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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Hossam M. Abu Elanain

Previous studies on leadership quality – staff turnover relationship – have been performed mainly in Western contexts. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies on leadership quality – staff turnover relationship – have been performed mainly in Western contexts. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the nature of the relationship between the quality of leadership and staff turnover in a non-Western context in general and in the Middle East in particular. Thus, this study has two objectives: to examine the impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on staff turnover intentions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to test the mediating impact of role conflict, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on the LMX-turnover intentions relationship. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 241 employees working in 15 different service and industrial product organizations operating in Dubai. A structured questionnaire containing standard scales of LMX, role conflict, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and some demographic variables was used. After testing scales reliability and validity, the proposed hypotheses were tested using a series of separate hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

Consistent with Western studies, the study revealed that LMX played a functional impact on staff turnover intentions. Moreover, role conflict was found to play a partial role in mediating the influence of LMX on turnover intentions. Similarly, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were found to partially mediate the relationship between LMX and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of common method variance and same source bias are discussed in light of implications for future research. Nevertheless, the results show that leaders need to monitor the quality of exchange between themselves and their followers to ensure high-quality relationships are maintained.

Practical implications

The study has implications for reducing staff turnover. In general, enhancing LMX can result in lower level of employee turnover intentions. Also, managers should improve staff job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to enhance the impact of LMX on reducing turnover intention. In addition, UAE managers should reduce role conflict in order to improve the impact of LMX on turnover intention.

Originality/value

Previous studies on leadership quality – staff turnover relationship – have been performed mainly in Western contexts. This study is considered to be the first study to examine the mediating role of role conflict, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on the relationship between LMX and turnover intentions in the Middle East.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Sherine Farouk, Hossam M. Abu Elanain, Shatha M. Obeidat and Moza Al-Nahyan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational performance in the banking sector in the United Arab…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational performance in the banking sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to test the mediating impact of organizational innovation on the HRM-organizational performance relationship, and to test HRM practices as mediator of the relationship between innovation strategy and organizational innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 168 managers working in UAE banks. A structured questionnaire containing standard scales of HRM practices, innovation strategy, organizational innovation, organizational performance, and some demographic variables was used. The analytical method used to empirically test the hypotheses proposed is the structural equation modeling technique using PLS. The two steps are: the assessment of the outer model and the assessment of the inner model. Moreover, a bootstrapping method is employed in order to test indirect effects.

Findings

Results found that organizational innovation fully mediates HRM-organizational performance link. Moreover, with the existence of innovation strategy, HRM mediates the relationship between innovation strategy and organizational innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of common method bias and cross-sectional data are discussed in light of implications for future research. Nevertheless, the results provide new insights on the influence of HRM on organization innovation and performance in a non-Western context of the UAE by testing the role of some mediators in influencing the relationship between HRM and performance.

Practical implications

In general, enhancing the effectiveness of HRM can result in higher level of performance and innovation. In particular, the choice of an innovation strategy implies the use of an effective incentive-based compensation, training and development, recruitment and selection and performance appraisal.

Originality/value

This study is considered the first study to examine the mediating role of organizational innovation on the relationship between HRM and organizational performance in the Middle East. Also, the study is the first study to test the role of HRM as a mediator for the innovation strategy-innovation performance relationship in a non-Western context.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Hossam M. Abu Elanain

Previous studies conducted in Western context show weak relationship between openness to experience and performance. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies conducted in Western context show weak relationship between openness to experience and performance. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the nature of the relationship between openness and performance in a non‐Western context in general and in the Middle East in particular. The purpose of this paper is first, to examine the impact of openness to experience on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) dimensions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); and second, to test the mediating impact of work locus of control (WLOC) and interactional justice on the openness‐OCB dimensions relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 164 employees working in a variety of service organizations in Dubai. The proposed linear relationships were tested using a series of separate hierarchical regression analyses. Proposed mediation hypotheses were tested using Baron and Kenny's recommendations.

Findings

Contrary to Western studies, openness to experience was found to be strongly related to the four OCB dimensions. Also, WLOC and interactional justice were found to play a role in mediating the influence of openness to experience on OCB dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of common method bias and cross sectional data are discussed in light of implications for future research. Nevertheless, the results provide new insights on the influence of openness to experience on OCB in a non‐Western context of the UAE by testing the role of WLOC and interactional justice in influencing the relationship between openness and OCB.

Practical implications

The study has implications for enhancing OCB. In general, selecting employees high in openness to experience and internal WLOC can result in higher level of these employees' OCB performance. In addition, UAE managers should provide sufficient interactional justice in order to improve the impact of openness to experience on the OCB dimensions.

Originality/value

This paper describes what is considered to be the first study to examine the relationship between openness to experience and OCB dimensions in the Middle East, and the first study to test the role of WLOC and interactional justice as mediators for the openness‐OCB relationship in a non‐Western context.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2010

Hossam M. Abu Elanain

This study has three objectives: to examine the impact of organizational justice on work outcomes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to test the mediating impact of job…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has three objectives: to examine the impact of organizational justice on work outcomes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to test the mediating impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the justice‐turnover intention relationship, and to test distributive justice as a mediator of the relationship between procedural justice and work outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 350 employees working in five large organizations operating in Dubai. A structured questionnaire containing standard scales of distributive and procedural justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and some demographic variables was used. After testing the scales' reliability and validity, the proposed linear relationships were tested using a series of separate hierarchical regression analyses. Proposed mediation hypotheses were tested using Baron and Kenny's recommendations.

Findings

Consistent with Western studies, the study revealed that procedural justice was more strongly related to organizational commitment than distributive justice. Contrary to Western literature, the study showed that procedural justice was more strongly related to job satisfaction than distributive justice. Moreover, job satisfaction was found to play a partial role in mediating the influence of organizational justice on organizational commitment and turnover intention. Also, organizational commitment was found to fully mediate the relationship between procedural justice and turnover intention. However, it partially mediated the relationship between distributive justice and turnover intentions. Finally, distributive justice was found to mediate some of the relationships between procedural justice and work outcomes.

Practical implications

The study has implications for enhancing work outcomes. In general, enhancing organizational justice can result in a higher level of employee outcomes. Also, managers should improve staff job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to enhance the impact of both distributive and procedural justice on reducing turnover intention. In addition, UAE managers should provide sufficient distributive justice in order to improve the impact of procedural justice on the work outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention.

Originality/value

The study is considered the first to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the relationship between organizational justice and turnover intention in the Middle East. Also, the study is the first to test the role of distributive justice as a mediator for the procedural justice‐work outcomes relationship in a non‐Western context.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Hossam M. Abu Elanain

Previous studies on job characteristics have been performed mainly in Western contexts. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the important job characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies on job characteristics have been performed mainly in Western contexts. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the important job characteristics of positive job outcomes in a non‐Western context. Therefore, this research has two objectives: to assess the impact of five job characteristics on work attitudes and behaviors in the UAE, and to test the mediating impact of distributive justice on the job characteristics‐work outcomes relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reports responses of 350 employees from five large organizations operating in Dubai. Data were collected on a structured questionnaire containing standards scales of job characteristics, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, distributive justice, and some demographic variables. After testing scales reliability and validity, the proposed linear relationships were tested using a series of separate hierarchical regression analyses. Proposed mediation hypotheses were tested using Baron and Kenny's recommendations.

Findings

Consistent with studies conducted in a Western context, the study showed that skill variety and feedback have functional impacts on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Contrary to Western studies, the study reported that task identity and task significance have functional effects on work attitudes and behaviors. Autonomy also showed unexpected positive relationship with turnover intentions. Additionally, distributive justice mediates some of the relationships between job characteristics and work outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of common method bias and cross‐sectional data are discussed in the light of implications for future research. Nevertheless, the results provide new insights on the influence of job characteristics on work outcomes in a non‐Western context of the UAE. Also, the study reported evidence for the mediating impact of distributive justice on the job characteristics‐work outcomes relationship.

Practical implications

The study has implications for enhancing work behaviors and attitudes. In general, enhancing certain job characteristics can result in higher‐level employee outcomes. Also, managers should improve some of the contextual factor (i.e. distributive justice) in order to enhance the impact of job characteristics on work outcomes.

Originality/value

The study is considered to be one of the first to examine the job characteristics‐work outcomes relationship in a non‐western context of the UAE. Also, it is among the first studies to test the role of distributive justice as a mediator for the job characteristics‐work outcome relationship.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Fauzia Jabeen, Mohamed Behery and Hossam Abu Elanain

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational commitment as mediated by transactional leadership in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) context. The paper also explores the contractual status to determine if the theory remains valid, regardless of the fact whether one is employed as a contingent or permanent worker.

Design/methodology/approach

This research made a longitudinal study spanning a 24-week time period. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire prepared in English and Arabic, at three stages representing three visits to the participating companies in the UAE. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that the psychological contracts (transactional and relational) are positively related to transactional leadership. This study categorizes several consequential relationships between transactional leadership and organisational commitment. It also advocates that transactional leadership has only a fractional mediating role in relation to relational psychological contract, transactional psychological contract and organisational commitment.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that practitioners and academics alike should note that the nature of the psychological contract employed will impact upon commitment and retention.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the body of literature, being the second part of a longitudinal study that aimed at testing the mediating effect of transactional leadership on organisational commitment within the context of the UAE. In the earlier study, the intent was to analyse the role of transformational leadership as a mediator between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. Typically, transformational leadership has been found to partially mediate the above mentioned relationships. In addition, it also advocates that there may be some value in considering the employees’ contractual status with regard to the psychological contract and its impact on organisational commitment.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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