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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2010

Günther Ortmann and David Seidl

The present paper takes a look at the particularities of German strategy research over the last three decades. In contrast to much of the Anglo-Saxon research, which has…

Abstract

The present paper takes a look at the particularities of German strategy research over the last three decades. In contrast to much of the Anglo-Saxon research, which has focused on competition as a guiding concept in theorizing about strategy, German research has typically been concerned with more fundamental questions about the general relationship between organizations and their environments and, as a result, tended to be more conceptual than empirical. Researchers have been particularly influenced by the German sociological and philosophical traditions, specifically by the critical theory of Jürgen Habermas and by the systems theory of Niklas Luhmann. Also, there are authors who draw on the economic tradition of the Austrian School in order to develop a competence-based theory of the firm. Another branch builds on Anthony Giddens's structuration theory and Jacques Derrida's philosophy of deconstruction. As we will demonstrate, much of the research has been concerned with fundamental theoretical tensions: evolution vs. planning, selection vs. compensation, cognitive–instrumental rationality vs. moral–practical rationality, etc. We note that, as a consequence, much of German strategy research shows a particular interest in paradoxa and oxymora (such as ‘planned evolution’, ‘productive misunderstandings’ or ‘unfocused monitoring’). This paper will identify and explore important strands of German strategy research and discuss its particularities compared to mainstream strategy research in the United States.

Details

The Globalization of Strategy Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-898-8

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Horst Steinmann

The paper aims to integrate central ideas about corporate ethics into an overall framework of corporate governance in modern market economies. A proposal for an adequate…

1918

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to integrate central ideas about corporate ethics into an overall framework of corporate governance in modern market economies. A proposal for an adequate understanding of corporate ethics is outlined and, with this understanding as a background, problems of justification and implementation of corporate ethics are to be discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

In its philosophical part, the paper draws heavily on ideas developed around the German philosophical school of “methodological constructivism” (not to be confused with “radical constructivism”) which goes back to the works of Lorenzen, Mittelstraß, Kambartel, Gethmann, Janich, Wohlrapp et al. and which unfolds and defends a concept which C.F. Gethmann proposed to designate as “cultural pragmatism” as against the concept of “natural pragmatism” which originated in the USA. In its management part the paper relies on an interpretive approach to understand (reconstruct) the “raison d'être” of the private corporation in today's market economies and its implications for management and management theory.

Findings

The process of justification of norms, intended to give useful orientation to our common life, must start on the pragmatic (instead of the semantic) level by reconstructing those basic differences and notions which have (thus far) proven as being successful for the coordination human actions. This is in our case the difference between peaceful conflict resolution (which is dialogic in character) and the use of power (in its manyfold forms). Corporate ethics is, thus, understood here as a dialogical concept which contributes to the public interest (and national law) of making peace in and between societies more stable, and this by peacefully solving such conflicts with corporate stakeholders which result (or may result) from the choice of means (strategy) with which a corporation tries to make profits. It is in this capacity that corporate ethics adds a second dimension to the economic responsibility of management of private corporations which is to make sufficient profits (for the firm to survive under competitive conditions). This second dimension is part of what is called today corporate social responsibility. Integrating corporate ethics into the management process (planning, organizing, staffing, directing, control) requires that the principle of “primacy of corporate ethics” dominates all decisions and activities of the corporation, especially in dilemma situations.

Originality/value

The paper is part of the old dispute (in management theory, company law, etc.) about the “modern corporation and private property” stimulated (anew) through the seminal work of Berle/Means as early as 1932 and, later on, through institutional economics (“corporate governance”). It contributes to this discussion the proposal to integrate some (new) philosophical ideas of “cultural pragmatism” (a term proposed by the German philosopher C.F. Gethmann to mark the difference to the well‐known “natural pragmatism” which originated in the USA) into management theory; moreover, some steps are made towards a conceptional framework of corporate ethics with the aim in mind to gain a new understanding of the relationship between private business and the public interest.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Sabine Urban

419

Abstract

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

John C. Edwards, William McKinley and Gyewan Moon

Building on the enactment perspective and past work on the self‐fulfilling prophecy, this paper explores how organizational decline can be enacted through self‐fulfilling…

Abstract

Building on the enactment perspective and past work on the self‐fulfilling prophecy, this paper explores how organizational decline can be enacted through self‐fulfilling prophecies of decline. We present two self‐fulfilling prophecy‐based models of organizational decline, one in which decline is enacted unintentionally through the predictions of an organization's managers, and a second in which decline is enacted unintentionally through the predictions of external constituencies. We articulate propositions that capture the dynamics of each model and that are intended as a platform for future empirical research. We also discuss the implications of our theoretical framework for future theory development on the causes of organizational decline, and offer suggestions for managers who wish to avoid organizational decline.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Diego Amadeu F. Torres

It has been usual to prefer an enrichment pattern independent of the mesh when applying singular functions in the Generalized/eXtended finite element method (G/XFEM). This…

Abstract

Purpose

It has been usual to prefer an enrichment pattern independent of the mesh when applying singular functions in the Generalized/eXtended finite element method (G/XFEM). This choice, when modeling crack tip singularities through extrinsic enrichment, has been understood as the only way to surpass the typical poor convergence rate obtained with the finite element method (FEM), on uniform or quasi-uniform meshes conforming to the crack. Then, the purpose of this study is to revisit the topological enrichment strategy in the light of a higher-order continuity obtained with a smooth partition of unity (PoU). Aiming to verify the smoothness' impacts on the blending phenomenon, a series of numerical experiments is conceived to compare the two GFEM versions: the conventional one, based on piecewise continuous PoU's, and another which considers PoU's with high-regularity.

Design/methodology/approach

The stress approximations right at the crack tip vicinity are qualified by focusing on crack severity parameters. For this purpose, the material forces method originated from the configurational mechanics is employed. Some attempts to improve solution using different polynomial enrichment schemes, besides the singular one, are discussed aiming to verify the transition/blending effects. A classical two-dimensional problem of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) is solved, considering the pure mode I and the mixed-mode loadings.

Findings

The results reveal that, in the presence of smooth PoU's, the topological enrichment can still be considered as a suitable strategy for extrinsic enrichment. First, because such an enrichment pattern still can treat the crack independently of the mesh and deliver some advantage in terms of convergence rates, under certain conditions, when compared to the conventional FEM. Second, because the topological pattern demands fewer degrees of freedom and impacts conditioning less than the geometrical strategy.

Originality/value

Several outputs are presented, considering estimations for the J–integral and the angle of probable crack advance, this last computed from two different strategies to monitoring blending/transition effects, besides some comments about conditioning. Both h- and p-behaviors are displayed to allow a discussion from different points of view concerning the topological enrichment in smooth GFEM.

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Horst Avenarius

This is a general review of the German concepts and provisions for the self‐regulation of PR practitioners. They differ from the various systems published so far in this…

Abstract

Purpose

This is a general review of the German concepts and provisions for the self‐regulation of PR practitioners. They differ from the various systems published so far in this Journal (Vol. 8 No.1, 2003). The purpose of the paper is a contribution to the actual debate about the most appropriate approach to tackle ethical problems of the guild.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first describes the structure and the procedures of the German PR Council, outlining a number of peculiarities: this body censures not only members of the supporting associations but non‐members and non‐PR professionals as well; it acts publicly; it pronounces and publishes verdicts and rebukes, and it issues specific rules of conduct in the case of uncertainties. Consequently the paper deals with the methods of conceiving codes and guidelines. It explains the differences which German practitioners discern between ethical and quality provisions. Within this context it discusses the German reservations with regard to some of the proposals of the newly formulated “Global Protocol on Ethics in Public Relations”.

Findings

This proposition induces a discussion about the ethical principles which guide the Council's endeavours. The paper proposes a shift in the moral assessment of the four Grunig models from dialogue to information activities as the prime moral challenges. As a result of these findings the paper states the Council's legitimacy.

Originality/value

Finally, the paper reports the various reactions of those who have been rebuked. It gives an evaluation of the Council's influence on the practice of PR in Germany based on new surveys and facts. The German experiences with the enforcement of codes are summarised as an ongoing process of self‐assurance of the PR guild and its public esteem.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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