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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Makini Chisolm-Straker and Howard Straker

Implicit bias is the application of an unconscious attitude or belief; in the clinical setting, a provider’s perception of a patient, based upon perceived race or…

Abstract

Purpose

Implicit bias is the application of an unconscious attitude or belief; in the clinical setting, a provider’s perception of a patient, based upon perceived race or ethnicity, is hypothesized to affect clinical decisions, provider-patient interactions and patient health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief synopsis of and critique the relevant works over the past 15 years while highlighting the strengths of this body of literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A MEDLINE search, from 2000 to 2015, using the terms “implicit bias,” “unconscious bias” and “aversive racism” was performed. US-based studies investigating the effect of racial or ethnic implicit bias on the clinical encounter or patient outcomes were assessed. In total, 15 articles were eligible for review.

Findings

Despite well-reasoned hypotheses that racial/ethnic bias negatively affects patient care, this review found mixed results. Largely, studies showed that US-providers hold an anti-black implicit bias negatively affecting patient-provider communication and patient satisfaction. But studies have not shown that this bias consistently negatively affects diagnosis and treatment regimens of black patients in comparison to white patients. There is a significant dearth of implicit bias literature addressing the care of other patient groups of color.

Originality/value

This review of the recent literature challenges the black-white dichotomy of most implicit bias research in the USA and highlights the lack of patient-oriented outcome research in this field. Furthermore, it demonstrates that regardless of the effect of implicit bias on patient outcomes, focus on eliminating implicit bias is insufficient to improve the health of people of color.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Diana Burley, Cathy Gnam, Robin Newman, Howard Straker and Tanika Babies

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptually the role of higher education consortia in facilitating the operational advancement of member institutions, and in…

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885

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptually the role of higher education consortia in facilitating the operational advancement of member institutions, and in enabling their development as learning organizations in a changing and competitive higher education environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This article synthesizes the literature on higher education consortia and organizational learning and develops propositions to support future inquiry.

Findings

While some institutions of higher education do indeed learn, the power that consortia hold to extend, expand, and exploit this learning may represent a vast, untapped resource. Through a better understanding of the role that consortium participation may play in organizational learning, a roadmap may be generated for higher education institutions to achieve the cultural and strategic shifts necessary to develop new directions for the delivery of educational content. This enhanced understanding also may help sustain the culture of, and innovative practices used by, learning organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Consortia have the potential to offer a wide variety of benefits to institutions of higher education through innovative structure, operations, and delivery methods, generating tremendous potential for institutions of higher education to become more effective learning organizations.

Originality/value

As institutions of higher learning continue to form collaborative partnerships through higher education consortia, interesting questions arise about the potential unexplored value of these institutional networks. This article suggests that the interplay of diverse practices and sharing of related organizational knowledge across institutions may provide an opportunity for learning and adaptation within them.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Jayanthi Ranjan

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277

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2002

Abstract

Details

The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-836-1

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2013

Abstract

Details

Social Justice Issues and Racism in the College Classroom: Perspectives from Different Voices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-499-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1965

IN 1946 there was in the British Isles a clear image of librarianship in most librarians' minds. The image depended on a librarian's professional environment which was of…

Abstract

IN 1946 there was in the British Isles a clear image of librarianship in most librarians' minds. The image depended on a librarian's professional environment which was of the widest possible range, not less in variation than the organisations, institutes or types of community which required library services. Generalisations are like cocoanuts but they provide for the quickest precipitation of variant definitions, after the stones have been thrown at them. A generalisation might claim that, in 1946, public librarians had in mind an image of a librarian as organiser plus technical specialist or literary critic or book selector; that university and institute librarians projected themselves as scholars of any subject with a special environmental responsibility; that librarians in industry regarded themselves as something less than but as supplementing the capacity of a subject specialist (normally a scientist). Other minor separable categories existed with as many shades of meaning between the three generalised definitions, while librarians of national libraries were too few to be subject to easy generalisation.

Details

New Library World, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

Memories and musings of the long ago reveal revolutionary changes in the world's food trade and in particular, food sources and marketing in the United Kingdom. Earliest…

Abstract

Memories and musings of the long ago reveal revolutionary changes in the world's food trade and in particular, food sources and marketing in the United Kingdom. Earliest memories of the retail food trade are of many small shops; it used to be said that, given a good site, food would always sell well. There were multiples, but none of their stores differed from the pattern and some of the firms — Upton's, the International, were household names as they are now. Others, eg., the Maypole, and names that are lost to memory, have been absorbed in the many mergers of more recent times. Food production has changed even more dramatically; countries once major sources and massive exporters, have now become equally massive importers and completely new sources of food have developed. It all reflects the political changes, resulting from two World Wars, just as the British market reflects the shifts in world production.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Bahtiar Mohamad, Bang Nguyen, TC Melewar and Rossella Gambetti

This paper aims to investigate the conceptualisation of corporate communication management (CCM) and its dimensionality from the practitioners’ perspectives. It proposes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the conceptualisation of corporate communication management (CCM) and its dimensionality from the practitioners’ perspectives. It proposes to validate an operational definition and dimensions of the CCM construct, which have not been identified in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial concepts are based on academic literature and followed by 12 face-to-face interviews with corporate communication practitioners and consultants from Malaysia to confirm the practicality of each dimension. QSR Nvivo Version 9.0 software is used to analyse the qualitative data. Then, the data are classified through deductive content analysis based on key words or themes.

Findings

The diverse perspectives are shown from the practitioners and consultants on the dimensionality of CCM. Most of the interviewees suggest that CCM dimensions include corporate advertising, corporate affairs, investor relations and employee communication within the corporate communication and other departments. They also found the public relations and media relations are clearly under corporate communications manager’s supervision. This research confirms the concept of CCM and its dimensionality to operationalise the CCM construct. The CCM dimensions also offer opportunities for further research to develop the measurement scales.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the clarification on the subject matter by developing clear concepts of the CCM and by offering insights about the role of the CCM dimensions, which help managers to more successfully incorporate the CCM dimension into the corporate management strategy. This paper also examines the concept of CCM and confirms its dimensionality, which helps in developing the CCM measurement for further quantitative research.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Grafton Whyte and Selwyn Classen

This paper seeks to report on research investigating storytelling as a means of eliciting tacit knowledge from retiring subject matter experts (SMEs) within a large South

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3306

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to report on research investigating storytelling as a means of eliciting tacit knowledge from retiring subject matter experts (SMEs) within a large South African organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 64 stories were collected over a 12‐month period covering a varied range of technical disciplines and were analysed using grounded theory principles combined with expert reviews.

Findings

Despite the diverse nature of the stories they were able to be coded and categorised into 21 knowledge management constructs which were further refined by expert review down to 14 final constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the generalisability of the findings, which may be limited by the fact the study was conducted in one large South African organisation.

Practical implications

A common language is a key prerequisite for sharing knowledge. Every discipline within an organisation has its own language by which it communicates with insiders; this is particularly true of the ICT field. Through the common language of KM, tacit knowledge from SMEs can be elicited and classified for future access by people of all levels within the organisation.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge this is the first attempt at classifying organisational stories using a knowledge management (KM) frame. The work presented in this paper is a step towards a KM taxonomy of organisational stories.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Casey P. Mainsbridge, Dean Cooley, Sharon P Fraser and Scott J Pedersen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of a workplace intervention designed to interrupt prolonged occupational sitting time (POST) and its impact…

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1179

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of a workplace intervention designed to interrupt prolonged occupational sitting time (POST) and its impact on the self-reported health of a cohort of desk-based employees.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 43 participants received an interactive computer-based software intervention for 26 weeks. For the first 13 weeks the intervention passively prompted the participants to interrupt POST and perform brief bouts of non-purposeful movement. The second 13 weeks involved the passivity of the intervention being removed, with the intervention only accessible voluntarily by the participant. This approach was adopted to determine the sustainability of the intervention to change workplace health behaviour.

Findings

ANOVA results revealed a significant interaction between group and test occasion, F(2, 42)=2.79, p < 0.05, such that the experimental group increased their total health from pre-test to post-test (13 weeks), and to second post-test (26 weeks) with a medium effect size of Cohen’s d=0.37.

Research limitations/implications

An action research approach was implemented for this study, and hence the participants were organised into one group. Based on a communitarian model, the intervention aimed to monitor how desk-based employees adapted to specific health behaviours, and therefore a control group was not included.

Practical implications

Passively prompting desk-based employees to interrupt POST and perform non-purposeful movement at work improved self-reported health. Participant perceptions of health were maintained following the removal of the passive feature of the intervention.

Social implications

Interventions predicated on a social ecological model that modify how employees interact with the workplace environment might provide a framework for health behaviour change in populations where sitting is customary.

Originality/value

The passive approach used in this study removed the individual decision-making process to engage in health behaviour change, and established a sustainable effect on participant health.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

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