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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Xiaoyu Li, Osamu Yoshie and Daoping Huang

The purpose of this paper is to detect the existence of unknown wireless devices which could result negative means to the privacy. The perceptual layer of internet of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect the existence of unknown wireless devices which could result negative means to the privacy. The perceptual layer of internet of things (IoTs) suffers the most significant privacy disclosing because of limited hardware resources, huge quantity and wide varieties of sensing equipment. Determining whether there are unknown wireless devices in the communicating environment is an effective method to implement the privacy protection for the perceptual layer of IoTs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use horizontal hierarchy slicing (HHS) algorithm to extract the morphology feature of signals. Meanwhile, partitioning around medoids algorithm is used to cluster the HHS curves and agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is utilized to distinguish final results. Link quality indicator (LQI) data are chosen as the network parameters in this research.

Findings

Nowadays data encryption and anonymization are the most common methods to protect private information for the perceptual layer of IoTs. However, these efforts are ineffective to avoid privacy disclosure if the communication environment exists unknown wireless nodes which could be malicious devices. How to detect these unknown wireless devices in the communication environment is a valuable topic in the further research.

Originality/value

The authors derive an innovative and passive unknown wireless devices detection method based on the mathematical morphology and machine learning algorithms to detect the existence of unknown wireless devices which could result negative means to the privacy. The simulation results show their effectiveness in privacy protection.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

Margaret Yap

This paper aims to explore an extensive set of determinants of earnings and to offer recent empirical evidence of their effects on gender and racial earnings gaps.

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1101

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore an extensive set of determinants of earnings and to offer recent empirical evidence of their effects on gender and racial earnings gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

Most previous studies looked at gender and racial comparisons independently of each other. This study extends previous studies by considering the interaction between gender and race. Using administrative data from a large Canadian firm, this paper explores the determinants of earnings based on a standard human capital model, comparing the earnings of white females, minority males and minority females with their white male counterparts. Both the dummy variable approach and a decomposition analysis are employed.

Findings

The results show that ranking in the organizational hierarchy accounts for most of the differences in gender and racial earnings, and ranking, together with human capital and job characteristics variables, explains over 90 percent of the earnings gap.

Research limitations/implications

The analyses in the paper are based on data from a Canadian organization with nation‐wide operations. The findings may not apply to small or medium sized enterprises in Canada and in other non‐Western economies.

Practical implications

To eliminate the earnings gap, equal pay programs need to be supplemented by effective employers' programs and policies targeted at equal advancement opportunity.

Originality/value

The paper uses firm‐level data, which provides natural controls for variations across firms and allows for more in‐depth analysis of the impact of various factors on earnings differentials.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Wei Sun, Tao Jiang and Feng Lin

A processing algorithm for freeform fabrication of heterogeneous structures is presented. The algorithm was developed based on the heterogeneous fabrication structural…

Abstract

A processing algorithm for freeform fabrication of heterogeneous structures is presented. The algorithm was developed based on the heterogeneous fabrication structural model, which was constructed from the STL based multi‐material volume regions and with material identifications. The reasoning Boolean operation based modelling approach was used to construct the heterogeneous CAD assembly and to output the needed STL format. Procedures for generating the database hierarchy and the storage of the heterogeneous structural model, and derivation for developing the processing algorithm for layered fabrication of heterogeneous structure are presented. The developed algorithm was applied to a heterogeneous structure consisting of two discrete material volumes, and the detailed processing path is described.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Cong Bang Pham, Kah Fai Leong, Tze Chiun Lim and Kerm Sin Chian

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new bio‐plotter using a rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique and to investigate its potential applications in fabricating…

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1234

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new bio‐plotter using a rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique and to investigate its potential applications in fabricating tissue scaffolds.

Design/methodology/approach

The development of cryogenic bio‐plotters including design steps of hardware as well as software is addressed. Effects of structural parameters and process parameters on the properties of tissue scaffolds are demonstrated through simulation and experimental results.

Findings

The paper finds that the RFP method is suitable to fabricate macro‐ and micro‐porous scaffolds, especially for temperature‐sensitive polymers. In addition, through simulation and experiment results, it also shows that macro‐ and micro‐porous properties could be manipulated by structural parameters and process parameters, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This paper shows that the chamber temperature is an important process parameter that can provide the means to control the micro‐porous structure of the scaffold. However, if the temperature is set too high, the fiber is frozen so rapidly that it cannot be fused with other fibers of the previous layer. On the other hand, if the temperature is too low, the fiber is not solidified fast enough. So, the chamber temperature, together with extruding pressure and nozzle velocity, must be optimized, which will be further investigated in future work.

Originality/value

The RFP technique is successfully proposed to construct 3D tissue scaffolds. In addition, a new cryogenic bio‐plotter is designed and developed, in which general algorithms of rapid prototyping method are presented and implemented, facilitating the fabrication of tissue scaffolds with various cross‐hatching patterns in a RFP process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2010

Lorenzo Gui

Purpose – After tracing the development of the global value chains (GVC) approach, the chapter argues that by refocusing on the international strategies of lead firms it…

Abstract

Purpose – After tracing the development of the global value chains (GVC) approach, the chapter argues that by refocusing on the international strategies of lead firms it is possible to bring location specificity issues into play and contribute to retrieve a distinctive international content to the GVC governance theory.

Design/methodology/approach – The chapter discusses the GVC governance theory, drawing from recent contributions in the field of international business (IB).

Findings – Although designed to account for the rise of new inter-firm networks controlled by international lead firms, the new GVC theory of governance somehow lacks a distinct international content and, privileging transactional constraints, falls short of explicitly considering variations in lead firm structural characteristics and strategies. An alternative governance schema is then proposed, taking explicitly into account the strategic evaluations that lead firms carry out with regard to their internal resources compared to suppliers’.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) – The chapter provides the outlines of a new promising international research agenda for GVC researchers. Additional research is needed to further investigate the relation between location specificity, the strategic motives to go global and the international organisation of the value chain.

Practical implications (if applicable) – The alternative governance schema proposed in the chapter aspires to represent a simple tool aimed at supporting managers in the establishment of the appropriate boundaries of the firm.

Originality/value – The chapter shows that both IB research and GVC analysis could greatly benefit from reasoned cross-fertilisation.

Details

Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-088-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

S.H. Choi and S. Samavedam

Discusses a virtual prototyping (VP) system developed for simulation of rapid prototyping processes. It enables a designer to visualise and optimise an RP process with a…

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1752

Abstract

Discusses a virtual prototyping (VP) system developed for simulation of rapid prototyping processes. It enables a designer to visualise and optimise an RP process with a set of process parameters. The visualisation of a virtually simulated part prior to physical fabrication helps reduce unwanted prototyping iterations. The implementation techniques involved in the development of the VP system and the considerations in selecting virtual reality interfaces are described. The visualisation capability of the system is demonstrated by comparing virtual parts with the corresponding physical prototypes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Peter J. Buckley

This chapter analyses the rise of the ‘global factory’ – the globally integrated network centred on a focal multinational enterprise. This is a response to the increased…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the rise of the ‘global factory’ – the globally integrated network centred on a focal multinational enterprise. This is a response to the increased volatility of the global economy and involves the creation of systems that allow flexibility in both the location and the control of increasingly ‘fine-sliced’ activities, the avoidance of monopoly and the evolution of new management skills. Foreign direct investment is only one strategy amongst several utilised by globally integrated multinationals.

Details

The Future of Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-555-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Irappa Basappa Hunagund, V. Madhusudanan Pillai and Kempaiah U.N.

The purpose of this paper is to review, evaluate and classify the academic research that has been published in facility layout problems (FLPs) and to analyse how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review, evaluate and classify the academic research that has been published in facility layout problems (FLPs) and to analyse how researches and practices on FLPs are.

Design/methodology/approach

The review is based on 166 papers published from 1953 to 2021 in international peer-reviewed journals. The literature review on FLPs is presented under broader headings of discrete space and continuous space FLPs. The important formulations of FLPs under static and dynamic environments represented in the discrete and continuous space are presented. The articles reported in the literature on various representations of facilities for the continuous space Unequal Area Facility Layout Problems (UA-FLPs) are summarized. Discussed and commented on adaptive and robust approaches for dynamic environment FLPs. Highlighted the application of meta-heuristic solution methods for FLPs of a larger size.

Findings

It is found that most of the earlier research adopted the discrete space for the formulation of FLPs. This type of space representation for FLPs mostly assumes an equal area for all facilities. UA-FLPs represented in discrete space yield irregular shape facilities. It is also observed that the recent works consider the UA-FLPs in continuous space. The solution of continuous space UA-FLPs is more accurate and realistic. Some of the recent works on UA-FLPs consider the flexible bay structure (FBS) due to its advantages over the other representations. FBS helps the proper design of aisle structure in the detailed layout plan. Further, the recent articles reported in the literature consider the dynamic environment for both equal and unequal area FLPs to cope with the changing market environment. It is also found that FLPs are Non-deterministic Polynomial-complete problems, and hence, they set the challenges to researchers to develop efficient meta-heuristic methods to solve the bigger size FLPs in a reasonable time.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the extremely large number of papers on FLPs, a few papers may have inadvertently been missed. The facility layout design research domain is extremely vast which covers other areas such as cellular layouts, pick and drop points and aisle structure design. This research review on FLPs did not consider the papers published on cellular layouts, pick and drop points and aisle structure design. Despite the possibility of not being all-inclusive, the authors firmly believe that most of the papers published on FLPs are covered and the general picture presented on various approaches and parameters of FLPs in this paper are precise and trustworthy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper reviews and classifies the literature on FLPs for the first time under the broader headings of discrete space and continuous space representations. Many important formulations of FLPs under static and dynamic environments represented in the discrete and continuous space are presented. This paper also provides the observations from the literature review and identifies the prospective future directions.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

A. Macfarlane, S.E. Robertson and J.A. Mccann

The progress of parallel computing in Information Retrieval (IR) is reviewed. In particular we stress the importance of the motivation in using parallel computing for text…

Abstract

The progress of parallel computing in Information Retrieval (IR) is reviewed. In particular we stress the importance of the motivation in using parallel computing for text retrieval. We analyse parallel IR systems using a classification defined by Rasmussen and describe some parallel IR systems. We give a description of the retrieval models used in parallel information processing. We describe areas of research which we believe are needed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

George K. Chako

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…

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5235

Abstract

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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