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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Ales Svoboda, Hans‐Åke Häggblad and Mats Näsström

Presents a finite element formulation of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) based on a continuum approach using thermal‐elastoviscoplastic constitutive equations with…

Abstract

Presents a finite element formulation of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) based on a continuum approach using thermal‐elastoviscoplastic constitutive equations with compressibility. The formulation takes into consideration dependence of the viscoplastic part on the porosity. Also takes into account the thermomechanical response, including nonlinear effects in both the thermal and mechanical analyses. Implements the material model in an implicit finite element code. Presents experimental procedures for evaluating the inelastic behaviour of metal powders during densification and experimental data. Chooses the simulation of the dilatometer measurement of a cylindrical component during HIP and manufacturing simulation of a turbine component to near net shape (NNS) as a demonstrator example. Both components are made of a hot isostatically pressed hot‐working martensitic steel. Compares the result of the simulation in the form of the final geometry of the container with the geometry of a real component produced by HIP. Makes a comparison between the calculated and measured deformations during the HIP process for the cylindrical component. Measures the final geometry of the turbine component by means of a computer controlled measuring machine (CMM). Performs the complete process from design and simulation to geometry verification within a computer‐aided concurrent engineering (CACE) system.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Mustafa Safa Yılmaz, Gökhan Özer, Zafer Çağatay Öter and Onur Ertuğrul

This paper aims to investigate the effects of various heat treatments on microstructure, hardness, porosity and corrosion properties of the parts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of various heat treatments on microstructure, hardness, porosity and corrosion properties of the parts.

Design/methodology/approach

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process, various heat treatments and their combinations were applied to the AlSi10Mg parts produced by direct laser metal sintering (DMLS).

Findings

It has been found that the HIP process, which is a post-processing process, reduces the amount of porosity in DMLS-AlSi10Mg material, thus improves corrosion resistance significantly.

Originality/value

In this study, the HIP process and subsequent T6 heat treatments were applied to AlSi10Mg parts produced by the DMLS technique. The study aims to increase the corrosion resistance of AlSi10Mg parts by reducing porosity with the HIP process and by altering the microstructure with the T6 process.

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Suman Das, Joseph J. Beama, Martin Wohlert and David L. Bourell

This paper focuses on recent advances in direct freeform fabrication of high performance components via selective laser sintering (SLS). The application, known as SLS/HIP

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Abstract

This paper focuses on recent advances in direct freeform fabrication of high performance components via selective laser sintering (SLS). The application, known as SLS/HIP, is a low cost manufacturing technique that combines the strengths of selective laser sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to rapidly produce low volume or “one of a kind” high performance metal components. Direct selective laser sintering is a rapid manufacturing technique that can produce high density metal parts of complex geometry with an integral, gas impermeable skin. These parts can then be directly post‐processed by containerless HIP. The advantages of in situ encapsulation include elimination of a secondary container material and associated container‐powder interaction, reduced pre‐processing time, a short HIP cycle and reduction in post‐processing steps compared to HIP of canned parts. SLS/HIP is currently being developed under a DARPA/ONR program for INCONEL® 625 superalloy and Ti‐6Al‐4V, the demonstration components being the F‐14 turbine engine vane and the AIM‐9 missile guidance section housing base respectively.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Hany Hassanin, Khamis Essa, Chunlei Qiu, Ali M. Abdelhafeez, Nicholas J.E. Adkins and Moataz M. Attallah

The purpose of this study is to develop a manufacturing technology using hybrid selective laser melting/hot isostatic pressing (SLM/HIP) process to produce full density…

654

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a manufacturing technology using hybrid selective laser melting/hot isostatic pressing (SLM/HIP) process to produce full density net-shape components more rapidly and at lower cost than processing by SLM alone.

Design/methodology/approach

Ti-6Al-4V powder was encapsulated in situ by the production of as-SLMed shell prior to the HIP process. After HIPping, the SLM shell is an integral part of the final component. Finite element (FE) modelling based on pure plasticity theory of porous metal coupled with an iterative procedure has been adopted to simulate HIPping of the encapsulated Ti-6Al-4V powder and SLMed shell. Two demonstrator parts have been modelled, designed, produced and experimentally validated. Geometrical analysis and microstructural characterisation have been carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the process.

Findings

The FE model is in agreement with the measured data obtained and confirms that the design of the shell affects the resulting deformed parts. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Electron backscatter diffraction EBSD (EBSD) of the interior and exterior parts reveal a considerably different grain structure and crystallographic orientation with a good bonding between the SLMed shell and HIPped powder.

Originality/value

An approach to improve SLM productivity by combining it with HIP is developed to further innovate the advanced manufacturing field. The possibility of the hybrid SLS/HIP supported by FEA simulation as a net shape manufacturing process for fabrication of high performance parts has been demonstrated.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Onur Ertuğrul, Zafer Çağatay Öter, Mustafa Safa Yılmaz, Ezgi Şahin, Mert Coşkun, Gürkan Tarakçı and Ebubekir Koç

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of post process combinations, e.g. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) only, HIP + T6 heat treatments, and T6 only, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of post process combinations, e.g. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) only, HIP + T6 heat treatments, and T6 only, with different aging time, on surface properties, microstructure and mechanical properties of stress-relieved AlSi10Mg parts produced by direct laser metal sintering.

Design/methodology/approach

HIP process and HIP + T6 heat treatments were applied to as stress-relieved direct laser metal sintered (DMLS) AlSi10Mg parts. Aging times of 4 and 12 h are selected to examine the optimum duration. To analyze the advantages of HIP process, a T6 heat treatment with 4 h of aging was also applied. Densities, open porosities and roughness values of as stress-relieved, HIPed, HIP + T6, and T6-only samples were measured. The samples were characterized by OM and SEM together with EDX analysis. An image analysis study was made to evaluate the inner pore structure, thereby to understand the mechanical behavior.

Findings

HIP process does not cause a significant change in surface porosity; yet it has a positive influence on inner porosity. HIP process results in a microstructure of the aluminum matrix surrounded by a network of micron and nano size Si particles. Additional heat treatment results in larger particles and precipitation. After HIPing, ductility increases but strength decreases. Samples aged 4 h present improved yield and tensile strength but decreased elongation, yet samples aged for 12 h reach a combination of optimum strength and ductility. The lower level of tensile strength and ductility in T6-only condition indicates that HIP process plays a crucial role in elimination of the porosity thus improves the effectiveness of subsequent heat treatment.

Originality/value

The study investigates the effect of post-process conditions and optimizes the aging time of the T6 heat treatment after HIP process in order to obtain improved mechanical properties. The stress-relieved state was chosen as the reference to prevent distortion during HIPing or heat treatment.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Mukesh Agarwala, David Bourell, Joseph Beaman, Harris Marcus and Joel Barlow

Gives a brief overview of post‐processing of selective laser sintered (SLS) metal parts to improve structural integrity and/or to induce a material transformation…

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Abstract

Gives a brief overview of post‐processing of selective laser sintered (SLS) metal parts to improve structural integrity and/or to induce a material transformation. Presents results which show the effect of post‐processing liquid phase sintering temperature and time on material properties. Describes the hot isostatic pressing process, and discusses its application to SLS metal parts. Results gained from using this process show that it is suitable for achieving almost full‐density parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Xina Huang, Lihui Lang, Shuili Gong and Mali Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-treatment processes on lattice structures of selective laser melting. Moreover, the effect of pressure during hot

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-treatment processes on lattice structures of selective laser melting. Moreover, the effect of pressure during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Three post-treatment processes, annealing at 650°C, 920°C and HIP were adopted. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of selective lasering melted Ti6Al4V lattice structures after post-treatment were systematically investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, electron backscattered diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and quasi-static mechanics tests.

Findings

The main findings in this paper are as below: first, the pores existing in the samples as-fabricated, annealed at 650°C and 920°C are disappeared after HIP. Second, the microstructure and compressive properties after HIP are similar to that after pure annealing at the same temperature. However, the HIPed sample had the highest number of cycles to failure. Third, the fracture mechanism of as-fabricated samples changes from mixed fracture to the micro-voids accumulation fracture after post-treatment processes.

Originality/value

HIP post-treatment can be replaced by annealing at the same temperature when the requirement for porosity and fatigue life is not very high.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2021

Sareh Götelid, Taoran Ma, Christophe Lyphout, Jesper Vang, Emil Stålnacke, Jonas Holmberg, Seyed Hosseini and Annika Strondl

This study aims to investigate additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy IN718 made by powder bed fusion processes: powder bed fusion laser beam (PBF-LB) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy IN718 made by powder bed fusion processes: powder bed fusion laser beam (PBF-LB) and powder bed fusion electron beam (PBF-EB).

Design/methodology/approach

This work has focused on the influence of building methods and post-fabrication processes on the final part properties, including microstructure, surface quality, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

Findings

PBF-LB produced a much smoother surface. Blasting and shot peening (SP) reduced the roughness even more but did not affect the PBF-EB surface finish as much. As-printed PBF-EB parts have low residual stresses in all directions, whereas it was much higher for PBF-LB. However, heat treatment removed the stresses and SP created compressive stresses for samples from both PBF processes. The standard Arcam process parameter for PBF-EB for IN718 is not fully optimized, which leads to porosity and inferior mechanical properties. However, impact toughness after hot isostatic pressing was surprisingly high.

Originality/value

The two processes gave different results and also responses to post-treatments, which could be of advantage or disadvantage for different applications. Suggestions for improving the properties of parts produced by each method are presented.

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Hyeon-Tae Im, Hyun-Su Kang, Hyeon-Goo Kang, Hyo Kyu Kim, Jun Choi, Ki Beom Park, Taeg Woo Lee, Chan Bin Mo and Hyung-Ki Park

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of internal pores on the tensile properties of a Co–Cr–Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of internal pores on the tensile properties of a Co–Cr–Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM).

Design/methodology/approach

The size and volume fraction of pores were controlled through high temperature annealing (HTA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP).

Findings

After HTA, the size and fraction of pores decreased compared with the as-built SLM sample, and no pores were observed after HIP. Tensile tests of the HTA and HIP samples showed nearly similar tensile deformation behavior. From the results, the authors found that the size of the internal pores formed in the SLM process had little effect on the tensile properties. The as-built SLM sample had less elongation than the HTA and HIP samples, which would not the effect of porosity, but rather the effect of the residual stress and the retained ε phase after the SLM process.

Originality/value

Although pores are a main factor that influence the mechanical properties, the effect of pores on the tensile properties of Co–Cr–Mo alloys fabricated by SLM has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, the effect of pores on the tensile properties of a Co–Cr–Mo alloy fabricated by SLM was studied.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jan Patrick Deckers, Khuram Shahzad, Ludwig Cardon, Marleen Rombouts, Jozef Vleugels and Jean-Pierre Kruth

The purpose of this paper is to compare different powder metallurgy (PM) processes to produce ceramic parts through additive manufacturing (AM). This creates the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare different powder metallurgy (PM) processes to produce ceramic parts through additive manufacturing (AM). This creates the potential to rapidly shape ceramic parts with an almost unlimited shape freedom. In this paper, alumina (Al2O3) parts are produced, as Al2O3 is currently the most commonly used ceramic material for technical applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Variants of the following PM route, with indirect selective laser sintering (indirect SLS) as the AM shaping step, are explored to produce ceramic parts: powder synthesis, indirect SLS, binder removal and furnace sintering and alternative densification steps.

Findings

Freeform-shaped Al2O3 parts with densities up to approximately 90 per cent are obtained.

Research limitations/implications

The resulting Al2O3 parts contain inter-agglomerate pores. To produce higher-quality ceramic parts through indirect SLS, these pores should be avoided or eliminated.

Originality/value

The research is innovative in many ways. First, composite powders are produced using different powder production methods, such as temperature-induced phase separation and dispersion polymerization. Second, four different binder materials are investigated: polyamide (nylon-12), polystyrene, polypropylene and a carnauba wax – low-density polyethylene combination. Further, to produce ceramic parts with increased density, the following densification techniques are investigated as additional steps of the PM process: laser remelting, isostatic pressing and infiltration.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 82