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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Mollie T. McQuillan

The purpose of this paper was to examine the robustness of the findings on educational advantage among sexual minority men.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the robustness of the findings on educational advantage among sexual minority men.

Methodology/approach

Using nationally representative data (AddHealth) and controlling for other predictors of academic attainment, we examine the educational attainment of sexual minority males by using hierarchical regression and logistical regression for two measures of sexual identity.

Findings

We find robust differences in educational attainment across analyses and sexual orientation constructs. Our results show sexual minority identity predicts up to a year more of education for male respondents and consistently reporting male homosexuals have an even greater advantage, more than one and a half years, compared to inconsistent responders.

Originality/value

Our results extend previous research on educational outcomes for nonheterosexual adolescents, suggesting there are sustained differences in long-term educational outcomes for nonheterosexual adults and supporting earlier analyses of the AddHealth survey data. This study contributes to the existing literature by examining educational attainment as measured by continuous years and cut-points, using two measures of sexual orientation, providing estimates for all Wave 4 sexual minority identities (i.e., not collapsing any sexual minority category), and controlling for adolescent school geography and type. Moreover, we find early identification of sexual orientation and stability of sexual orientation may be an important source of variation in identifying LGBTQ adolescents who are at greater academic risk or who may benefit from increased social support.

Details

Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-613-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Linda S. Al-Abbas and Ahmad S. Haider

The purpose of this study is to examine the most frequent countries and prevalent discourses in the context of homosexuality in the headlines of Arabic-language media outlets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the most frequent countries and prevalent discourses in the context of homosexuality in the headlines of Arabic-language media outlets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study combined both corpus linguistic (CL) quantitative and critical discourse analysis (CDA) qualitative approaches to analyse five thousand two hundred news headlines that were retrieved from the Factiva news database from 2010 to 2019.

Findings

There were six main categories of subjects covered by the media in the context of homosexuality, namely crime, extremist groups, legislation, authority figures and scandals, culture and countries. The analysis showed that the countries whose laws criminalize homosexuals were more frequent than those seen to be supportive of homosexuals. The findings revealed that homosexuals are under-covered in the Arab media, and whenever they are present in the news reports, they are depicted negatively.

Research limitations/implications

This study examined the representation of homosexuals in Arabic headlines from 2010 to 2019. Future researchers may investigate their construction in the body of the articles in different periods and languages.

Practical implications

The present research has implications regarding the necessity of objectivity in covering news about minority groups without being influenced by the stock of ideas circulating in the culture where media outlets report.

Social implications

The social implications include enhancing the principles and values of solidarity and respecting all groups in society.

Originality/value

Although there is considerable literature on the representation of homosexuals in media outlets, the number of articles that investigated the same concept in the Arab region is relatively limited to the best knowledge of the researchers. Therefore, this study can add great significance to existing knowledge as it tackles a limitedly investigated topic in the Arab world.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Isaac Cheah, Min Teah, Sean Lee and Zachary Davies

This study aims to provide a conceptual framework to investigate the effects of consumer attitudes toward brands and attitudes toward a series of fashion oriented print…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a conceptual framework to investigate the effects of consumer attitudes toward brands and attitudes toward a series of fashion oriented print advertisements with and without homosexual themes, on consumer willingness to buy from brands. The influence of consumer skepticism and inferences of manipulative intent (IMI) as moderators between these variables is also investigated. This study also closes various research gaps identified within the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered survey instrument was designed using established scales to collect data through an online questionnaire. Fashion advertisements namely one advertisement representing homosexual content and one heterosexual advertisement were used in the study within subjects (e.g. male and female) design. Statistical techniques, specifically factor analysis, regressions and multiple regressions are used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings indicate significant and positive relationships between attitude toward the brand and advertisement as well as willingness to buy for both males and females. The moderation analyses noted that consumer skepticism enhanced the relationship between attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the advertisement, but weakened the relationship between attitude toward the advertisement and willingness to buy, only for the female cohort. Similarly, a weakening effect of IMI was noted on the relationship between attitude toward the advertisement and willingness to buy.

Research limitations/implications

The current study contributes to the literature on homosexual imagery in advertising. In applying the persuasion knowledge model, the current study demonstrates the applicability of the model to homosexual themes in fashion advertising while accounting for the effects of consumer skepticism and IMI.

Practical implications

The current research highlights the importance of accounting for gender differences when introducing homosexual themes in fashion advertisements. Heterosexual males and females differ in their attitudes toward homosexual themes in fashion advertising, as well as how skeptical they are with regards to the motives of the advertiser. While a great deal of acceptance is already present in today's society, these differences still need to be accounted for in future fashion advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

The present study represents an examination of consumer responses to a series of fashion advertisements in Australia and provides useful implications to marketers of fashion products. The study further contributes to the literature on consumer skepticism and IMI with regards to cause-related advertising.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Douglas L. Fugate

Applies four market segmentation criteria to the homosexualpopulation. Determines that the homosexual community does not yetsufficiently satisfy these expectations in many…

Abstract

Applies four market segmentation criteria to the homosexual population. Determines that the homosexual community does not yet sufficiently satisfy these expectations in many product markets and that it is unlikely that any marketing changes will occur in the near future. Yet suggests that marketers should consider homosexuals as part of their contingent marketing strategy.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Carlos Monterrubio

This paper aims to offer a critical review of the existing research on the relationships between tourism and male homosexual identities and, based on a sociocultural…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer a critical review of the existing research on the relationships between tourism and male homosexual identities and, based on a sociocultural perspective, suggestions for specific directions in future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a review of the literature that focuses on two independent yet intersecting topics: tourism and homosexuality and identity formation processes.

Findings

Specific directions for future research are offered regarding the role that tourism plays in homosexual identity development. The proposed paths for future research include the tangible contributions of tourism to the stages of homosexual tourists’ identity development and the (re)construction, negotiation and globalisation of homosexual and queer identities through tourists’ cultural interactions. Two further suggested directions are the significance of tourism for non-Western homosexual tourists and tourism’s impacts on local homosexual identities.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based solely on the existing literature on male homosexuality and mostly on studies published in English.

Originality/value

The research included a critical analysis of the commonly assumed significance of tourism in homosexual identity formation. The results provide directions for future empirical research and calls for a solid theoretical foundation that allows researchers to demonstrate, understand and explain how tourism contributes to gay and queer identities.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Geoffrey Mark Caldwell

The homosexual community has undoubtedly been assuming senior managerial positions of authority within government for generations, Clinard (1968). However, homosexuals are…

Abstract

The homosexual community has undoubtedly been assuming senior managerial positions of authority within government for generations, Clinard (1968). However, homosexuals are now moving more publicly, rather than surreptitiously into the echelons of managerial roles within the bureaucracy, (Clinard, 1968, Barker & Allen,, 1976, Wofford, 1993). This research suggests that this homosexual openness has in some cases created an environmental despotism where the homosexual managerial minority may openly and selectively discriminate towards their fraternal association and specifically against the heterosexual majority. Is there now the means, for homosexual managers to impose retribution for the chronicled persecution of homosexuals by heterosexuals? If so, could this retribution be leading to homosexual managers replicating the ideologies of the “old boys’ club” by creating their separatist “guys’ club”. Would this sex-oriented preference discrimination resemble a somewhat disturbing paradox: Discrimination defined by sex inclination and such discrimination which ironically was associated with the powerful heterosexual males, and which they mysteriously fought vigorously and actively against?

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Kerstin Braun, Thomas Cleff and Nadine Walter

The purpose of this paper is to research lesbian fashion consumption in order to draw conclusions on the attractiveness of the lesbian target segment for the fashion…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to research lesbian fashion consumption in order to draw conclusions on the attractiveness of the lesbian target segment for the fashion industry. So far, lesbians’ fashion consumption behaviour has hardly been researched. However, an evinced lesbian stereotype exists which describes doctrinal feminists with an antipathy against consumption in general and fashion shopping in particular. In contrast, gay men have been identified quite contrary as an attractive market segment and marketers have started to particularly target this so-called “dream market”.

Design/methodology/approach

First, qualitative semi-structured interviews (n=18) were conducted to gain first insights into fashion consumption behaviour of lesbians. Second, a quantitative online survey (n=879) was carried out to generate more detailed findings. Due to the difficult reachability of the homosexual consumer target group, the segment’s high online media affinity was used and data collection was conducted through popular German homepages targeted to homosexuals (esp. “queer.de” and “lesarion.de”). The research investigated fashion-consciousness, willingness to pay, brand-affinity, and openness to homosexual marketing. In addition, influencing factors – such as the affinity towards the homosexual scene, career orientation, income, age, status of coming out, and number of inhabitants of the city of residence – have been researched.

Findings

Results prove that lesbians are an equally attractive and financially interesting market segment for fashion marketers as gays. Lesbians have a similarly high fashion-consciousness and willingness to pay, and an even higher brand-affinity – but a lower openness to homosexual marketing than gays. Especially scene-affine femme lesbians with a high-paid professional career are a highly attractive market segment. The study proves the attractiveness of the lesbian target segment for fashion marketing and debunks the myth of the consumption-averse lesbian stereotype.

Practical implications

This paper provides evidence on the attractiveness of the lesbian market segment for the fashion industry. Due to its size and financial attractiveness, the question whether to target lesbians with a specifically adopted marketing mix should be raised.

Originality/value

Research on lesbians’ fashion consumption behaviour in general is very scarce and on fashion consumption behaviour in particular is almost non-existent. This study is a first attempt to analyse the major areas of fashion consumption for the German market.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Dean Karalekas

Homosexual activity in the military has long been dealt with harshly in the military by superiors and peers, yet officially at least, homosexuals seem to be largely…

Abstract

Homosexual activity in the military has long been dealt with harshly in the military by superiors and peers, yet officially at least, homosexuals seem to be largely ignored in the ROC army, almost as much are they are genuinely accepted by Taiwan society. Thus this dimension can be assessed as being in the realm of the postmodern military. Taiwan is a traditional Confucian-influenced society, and yet it recently became the first Asian nation to recognize same-sex marriage. The military, moreover, is a very conservative, risk-averse institution within society, and the way in which homosexuals are treated is illustrative of civil–military relations. The issue of homosexuals serving in the ROC military has not received the frank discussion that it deserves, neither in the academic literature nor in wider society. The vast majority (58.5 percent) of respondents in the current research expressed a preference for what essentially amounts to a “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy as had been practiced in the United States military until the turn of the century. An impressive 30.8 percent expressed the belief that homosexuals should be allowed to serve openly, while just 10.7 percent said they believed that homosexuals should be kicked out of the military. Overall, these results confirm what has already been observed and paint Taiwan as a nation that is remarkably tolerant of homosexuality – especially in comparison with its East Asian neighbors. By connecting with the media, popular culture, and postmodernism, gay/lesbian/queer movements on the island have succeeded in presenting their community as avant-garde, trendy, and most progressive on the cultural front.

Details

Civil-Military Relations in Taiwan
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-482-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

G. Reza Arabsheibani, Alan Marin and Jonathan Wadsworth

There are few systematic studies of wage discrimination against homosexuals: none for the UK. This paper studies the earnings of homosexual men and women in the UK…

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2971

Abstract

There are few systematic studies of wage discrimination against homosexuals: none for the UK. This paper studies the earnings of homosexual men and women in the UK relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Homosexuals are identified as individuals living with “same sex partners”. Although gays of either sex earn more than non‐gays, once allowance is made for differences in characteristics gay men appear to be paid less than heterosexuals, while lesbians appear to be paid more. As this implies, the gender pay gap is smaller amongst homosexuals than amongst heterosexuals. The gay male pay penalty is significantly lower in London than elsewhere.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Alexandre Flage

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the true level of discrimination against openly gay and lesbian applicants in hiring decisions in OECD countries as well as on its…

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1378

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the true level of discrimination against openly gay and lesbian applicants in hiring decisions in OECD countries as well as on its determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The author presents an overview of all studies conducted in order to test for discrimination against homosexual applicants in the labor market by the correspondence testing method. Moreover, the author performs a meta-analysis of correspondence tests from 18 separate studies conducted in OECD countries to test sexual orientation discrimination, containing more than 70 estimates of effects and representing a total of more than 50,000 resumes sent to employers. In addition to presenting overall results, the author focus on subgroups of specific correspondence tests in order to highlight the differences across gender, type of jobs, procedure, continent and type of information provided in applications.

Findings

The author provides evidence that sexual orientation discrimination occurs in the labor market in OECD countries, such that openly homosexual applicants face similar discrimination as ethnic minority applicants. Discrimination is significantly greater in the selection process for low-skilled than for high-skilled jobs. In the selection process for low-skilled jobs, lesbian candidates face significantly lower discrimination than gays (except in jobs that are considered “women’s” jobs). Discrimination is significantly higher in Europe than in North America. Moreover, the way sexual orientation is signaled may influence the level of discrimination found. Finally, discrimination against homosexual applicants is not only a matter of preferences: providing more positive information in applications significantly reduces the level of discrimination.

Originality/value

This paper offers the first quantitative analysis of sexual orientation discrimination in OECD countries through meta-analyses.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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