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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2019

Jiming Cai, Du Guonan and Liu Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the real urbanization level in China so as to provide a measurement that can be compared with the international level.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the real urbanization level in China so as to provide a measurement that can be compared with the international level.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking into consideration 300m residents living in the administrative towns (300m residents here are referred to the population in administrative towns, including those in all counties), the gap between the urbanization rate of China and that of the world average becomes much wider.

Findings

China, however, implements the administrative system of government at the central, provincial, municipal, county and township levels. By city, it means the jurisdiction at and above the level of county, which includes the municipality directly under the central government, prefecture-level municipal and county. By town, it means the jurisdiction below the level of county (including the Chengguan Town, or capital town, where the county government is located) and exclusive of rural townships.

Originality/value

China has witnessed rapid development for 40 years since the reform and opening up in 1978. Nowadays, China has already stepped into the period of post-industrialization, with its urbanization rate (UR) of permanent population reaching 58.58 percent. However, on the basis of registered population, the UR is 43.37 percent, which is not only far below the average level of 81.3 percent in high-income countries, but also lower than the average of 65.8 percent in upper middle-income countries which are comparable to China in terms of per capita income. (The classification of state income level is based on the data of national income per capita and division standards in 2016 from the World Bank, in which annual revenue per capita in high-income countries reaches over US$12,736 and that in upper middle-income countries between US$4,126 and US$12,735.)

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Carl Lin and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers

This study uses migrant household survey data from 2008 to 2009 to examine how parental migration decisions are associated with the nutritional status of children in rural…

Abstract

This study uses migrant household survey data from 2008 to 2009 to examine how parental migration decisions are associated with the nutritional status of children in rural and urban China. Results from instrumental variables regressions show a substantial adverse effect of children’s exposure to parental migration on height-for-age Z scores of left-behind children relative to children who migrate with their parents. Additional results from a standard Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition, a quantile decomposition, and a counterfactual distribution analysis all confirm that children who are left behind in rural villages – usually because of the oppressive hukou system – have poorer nutritional status than children who migrate with their parents, and the gaps are biggest at lower portions of the distribution.

Details

Health and Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-861-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Yue Ma

Since the early 1980s, with the implementation of the policy of economic modernization, China has experienced a significant increase in crime. In order to meet the…

Abstract

Since the early 1980s, with the implementation of the policy of economic modernization, China has experienced a significant increase in crime. In order to meet the challenge of the rising crime rate under the new social and economic conditions, China has implemented a series of police reforms. Based on the newly promulgated Police Law and other relevant laws and regulations, discusses the organization, functions, powers and accountability issues of the contemporary Chinese police system.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Dongxue Zhang

To obtain an understanding of the disposition of Chinese agriculture.

Abstract

Purpose

To obtain an understanding of the disposition of Chinese agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

By applying econometric methods to make a narrow assessment on several productive factors in Chinese agriculture covering most of the era of Reforms and openness, a picture portraying the traits of Chinese rural society is provided. The author delves deep into the foundations of econometric as well as western society to draw comparisons between Occidental and oriental society.

Findings

Unlike the widely held view that implicitly identifies the basis of studies in Chinese economical development with that in western nations, the presented idea illuminates the intrinsic “upper‐hand” disposition of Chinese rural society, which has so far practically made China tread a path different from that in western society.

Research limitations/implications

Since the paper deals with the whole picture of Chinese agriculture, it presumably may cause partial loss of accuracy in econometric calculations.

Practical implications

It provides a fresh yet in‐depth idea for western researchers.

Originality/value

The paper breaks fresh ground in Chinese study and economic theory for researchers who are confused with the intricacy of the Chinese agricultural economy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Yingtan Mu and Xin Yuan

At the end of the 1970s, the Chinese government enacted the one-child policy; now the one-child successively enters into the labor market and reaches the age for marriage…

Abstract

Purpose

At the end of the 1970s, the Chinese government enacted the one-child policy; now the one-child successively enters into the labor market and reaches the age for marriage and childbirth. The floating population group of China’s interior regions also experiences the heterogeneity changes. The purpose of this paper is to analyses the reasons for the difference of family migration between one-child and non-only child using the binary logit regression model – from the three aspects of individual characteristics, family endowment and institutional factors were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Family migration or individual migration of the floating population is the dichotomous dependent variable and therefore the binomial logistic regression analysis model is selected.

Findings

It is found that the tendency of one-child family migration is significantly higher than that of non-only child. The main reason is that the one-child has obvious advantages in terms of individual characteristics, family endowment and institutional factors.

Originality/value

The previous researches on family migration: first, the previous researches mainly analyzed the impact of the human capital and family income on the family migration from the perspective of economics and neglected the discussion on the family structure, life cycle, family level factors and Hukou’s limitation; second, most researches considered the migration as a whole. In fact, the migration population is no longer a highly homogeneous group and gradually become diversified.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Yun-na Liu and Zhiyu Liu

With the development of social economy, the problem of female labor force and talent ecology mechanism has become increasingly prominent. They do not assign jobs according…

Abstract

Purpose

With the development of social economy, the problem of female labor force and talent ecology mechanism has become increasingly prominent. They do not assign jobs according to their abilities, but decide their duties according to their interpersonal relationships. The uneven distribution of human resources makes the difference, the impact of the female talent social mobility tends to solidify and the social strata between the contradictions are deepening.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly investigates the current situation of female talents social mobility to solve the problem of the social mobility of female talent, and evaluates the main factors that affect female talents social mobility by analyzing the flow of ordinary female labor, enterprise female talents and educational female talents.

Findings

Society should pay attention to the social mobility of female talent, carry out comprehensive ecology mechanism in time, take different methods to the management of female talents in different industries, remove the obstacles that affect the social mobility of female talents and create a good ecology mechanism of female talent.

Originality/value

This paper provides corresponding suggestions and countermeasures on the ecology mechanism of female talents social mobility.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Shuhan Chen and Peter Lunt

Abstract

Details

Chinese Social Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-136-0

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Yulin Liu and Min Zhang

This paper aims to examine the effect of China’s unique household registration system (hukou) on stock market participation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of China’s unique household registration system (hukou) on stock market participation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an effort to estimate the effect of hukou on households' financial behavior, we draw on data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and use probit model and tobit model to test the effect of hukou on households stock market participation.

Findings

The results are with strong interpretative power over the limited participation of stock market in China-investors living in urban areas with urban hukou are more likely to participate in stock markets and allocate a larger fraction of financial assets to stocks and remarkably robust to a battery of robustness checks. The dual structure of social security caused by the household registration system could explain this result. Furthermore, marriage plays such a role of integrating social resources attached to hukou that only the marriage of individuals with urban hukou could significantly promote households' participation in the stock market. For married families, a household in which both husband and wife have urban hukou has a greater possibility to invest in stocks relative to those with rural hukou.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in two ways. First, much literature focuses on the stock market limited participation puzzle and gives explanations from the perspectives of individual heterogeneity and financial markets. This paper examines the effect of hukou. Such an idea is instructive to some developing countries where residents are treated differently because of the institutional reason. Second, the effects we find are economically meaningful. Our estimates indicate that medical insurance attached to hukou can explain almost 58% of the impact of hukou, which suggests that the key to reforming China's current household registration system is to make welfare separate from hukou. Moreover, homogamy based on hukou widens the gap of households' risky assets, which provides a new view to understand the income gap in the cities of China and the heterogeneous effect of marriage on stock market participation.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Bing Shi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the household registration and of employment contract on employee job insecurity in the Chinese state-owned…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the household registration and of employment contract on employee job insecurity in the Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The relationships between job satisfaction and the two components of job insecurity are also analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses original data collected through a questionnaire survey in six Chinese SOEs. In all, 309 samples are analysed mainly using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The research finds household registration is a predictor of job insecurity while employment contract is not. Job satisfaction is found to be positively related to one of the components of job insecurity: the perceived severity of job loss.

Social implications

To improve job security of the employees who are in vulnerable positions, improving the equality of social safety net is significant. In China, household registration causes unequal access to social welfare and employment opportunities; improving the equality may be more significant than seeking for permanent employment.

Originality/value

The research suggests two levels of factors influencing job insecurity: the macro-level factors that include the institutional configurations of social safety net; and the micro-level factors that include employment contract. The macro-level factors have fundamental influence while the micro-level factors are more apparent. The micro-level factors may manifest their influence only when the macro-level factors equally cover all the employees. The macro-level factors may also intermediate the relationship between job insecurity and satisfaction.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Ka Yi Fung

The purpose of this paper is to ask whether or not social networks can compensate for the disadvantages of being part of an unprivileged group in the job attainment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ask whether or not social networks can compensate for the disadvantages of being part of an unprivileged group in the job attainment process in urban China, using the 2008 China General Social Survey.

Design/methodology/approach

The author compares the network effects on monthly income of local urban residents and rural migrants.

Findings

First, the results show that social capital exerts no significant effect on monthly income for local residents and rural migrants. Second, having network members who work in state-owned and non-state-owned enterprises helps female rural migrants to obtain higher monthly incomes, compared to those whose network members work only in either state-owned enterprises or non-state-owned enterprises. The same is not true of male rural migrants or local residents.

Originality/value

It can be concluded that a more diversified network may compensate for female rural migrants’ disadvantages, caused by being part of an unprivileged group, in their occupational attainment process.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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