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This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime…
This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime among youth. Specifically, we exploit differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. We use monthly arrest data from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports to estimate the effects of welfare reform implementation on drug-related arrests among 15- to 17-year-old teens exposed to welfare reform. The findings, based on numerous different model specifications, suggest that welfare reform had no statistically significant effect on teen drug arrests. Most estimates were positive and suggestive of a small (3%) increase in arrests.
We use postpartum survey data linked to medical records and city-level drug prices to estimate the demand for illicit drugs among pregnant women. We find that a $10…
We use postpartum survey data linked to medical records and city-level drug prices to estimate the demand for illicit drugs among pregnant women. We find that a $10 increase in the retail price of a gram of pure cocaine decreases illicit drug use by 12–15%. The estimated price effects for heroin are lower than for cocaine and are less robust across alternative model specifications. This study provides the first estimates of the effects of drug prices on prenatal drug use and yields important information about the potential of drug enforcement as a tool for reducing illicit drug use among pregnant women.
Six papers on individual behaviour are included in this volume. The first three are devoted to the determinants of individual consumption behaviour, the next two analyse the impact of individual substance use on labour market performance and criminal activities, respectively, while the last one challenges recent research, which claims that the increase in the prescription of antidepressants is the major factor behind the observed reduction in suicide rates during the 1990s.
Institutional ethnography (IE) is a sociology that focuses on the everyday world as problematic. As a theory/method of discovery, it focuses on how the work people do is…
Institutional ethnography (IE) is a sociology that focuses on the everyday world as problematic. As a theory/method of discovery, it focuses on how the work people do is organized and coordinated by text-mediated and text-regulated social organization. Actor-network Theory (ANT) is a theory/method that is concerned with how realities get enacted. ANT focuses on a multiplicity of human and nonhuman actors (e.g., computers, documents, and laboratory equipment) and how the relations between them are constituted and how they are made to hang together to create certain realities. In this chapter, we discuss some of the similarities and differences between IE and ANT. We begin with an overview of IE and ANT and focus on their ontological and epistemological “shifts.” We then discuss some of the similarities and differences between IE and ANT, particularly from an IE stance. In doing so, we put these approaches into dialog and allude to some of the potential benefits and pitfalls of combining these approaches.
This paper aims to map the creation and evolution of centering resonance analysis (CRA). This method was an innovative approach developed to conduct textual content…
This paper aims to map the creation and evolution of centering resonance analysis (CRA). This method was an innovative approach developed to conduct textual content analysis in a semi-automatic, theory-informed and analytically rigorous way. Nevertheless, despite its robust procedures to analyze documents and interviews, CRA is still broadly unknown and scarcely used in management research.
To track CRA’s development, the roadmapping approach was properly adapted. The traditional time-based multi-layered map format was customized to depict, graphically, the results obtained from a systematic literature review of the main CRA publications.
In total, 19 papers were reviewed, from the method’s introduction in 2002 to its last tracked methodological development. In all, 26 types of CRA analysis were identified and grouped in five categories. The most innovative procedures in each group were discussed and exemplified. Finally, a CRA methodological roadmap was presented, including a layered typology of the publications, in terms of their focus and innovativeness; the number of analysis conducted in each publication; references for further CRA development; a segmentation and description of the main publication periods; main turning points; citation-based relationships; and four possible future scenarios for CRA as a method.
This paper offers a unique and comprehensive review of CRA’s development, favoring its broader use in management research. In addition, it develops an adapted version of the roadmapping approach, customized for mapping methodological innovations over time.
The nature and purpose of the catalogue has been the focus of considerable and vigorous debate during the past decade. This article attempts to identify those topics which have been the most significant causes of the debate and discusses: the need for catalogues; users and non‐users; the nature of the bibliographic record and catalogue entry; the development of UK and LC MARC; standards, including exchange formats, the development of the ISBD, and the concept of UBC (Universal Bibliographic Control); the Anglo‐American Cataloguing Rules and the controversy over the implementation of AACR2; COM catalogues; subsets of the MARC record; co‐operatives, networks and resource sharing; and the development of subject access methods better suited to COM and online catalogues. The relevance of catalogue research activities at Bath University and elsewhere is highlighted.