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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Altaf Halim Basta, Houssni El-Saied, Amin Mahmoud Baraka and Vivian Fayez Lotfy

The purpose of this research paper focused on studying the role of activated carbons (ACs), which were synthesized from long-chain aldehyde-based xerogels (Xs-AC), as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper focused on studying the role of activated carbons (ACs), which were synthesized from long-chain aldehyde-based xerogels (Xs-AC), as benefit additives to enhance the application of a low-cost urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive for production of rice straw (RS) composites complying with both the standard specifications of particle-board type and the board produced from using conventional adhesive of RS fibers (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, MDI). The results are supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, which indicated the curing and interaction of RS fibers with the adhesive systems.

Design/methodology/approach

RS-based composites of particle-board type were prepared from applying new Xs-AC–UF adhesive systems to RS particles. For comparison, particle boards by using commercial UF and 4 per cent MDI were also prepared. To clear the beneficial effect of X-ACs as new HCHO (formaldehyde)-scavengers, the properties of the resulted boards were compared with those produced from the previous investigated scavenger: amide-containing starch-UF (AM/St–UF), and treated RS. DSC analysis was performed on the RS adhesive system, to follow the curing and the interaction behavior of UF with fibers in the presence of Xs-ACs.

Findings

The promising results obtained of RS particle boards from using the investigated new HCHO-scavenger are modulus of rupture (MOR) = 17.2 MPa, modulus of elasticity (MOE) = 4,689 MPa and internal bond (IB) strength = 0.49 MPa. While, the thickness swelling (TS) and maximum reduction in free-HCHO are 48.5 and 44.6 per cent, respectively; this reduction value specified the particle-board of E1-E2 type.

Research limitations/implications

The X-AC-UF adhesive systems and treated RS provided particle boards with mechanical properties (MOR, MOE and IB) that met the standard specification values (class M-2 according to ANSI standard and P-2 according to EN standard requirements), together with maximum reduction in toxicity of UF. However, the resistance in water swelling property is weak and needs further study to be solved.

Practical implications

The incorporation of small percentage of new HCHO-scavenger (X-AC) to UF is an effective way to improve its thermal behavior. Moreover, the mechanical properties of agro-based composites based on the treated RS waste together with the X-AC-UF system exceeded those values of panels produced from (AM/St-UF) and also from (4 per cent MDI).

Social implications

Incorporating the Xs-AC to commercial UF will be of benefit for saving the health of wood co-workers and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products, as well as minimizing the export of MDI.

Originality/value

This paper was based on enhancing the potential utilization of both undesirable RS agro wastes and environmentally unacceptable low-cost UF adhesive in the production of agro-composites that comply with the International Standard Specifications of particle board type. In this respect, a new HCHO-scavenger was synthesized and applied, based on AC from non-conventional xerogels. This study presents a solution to protect the environment from pollution, as a result of burning the undesirable RS, as well as to protect the workers and users of wood panels from exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic gas (formaldehyde). It also benefits in replacing the high cost of the RS adhesive (MDI) by using low-cost modified UF.

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El-Saied and Emad M. Deffallah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of denaturised rice bran (RB) and route of its incorporation during synthesis of urea-formaldehyde adhesive, on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of denaturised rice bran (RB) and route of its incorporation during synthesis of urea-formaldehyde adhesive, on the performance of the resulting adhesive, especially viscosity, free-formaldehyde (HCHO) and quality of the produced bagasse-based composites, in comparison with those produced from commercial urea formaldehyde (UF) and RB-added UF.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were carried out using different denaturised RB at different percentages (1-5 per cent) and pH’s (9-11 per cent). These denaturised RB were incorporated at the last synthesis stage of UF synthesis process. The assessment was carried out on both the viscosity and environmental safety of the adhesive system, as well as the quality of the manufactured bagasse-based composites, of the particleboards (static bending, internal bond (IB) strength and water resistance properties), in comparison to commercial UF and RB added to UF. The performance of the adhesive system was evidenced by the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analyses.

Findings

The results showed that maximum static bending [modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE)], IB strength and water resistance properties of the resulted wood product accompanied the incorporating 5 per cent of the denaturised RB (pH = 9.0), at the last synthesised stage of UF synthesis process. Where, this synthesis process provided adhesive with viscosity nearly approaching to commercial UF adhesive, and reduced the free-HCHO of adhesive and board by approximately 56 and 49 per cent, respectively. For mechanical and water resistance properties, it provided board with 24.5 MPa MOR, 3,029 MPa MOE, 0.64 MPa IB, 11 per cent swelling (SW) and 20.5 per cent absorption. These properties fulfil the requirements of high grade particleboards American National Standard Institute (ANSI) A208.1, especially with respect to static bending values and water swelling property.

Research limitations/implications

Incorporating 5 per cent of pre-denaturised RB, at pH 9.0, in wet form, and in the last stage of synthesis UF, provided adhesive system with convenient viscosity together with lower free-HCHO and acceptable board properties, compared with that produced from commercial UF, or adding denaturised RB to already synthesised UF. For the mechanical (MOR, MOE and IB) and water resistance properties (SW per cent and absorption per cent) of the produced composite are complied the standard values of H-3 grade of particleboard.

Practical implications

Promising adhesive system is resulted from incorporating 5 per cent of pre-denaturised RB at pH 9.0, in wet form, during last stage of UF synthesis process.

Social implications

Incorporating the RB by-product of oil production to commercial UF or during synthesis of UF will be benefit for saving the healthy of wood co-workers, and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products.

Originality/value

The article provides a potential simple way to solve the drawback of increasing the viscosity of UF, as a result of adding RB, via incorporating the RB during synthesis process. The viscosity of the synthesised RB-modified UF approaches RB-free UF, and consequently the adhesive system easily penetrates through agro-fibres, and provides good bonding behaviour and high performance wood product (both quality and environmental by minimising formaldehyde emission or toxic gasses during board formation).

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Houssni El‐Saied, Snaa M. El‐Sawy and Altaf H. Basta

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to…

Abstract

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to standard methods. Evaluates the modified barium metaborate as a new filler for paper making by carrying out two series of experiments. Details the results which showed that the efficiency of the filler retention when using modified barium metaborate was higher than that of the other two conventional fillers. Reveals that at relatively low filler addition (2–5 percentage weight), higher improvement in the strength properties can be obtained when using the modified pigment instead of titanium dioxide and kaolin, but observes the reverse (i.e. a detrimental effect) at relatively high filler addition (8–10 percentage weight). Discovers that the optical properties of the modified pigment‐loaded sheets lie between those of titanium dioxide and kaolin. Shows that blending barium metaborate with kaolin or titanium dioxide has a significant effect on strength properties rather than optical properties. Concludes that modified barium metaborate pigment can be successfully used in paper filling applications and that modified barium metaborate pigment‐kaolin blend (80/20 per cent) can be used instead of titanium dioxide as a paper filler.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Houssni El‐Saied, Altaf H. Basta, Samir Y. El‐Sayed and Fatma Morsy

The rheological properties of coating suspensions containing a blend of clay and CaCO3 as a pigment have been evaluated at 22°C, using a rheometer with shear rates from…

Abstract

The rheological properties of coating suspensions containing a blend of clay and CaCO3 as a pigment have been evaluated at 22°C, using a rheometer with shear rates from 0.5 to 100rpm. The state of dispersion of the pigment, the structure viscosity of the suspension as a result of pigment‐pigment or pigment‐binder interactions, and its behaviour by changing the solid content and ionic strength, were limited from the examination of the flow curves. The flow parameters for each suspension were calculated. The results showed that changes in solid content and ionic strength by the addition of divalent simple electrolyte (CaCl2) and pH level have a more profound effect on the flow parameters than that obtained by the addition of monovalent simple electrolyte (NaCl) or polyelectrolyte soluble polymers (CMC) with different degrees of substitution. The type of acid used to adjust the pH of the suspension also has a great influence on the flow parameters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El‐Saied and Vivian F. Lotfy

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of preparing high performance, agro‐based composites from rice straw, using eco‐polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of preparing high performance, agro‐based composites from rice straw, using eco‐polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive system. The utilization of rice straw (undesirable biowastes) for the production of high quality biocomposite products, will add economic value, help to reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal and, most importantly, provide a potentially inexpensive alternative to the existing commercial artificial wood‐panels.

Design/methodology/approach

Simple synthesizing and optimizing the polyalcohol polymers‐based non‐toxic adhesive system were carried out, by blending corn starch, as natural polyalcohol polymer with polyvinyl alcohol, as synthetic polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive (St/PV adhesive), at temperature ∼75°C. The percentages of adhesive components, type of starch, bonding temperature and time were optimized. Assessment of the synthesized adhesive was performed from its adhesion behavior (bond strength), in comparison with commercial thermosetting resin (urea‐formaldehyde), as well as the properties (mechanical and physical properties) of the composites produced. The effects of amount and type of water resistance co‐additives (paraffin wax and polyester), on mechanical properties of RS‐based composite were also optimized.

Findings

The promising adhesive system exhibits improved performance over a previously commercially HCHO‐based adhesive (UF), and results bonding strength 9.8 N/mm2, as well as MOR, IB and TS of RS‐based composites up to 31 N/mm2, 0.49 N/mm2 and 20%, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Through the studied eco‐adhesive with relatively high natural polyalcohol polymer (starch) in presence of water‐resistance additive (PE) provided a good bonding strength and comparative RS‐based composite properties, with that produced from commercial UF. For the mechanical properties (MOR and IB) are complied the standard values; while water resistance is still higher. Further study is needed to solve this problem.

Practical implications

The approach provided a HCHO‐free adhesive with good bonding strength, comparative board strength and water resistance, reasonable working life, and without formaldehyde emission. Starch‐based adhesive with low percentages of polyvinyl alcohol is considered a promising inexpensive alternate adhesive in wood industry based on rice straw wastes, which traditionally required expensive pMDI.

Originality/value

The paper provides a potential way to utilise undesirable rice by‐product (RS), corn starch as industrial raw material. This will benefit farmers significantly. Meanwhile, the modified starch adhesive with low percentage of PVA is promising to partly or completely replace urea formaldehyde resin and pMDI that are mainly used in wood industry, or pMDI in RS‐based artificial wood, avoiding formaldehyde emission or toxic gases during exposed to burning, and reducing the dependence on petroleum products.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El-Saied and Emad M. Deffallah

The purpose of this paper is to prepare high-performance agro-based composites from the non-toxic rice bran-urea-formaldehyde (RB-UF) adhesive system. Investigations have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare high-performance agro-based composites from the non-toxic rice bran-urea-formaldehyde (RB-UF) adhesive system. Investigations have continued for production high performance agro-based composites using environmentally acceptable approaches. The utilisation of such system with the available used local agro-based wood products (sugar-cane bagasse, SCB) adds economic value and helps reducing the environmental impact of commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, and most importantly, provides a potentially inexpensive alternative to the existing commercial artificial wood-panel mills.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimising the process for incorporating the RB in UF, as wood adhesive for binding the bagasse fibres, was carried out, by partially replacing commercial UF by denaturalised RB in slurry (wet) and dry form or through synthesis of UF. The denaturalisation of RB was carried out at different pHs (10-11) and at temperature 60°C for two hours. While incorporating the RB during synthesis of UF, it was carried out according to the method reported elsewhere. The formulation of adhesive components, pH value of the denaturalisation stage and the process of incorporating the RB were optimised. Assessment of the role of RB adhesive was specified from its free-formaldehyde (HCHO) content, as well as the properties (mechanical and physical properties) of the produced composites of bagasse particle board type, in comparison with the environmental impact of commercial thermosetting resin (UF).

Findings

The promising adhesive system exhibits improvement in the environmental performance (as E1 type) over a commercially UF adhesive (as E2 type), besides providing boards fulfill the requirements of grade H-3 (according to ANSI A208.1 (NPA1993). This adhesive system was resulted from replacing 30 per cent of UF by denalturalised RB (at pH 10) in slurry form. Where, its reduction in free-HCHO reached 53 per cent, as well as modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB) and TS of the produced boards were approximately 24.2 N/mm2, approximately 3753 N/mm2, approximately 0.84 N/mm2 and approximately 11.4 per cent, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The eco-adhesive with relatively high percentage of low-cost commercial UF (70 per cent) and 30 per cent RB, as oil production by-product, in slurry form provides good board strength and is environmentally friendly compared to SCB-based composite properties, with that produced from commercial UF. The mechanical (MOR, MOE and IB) and water-resistance properties of the produced composite comply with the standard values.

Practical implications

The approach provided low HCHO-free UF adhesive with good comparative board strength and water resistance and reasonable working life. Replacing 30 per cent of UF by RB in slurry form and denaturalised at pH 10 is considered a promising inexpensive alternate adhesive (as E1) in the wood industry based on SCB wastes.

Social implications

Incorporating the RB by-product of oil production to commercial UF will be beneficial for saving the health of wood co-workers and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products.

Originality/value

It provided a potentially simple way to improve both the utilisation of commercial UF and SCB as industrial substrates for particle-board production. This will benefit farmers, local wood mills in Upper Egypt, significantly. Meanwhile, incorporating low percentage of RB, as oil-mill by-products, is promising to partly replace UF resin in the wood industry, minimising formaldehyde emission or toxic gasses during board formation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

X.R. Zhang, L.Z. Liu, J.F. Li, W.W. Cui and L. Weng

The key purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times on the wettability and other properties of the resulting water-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The key purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times on the wettability and other properties of the resulting water-based coating. The subject water-based coating was prepared using water-soluble polyester and amino resins by ultrasonic oscillation.

Design/methodology/approach

The coating was prepared by polymerising polyester and amino resins in water using ultrasonic oscillation. The coating was baked for 40 seconds at 350°C to coalesce and solidify the film. The contact angle, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the film, as well as the molecular weight (MW) and structure of the polyester resin, were determined.

Findings

The contact angle of the coating was found to decrease with ultrasonic irradiation; the mechanical properties and thermal stability were not altered when the irradiation time was longer than 5 hours. The MW of the polyester initially decreased then increased and stabilized with ultrasonic irradiation. The structure of polyester molecule and aggregated state of the solidified coating were not changed by ultrasonic irradiation.

Research limitations/implications

In the study reported here, the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times were investigated. Results of this research could benefit in-depth understanding of the influence of ultrasonic treatment on polyester resins and polyester coatings and could further promote the development of water-based coatings.

Originality/value

The contact angle of the water-based coating decreased by mechanical means. The effects of ultrasound on microstructure and properties of the coating and resin were discussed in detail.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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