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Smoke and dust emissions from industrial furnaces can do great harm to the environment and human health. This paper aims to analyze the morphology, diameter and elements…
Smoke and dust emissions from industrial furnaces can do great harm to the environment and human health. This paper aims to analyze the morphology, diameter and elements of the submicron particles from the furnace flues and the nearby ambient air by using two typical industrial furnaces, the sintering furnace and the electric furnace.
Two typical industrial furnaces, the sintering furnace and the electric furnace, were chosen in this study, to analyze the morphology, diameter and elements of the submicron particles from the furnace flues and the near-by ambient air.
The results show that the particles from the two furnaces are mainly in the small sizes of 0.3-0.6 μm. Particles from sintering plant flue are mainly spherical and rich in K and Cl, whereas those from the electric plant flue are mainly particles rich in metal elements, such as Zn and Fe, and have different morphology.
The particles in the atmosphere nearby the two furnaces contain aged particles from the flue, lots of spherical particles, rectangle particles and various aggregations. The elements of those particles are complex.
Severe airborne particulate pollution frequently occurs over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. To better understand the characteristics of carbonaceous…
Severe airborne particulate pollution frequently occurs over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. To better understand the characteristics of carbonaceous components in particulate matter (PM) over the NCP region.
PM samples were collected at a typical area affected by industrial emissions in Handan, in January 2016. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM of different size ranges (i.e. PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) were measured. The concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) were estimated by the EC tracer method.
The results show that the concentration of OC ranged from 14.9 μg m−3 to 108.4 μg m−3, and that of EC ranged from 4.0 μg m−3 to 19.4μg m−3, when PM2.5 changed from 58.0μg m−3 to 251.1μg m−3 during haze days, and the carbonaceous aerosols most distributed in PM2.5 rather than large fraction. The concentrations of OC and EC PM2.5 correlated better (r = 0.7) than in PM2.5−10 and PM>10, implying that primary emissions were dominant sources of OC and EC in PM2.5. The mean ratios of OC/EC in PM2.5, PM2.5–10 and PM>10 were 4.4 ± 2.1, 3.6 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.7, respectively. Based on estimation, SOC accounted for 16.3%, 22.0% and 9.1% in PM2.5, PM2.5–10 and PM>10 respectively.
The ratio of SOC/OC (48.2%) in PM2.5 was higher in Handan than those (28%–32%) in other megacities, e.g. Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang in the NCP, suggesting that the formation of SOC contributed significantly to OC. The mean mass absorption efficiencies of EC (MACEC) in PM10 and TSP were 3.4 m2 g−1 (1.9–6.6 m2 g−1) and 2.9 m2 g−1 (1.6–5.6 m2 g−1), respectively, both of which had similar variation patterns to those of OC/EC and SOC/OC.
This study aims to focus on the submicron particles (with diameter of 0.2-1.0 μm) of the ambient air from a coal-fired power plant. A systematic examination of their…
This study aims to focus on the submicron particles (with diameter of 0.2-1.0 μm) of the ambient air from a coal-fired power plant. A systematic examination of their morphology, particle size and chemical element will be analyzed, so as to provide more scientific information and theoretical basis for the formation and control method of inhalable particles, as well as data support for environmental impact and ecological effects assessments.
In this paper, the morphology, size distribution and elemental characteristics of submicron particles from ambient air of a coal-fired power plant are studied by single particle analysis.
The results show that atmospheric particles in coal-fired power plant are mainly spherical particles, and most of them are soot aggregates adhered or coated with other particles with few rectangle particles. The particles collected in the afternoon and evening are mainly of spherical particles, and small-sized particles collected in the morning are mainly spherical ones, while the overall concentration is larger than that of the spherical particles in the size range above 0.5 μm. The results indicated that the larger-sized spherical particles have a lower concentration.
Coal-fired power plants are still the main supply of electricity in China, but the inhalable particles, especially sub-micron particles (0.1-1.0 μm) cannot be effectively captured by the dust removal device from the coal-fired power plant. Thus, a large amount of inhalable particles is emitted into the atmosphere, becoming the major air pollutants in China.
The characteristics of fine aerosol particles were investigated at an urban site in Beijing during an atmospheric pollution accumulation process. The organics, sulfate and…
The characteristics of fine aerosol particles were investigated at an urban site in Beijing during an atmospheric pollution accumulation process. The organics, sulfate and BC were the dominant components in fine particles in the clear air, and the concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium increased during the haze formation. The mass concentrations of primary species (chloride and BC) in the clear air were similar to those in the haze. The morphology, mixing state and aging status of fine particles in the clear air were different from those in the haze. Accumulation secondary particles were detected with high frequency and accumulation secondary particles with coating were rare in all the samples. The frequency of soot particles with coating in the clear air was lower than that in the haze. The number ratio of accumulation secondary particles to soot containing particles changed from 3:1 in clear air to 2:3 in the haze. These results indicated that the number frequency of accumulation secondary particles decreased while that of the soot containing particles increased with the air pollutants accumulating. The core-shell ratio of coated soot particles ranged between 0.1–0.6 was 62% in the clear air, and 82% in the haze. The mode sizes for the core and the shell of soot particles were 0.35 μm and 0.55 μm in the clear air, and 0.35 μm and 1.0 μm in the haze, respectively. The mean diameters of the core and the shell were 0.3 μm and was 0.6 μm in the clear air, and 0.4 μm and 1.0 μm in the haze, respectively. These results indicated that with the air pollution accumulating, the frequency of accumulation secondary particles decreased while the soot containing particles increased. The aging process of soot particles was stronger in the haze, and resulted in greater hygroscopicity for soot particles in the haze.
Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in…
Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in the mining and industrial city of Handan. During the smog episode, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reach up to 980 μg/m3 and 660 μg/m3, respectively. Under SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis, the particles consist of soot, fly ash and minerals, which could be from coal mines, power plants, steel mills and auto exhausts. Compared with the samples collected on a clear day, the increased PM10 particles are mainly composed of organic matter, especially aromatic compounds. The Pb content in PM10 of the smog day reaches 507.4 ng/m3 and could be caused by vehicle emissions.
This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18…
This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18 bench samples were taken from Huangling Mine 2. The average content of barium (3701 mg/kg) was about 23 times higher than that of common world coals. Terrestrial higher plants were the main coal-forming parent material. Relying on the parameters of OEP, Pr/Ph and so on, there is little correlation between organic geochemical characteristics and barium enrichment. Therefore, organic material has little influence on the process of coal-forming and the enrichment of barium.