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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Chris R. Chard, Craig Hyatt and William M. Foster

The passion of Canadians for ice hockey is well documented; however, university teams in Canada are routinely ignored by consumers and the media. The authors’ goal was to…

Abstract

Purpose

The passion of Canadians for ice hockey is well documented; however, university teams in Canada are routinely ignored by consumers and the media. The authors’ goal was to better understand the context in which Ontario university hockey struggles and to address the theoretical question of how best to examine and evaluate the problems of sport‐specific organizations. Using the Value Dynamics Framework (VDF), the purpose of this paper was to examine whether or not this framework fits well with the realities facing not‐for‐profit OUA hockey teams, and if not, to create a framework specific to these teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted with 15 of the 19 (77 percent) OUA hockey coaches during the 2010/2011 hockey season. The interview guide was drawn from the VDF elements and enabled the researchers to understand not‐for‐profit organizational assets, including physical, financial, employee/supplier, customer, and organizational.

Findings

This paper offers empirical insights about the assets and obstacles facing the OUA hockey league and its teams. For example, players, coaches, affiliation with universities, and the hockey product are noted assets. Obstacles for strategic growth include arenas, suppliers, media attention, financial sustainability, parity with other leagues in Canada, and leadership. The VDF proved a useful foil to suggest that something is needed that more accurately represents sport management‐specific situations.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is that it lacks generalizability. Although motivated to better understand not‐for‐profit sport in general, the authors’ model is specific to OUA men's hockey teams. However, their OUA hockey team‐specific revised VDF does provide insights into the assets available to coaches, and also acknowledges the corresponding challenges or obstacles surrounding the asset classes in the context of OUA hockey.

Practical implications

This paper provides an approach towards making a more generalizable not‐for‐profit sport model that could help explain the success (or lack of success) of such organizations.

Originality/value

This study addresses a need to develop a framework to examine and evaluate not‐for‐profit sport‐specific organizations, such as the teams in the OUA.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Robert Sparks and Melissa Westgate

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that analyzed use of traditional and targeted sponsorship approaches by eight companies involved in the 1998-99…

Abstract

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that analyzed use of traditional and targeted sponsorship approaches by eight companies involved in the 1998-99 Canadian Hockey Association women's corporate support program. The study found the sponsors used methods from direct and relationship marketing to support corporate goals of sales, advertising, community-involvement and brand image and awareness. Several factors are discussed that would improve the sponsorships' effectiveness in the women's market.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Norm O'Reilly and Ryan Rahinel

Although literature exists that profiles the effects of technology on sport, there has been little exploration into the specific effects of media technologies. This case…

Abstract

Although literature exists that profiles the effects of technology on sport, there has been little exploration into the specific effects of media technologies. This case study contributes to the existing literature on the convergence of technology and sport by examining which of five key media technologies will have the greatest impact upon the televised ice hockey product. The results demonstrate the importance of forecasting media technology in sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Rodney J. Paul, Andrew P. Weinbach and Daniel Robbins

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of fighting (in addition to other variables) as it relates to attendance at minor league hockey games (ECHL).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of fighting (in addition to other variables) as it relates to attendance at minor league hockey games (ECHL).

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon previous research on hockey attendance, a regression model is specified with attendance as the dependent variable and fighting (measured as a running average of fights-per-game) as an independent variable. The sign and statistical significance of fighting is tested through the regression model.

Findings

Despite recent tragedies in the hockey world and public outcries against fighting, fighting is found to have a positive and significant effect on attendance at ECHL games.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that if fighting is removed from hockey in North America that teams will suffer attendance wise and it will hurt the overall profitability of teams and leagues. Teams in the ECHL that do not fight often may wish to have more “enforcers” on the team which would increase the number of fights and increase attendance.

Social implications

Despite calls for its outright ban, fighting is popular with hockey fans. Even in a world where many game-day promotions are aimed at families, fighting appears to have a place in the game and is a desired attribute of this sport in terms of its entertainment value to fans.

Originality/value

First study of the ECHL (AA-equivalent minor league for professional hockey) on a game-by-game basis. This paper examines the role of fighting and violence in the world of professional sports. The regression model also includes highly detailed data on game day promotions used by all of the teams. The value of the paper lies in the public debate about fighting in hockey. The findings and implications of this paper are also of value to team and league management as it relates to fighting in hockey.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Martine Dennie and Kevin Young

It is unclear from Canadian case law what the appropriate legal standards of care and regulation should be in athlete injury cases. This chapter provides an overview of…

Abstract

Purpose

It is unclear from Canadian case law what the appropriate legal standards of care and regulation should be in athlete injury cases. This chapter provides an overview of existing legal standards and explores the question of participant liability in sport, especially ice hockey. It reviews the applicability of tort law, including both intentional torts and unintentional torts, and considers the applicability and impact of the notion of ‘volenti non fit injuria’ (or voluntary assumption of risk).

Approach

The chapter is based on a review of Canadian case law.

Findings

Canadian courts have adopted varying standards whereby it is seemingly easier to prove negligence in certain provinces than others. We discuss the implications of these conflicting jurisdictional standards and the need for clearer and more consistent legal guidelines. Further, we show why appropriate legal standards should extend beyond purely objective and legalistic interpretations to more subjective and sociological factors that place sports violence and sports injury in social context.

Details

The Suffering Body in Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-069-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Brendan Riggin, Karen Danylchuk, Dawn Gill and Robert Petrella

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social impact of an initiative (Hockey FIT) aimed at improving the health and well-being of sport fans and their community.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social impact of an initiative (Hockey FIT) aimed at improving the health and well-being of sport fans and their community.

Design/methodology/approach

Fans (n=80) participated in 12 weekly health promotion sessions hosted in local hockey club facilities. Objective health measurements, diet and physical activity levels of fans were measured at baseline, 12 weeks and 12 months, to determine the intermediate, long-term, individual and community impact. Furthermore, one-on-one interviews with 28 program participants were conducted to further understand the program’s social impact.

Findings

The intermediate impact was noticed as improvements in weight loss, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (BP), steps per day, healthful eating, self-reported overall health and fatty food scores at 12 weeks. The long-term individual impact of Hockey FIT was realized as participants maintained or continued to improve their weight loss, waist circumference, healthful eating, systolic BP and diastolic BP 12 months after the program had been offered. The program was also reported to increase family bonding time and improved the diet, daily physical activity, and general awareness of health promotion programs and components for friends, family members and coworkers.

Originality/value

The positive health-related results from this study contradict prior research that has suggested there is minimal evidence of any substantial contributions from social programs in sport. Through a collective approach to corporate social responsibility, this research demonstrates the ability for sport organizations to contribute to meaningful social change and the positive role that they play within the community.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Scott W. Kelley, K. Douglas Hoffman and Sheila Carter

Franchise relocation and sport introduction are becoming commonplace in professional sports. However, many franchises have found that developing fan acceptance is often…

Abstract

Franchise relocation and sport introduction are becoming commonplace in professional sports. However, many franchises have found that developing fan acceptance is often challenging. The fan adoption process is presented as a systematic framework that guides strategy development from creating fan awareness through adoption. An examination of the Carolina Hurricanes inaugural season (1997‐1998) provides a variety of examples of how marketing strategy evolves throughout the fan adoption process.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Lynn M. Boorady

Current offerings for women's ice hockey equipment are compared to the data collected in a 1993 study conducted on fit and performance of impact protection equipment for…

Abstract

Current offerings for women's ice hockey equipment are compared to the data collected in a 1993 study conducted on fit and performance of impact protection equipment for female ice hockey players. The growing athletic participation of women in a variety of sports has led to the need for female specific protective clothing, specifically in the sport of ice hockey where women have made large strides worldwide in the last decade. Anatomical differences between men and women, the injury occurrence when playing ice hockey and the current system of sizing hockey equipment were reviewed. The SizeUSA data, which includes the body scans and measurements of over 7,000 American women, is discussed and compared with current sizing information. The size and fit of protective equipment is crucial to providing adequate impact protection to the ice hockey player. Female ice hockey players were surveyed: evaluations were conducted on the current equipment, and research on a system of impact protective clothing is analyzed. A system of protection using garment layers to protect specific areas of the body, allows for ease of movement and sized in a manner consistent with the most current information available is recommended. Further research is needed concerning the performance and acceptance of such equipment.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Daniel S. Mason

Sports leagues and media providers are constantly seeking new ways of improving the consumption experience of viewers. Several new technologies have arrived in the…

Abstract

Sports leagues and media providers are constantly seeking new ways of improving the consumption experience of viewers. Several new technologies have arrived in the industry, but many have not proved financially viable. Among these new technologies is tracking technology, used to augment television coverage and for coaching enhancement. This has had mixed results. In this paper I argue that the emergence of Moneyball management practices in sport have created the supervening necessity (Winston, 1998) required to drive demand for player tracking technology in ice hockey. This technology is able to collect the data necessary to implement statistical analyses comparable to those used in professional baseball to cover media enhancement, coaching enhancement and Moneyball management.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Rodney Paul, Colby Conetta and Jeremy Losak

The purpose of this paper is to use financial market prices formed in betting markets as a measure of uncertainty of outcome and other factors as it relates to hockey

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use financial market prices formed in betting markets as a measure of uncertainty of outcome and other factors as it relates to hockey attendance in three top European leagues, the KHL, SHL, and Liiga. This is the first study of European hockey to use betting market odds to estimate the impact of home team win probability and uncertainty of outcome on attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of this study is a multivariate regression model with log of attendance and percentage of arena capacity as dependent variables in two separate regressions. Controlling for other factors, the role of the home team win probability and its square are explored for individual game attendance.

Findings

Fans of the KHL and SHL are found to prefer to see their home team win, but also exhibit strong preferences for uncertainty of outcome. Fans of Liiga prefer to see the home team win, but do not exhibit as strong a preference for uncertainty of outcome. This differs from recent findings in the sport of baseball and from previous findings for the NHL.

Practical implications

Having a competitive league is not only important for television ratings, but also for in-person attendance in these European hockey leagues. Importance of uncertainty of outcome varies across leagues.

Originality/value

The paper uses financial market prices, betting market odds, as a measure of game expectations (home team win probability) and uncertainty of outcome and applies it to a new setting for three of the top European hockey leagues. The findings illustrate that uncertainty of outcome is important for the KHL and SHL, but statistically insignificant for Liiga.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 42 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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