculated in the stator, and dq-axis inductance is calculated using park transformation in the rotor of the proposed machine. Furthermore, on-load performance analysis, like average torque, torque density and efficiency, is done by FEA.

Findings

The developed LPMNM is validated by FEA via JMAG v. 19.1. The results obtained show good agreement with an accuracy of 96.89%.

Practical implications

The proposed HECPFSM is developed for high-speed brushless AC applications like electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV).

Originality/value

The proposed HECPFSM offers better flux regulation capability with enhanced electromagnetic performance as compared to conventional consequent pole FSPM. Moreover, the developed LPMNM reduces drive storage and computational time by modeling one-third of the machine.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2022

Guozhen Zhang, Rui Nie, Jikai Si, Xiaohui Feng and Changli Wang

This study aims to unveil the generation mechanism of the thrust force in a tubular flux-switching permanent magnet (PM) linear (TFSPML) machine; the operation principle of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to unveil the generation mechanism of the thrust force in a tubular flux-switching permanent magnet (PM) linear (TFSPML) machine; the operation principle of the TFSPML machine is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the air-gap flux density harmonic characteristics excited by PMs and armature windings are investigated and summarized based on a simple magnetomotive force (MMF)-permeance model. Then, the air-gap field modulation theory is applied in analyzing the air-gap flux density harmonics that contribute to the electromagnetic force. In addition, a simple method for separating the end force of the TFSPML machine is proposed, which is a significant foundation for the comprehensive analysis of this type of machine. As a result, the operation principle of the TFSPML machine is thoroughly revealed.

Findings

The analysis shows that the average electromagnetic force is mainly contributed by the air-gap dominant harmonics, and the thrust force ripple is mainly caused by the end force.

Originality/value

In this paper, the operation principle of the TFSPML machine is analyzed from the perspective of air-gap field modulation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

652

Abstract

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Case study
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Guo (Ginkgo) Bai, Liman Zhao and Zhenrong Edison Wang

Through this case, students will not only learn about the latest development of this emerging industry, IoT, but also gain a systematic understanding of “ecosystem strategy” and…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

Through this case, students will not only learn about the latest development of this emerging industry, IoT, but also gain a systematic understanding of “ecosystem strategy” and get to know a new corporate growth model called “co-creation”.

Case overview/synopsis

This case describes why and how Advantech Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Advantech) has transformed in the age of the Internet of Things. Aware of the ecosystem attributes of the IoT industry and committed to the company’s principle of “altruism”, Advantech strategically positioned itself as an “IoT platform provider” and an “enabler” for IoT applications. After carrying out a reform in terms of internal management, external cooperation, and development model, Advantech has evolved from an industrial computer maker to an IoT solution provider. Since the launch of the “co-creation model” at the end of 2016, Advantech has drawn attention from many excellent companies in traditional industries. With the Internet of Everything close at hand, Chairman KC Liu is well aware there are many challenges to overcome as Advantech strives to build an industrial IoT ecosystem, the “evolution” continues.

Complexity academic level

MBAs, EMBAs and senior executives.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Long W. Lam and Louis P. White

Stage models have benefited global managers by seeing internationalization as an evolutionary and learning process that involved making careful and incremental changes. What the…

1230

Abstract

Stage models have benefited global managers by seeing internationalization as an evolutionary and learning process that involved making careful and incremental changes. What the stage models lack, however, are specification of internal problems and hurdles that managers will face during this organizational change process. We attempted to fill this knowledge gap by exploring types of managerial dilemmas that organizations will confront as they internationalize. This adaptive choice process of internationalization was discussed in this paper through the case of a domestic company during its overseas expansion. Our research shows that the internationalization process often creates managerial dilemmas for organizations in terms of strategic, structural, and human resource changes. There are also strong interactions among these dilemmas such that the decision regarding one dilemma may often impact how other dilemmas can be resolved Firms that are able to resolve these dilemmas, while considering their interactions, can become more successful in their internationalization process. These findings were developed into propositions regarding how companies can manage the process of internationalization more successfully. We also addressed specifically how the adaptive choice model would complement the stage models and enrich our understanding of the corporate internationalization process.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2022

Hongli Xu and Chen Wang

This paper proposes a spoke-type fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) permanent magnet (PM) machine for special vehicle driving systems to obtain higher torque and power…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes a spoke-type fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) permanent magnet (PM) machine for special vehicle driving systems to obtain higher torque and power density, high efficiency and wide field-weakening range. To enhance the efficiencies of multi-objective optimization processes, the respond surface (RS) method and black-hole (BH) algorithm are used.

Design/methodology/approach

The spoke-type FSCW PM machine is optimized to meet the requirements of the special vehicle driving system. The combination of the RS and BH algorithm is used to obtain high torque, low torque ripple and high efficiency.

Findings

The optimal spoke-type PM machine is obtained, and it has higher torque density, lower torque ripple, cogging torque and wider magnetic field weakening range. Finally, a 15-kW prototype machine is fabricated and tested to verify the results of the optimization method and finite-element analysis.

Originality/value

This paper designs a high torque density and efficiency spoke-type FSCW PM machine, which is superior for special vehicle driving systems. Meanwhile, the RS model combined with BH algorithm is applied to the field of electrical machine multi-objective optimal design.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Mohammad Rashid, Afidah Abdul Rahim and Mohd Jain Noordin

The purpose of this paper is to study the inhibitive effect of p‐toluene sulfonic acid (p‐TSA) doped polyaniline on corrosion of copper in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the inhibitive effect of p‐toluene sulfonic acid (p‐TSA) doped polyaniline on corrosion of copper in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The electrochemical deposition of polyaniline doped with p‐TSA on pure copper metal was studied potentiodynamically. The electrochemical study of the working electrode was performed at open‐circuit potential, then using potentiodynamic polarization and also with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M HCl solution. The p‐TSA doped polymer deposit was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with the UV‐vis and thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The morphology of the deposited polymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The results revealed that the p‐TSA self‐doped polymer had better corrosion inhibition efficiency than did the un‐doped polyaniline. It exhibited approximately 88.9 percent inhibition efficiency at 2x10−3 M concentration of p‐TSA, according to charge transfer resistance (Rct) values evaluated from Nyquist plots.

Research limitations/implications

The high dissolution tendency of metal surfaces generally occurs before the electropolymerization potential of the monomer is achieved. It was difficult to electrodeposit the conducting organic polymer on the surface of metal.

Practical implications

Some organic conducting polymers are toxic and hazardous from the environmental viewpoint. The electrochemical deposition of p‐TSA doped polyaniline is impractical for larger structures.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that p‐TSA doped polyaniline is environmentally benign and can be used for the protection of copper metal as a cathodic inhibitor.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Xinfeng Yang, Lanfen Liu, Yinzhen Li and Ruichun He

Critical links in traffic networks are those who should be better protected because their removal has a significant impact on the whole network. So, the purpose of this paper is…

1577

Abstract

Purpose

Critical links in traffic networks are those who should be better protected because their removal has a significant impact on the whole network. So, the purpose of this paper is to identify the critical links of traffic networks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes the definition of the critical link for an urban traffic network and establishes mathematical model for determining critical link considering the travellers’ heterogeneous risk-taking behavior. Moreover, in order to improve the computational efficiency, the impact area of a link is quantified, a partial network scan algorithm for identifying the critical link based on the impact area is put forward and the efficient paths-based assignment algorithm is adopted.

Findings

The proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the search space for determining the most critical links in traffic network. Numerical results also demonstrate that the structure of efficient paths has significant impact on identifying the critical links.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the critical links by using a bi-level programming approach and proposes a partial network scan algorithm for identifying critical links accounting for travellers’ heterogeneous risk-taking behavior.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Jiuli Yin, Qing Ding and Xinghua Fan

Reductions in emissions intensity have been expressed in commitments of many countries’ intended nationally determined contribution. Energy structure adjustment is one of the main…

Abstract

Purpose

Reductions in emissions intensity have been expressed in commitments of many countries’ intended nationally determined contribution. Energy structure adjustment is one of the main approaches to reduce carbon emissions. This paper aims to study the causal relationship between carbon emission intensity and energy consumption structure in China based on path analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

After data collection, this paper performs correlation analysis, regression and path analysis.

Findings

Correlation results display clear collinearity among energy structure variables. Regression finds that coal, oil, natural gas and technology can be used as indicators for carbon intensity while primary electricity has been excluded. Path analysis shows that coal had the largest direct and positive impact on emission intensity. Natural gas had a positive direct and negative indirect effect through its negative relationship with coal on emission intensity. Technology has the largest negative elasticity while all fossil energies are positive. Results indicate a negative effect of energy structure adjustment on China’s national carbon intensity.

Originality/value

Given the major role of China in global climate change mitigation, significant future reductions in China’s CO2 emissions will require transformation toward low-carbon energy systems. Considering the important role in mitigating global climate change, China needs to transition toward a low-carbon energy system to significantly reduce its carbon intensity in the future.

1 – 10 of 756