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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Victor Kuzmichev, Aleksei Moskvin, Evgenii Surzhenko and Mariia Moskvina

Designing of clothes using the historical prototypes is very popular in contemporary practice. The purpose of this paper is to apply 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD…

Abstract

Purpose

Designing of clothes using the historical prototypes is very popular in contemporary practice. The purpose of this paper is to apply 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD) systems to reconstruct the historical pattern block and get the virtual image in accordance with the prototypes. New algorithm has been proved for men trousers taken from the nineteenth century.

Design/methodology/approach

Our approach is to develop a method of CAD to reconstruct historical trousers through analyzing and rebuilding of historical algorithms used to pattern blocks making, old anthropometrical database, and the pattern blocks shaping. Trousers construction, methods of trousers shaping by hands, body sizes schedule, manuals of 36 pattern cutting systems, and its sketches from nineteenth century have been analyzed. Then, by means of parameterization of historical pattern blocks, we have developed the universal trousers pattern cutting algorithm. The final step of the research has been devoted to virtual fitting technology that helps to determine the differences between historical trousers chosen as prototype and virtual image reconstructed by 3D CAD.

Findings

The authors have developed the parametrical module of 2D CAD and expanded the application of 3D CAD to re-designing of completely new object such as nineteenth century trousers pattern blocks in accordance with the historical method of shaping by hands. The conformity between the style of historical trousers and the virtual images reconstructed from two resources – pattern block and sketch silhouette – has been achieved.

Originality/value

This study demonstrated the contemporary approach to historical garments reconstruction by means of CAD. This study should help researchers of historical costume and practical specialists in apparel industry to apply historical heritage in a contemporary way.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Bokyoung Kang, Jae‐Yoon Jung, Nam Wook Cho and Suk‐Ho Kang

The purpose of this paper is to help industrial managers monitor and analyze critical performance indicators in real time during the execution of business processes by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to help industrial managers monitor and analyze critical performance indicators in real time during the execution of business processes by proposing a visualization technique using an extended formal concept analysis (FCA). The proposed approach monitors the current progress of ongoing processes and periodically predicts their probable routes and performances.

Design/methodology/approach

FCA is utilized to analyze relations among patterns of events in historical process logs, and this method of data analysis visualizes the relations in a concept lattice. To apply FCA to real‐time business process monitoring, the authors extended the conventional concept lattice into a reachability lattice, which enables managers to recognize reachable patterns of events in specific instances of business processes.

Findings

By using a reachability lattice, expected values of a target key performance indicator are predicted and traced along with probable outcomes. Analysis is conducted periodically as the monitoring time elapses over the course of business processes.

Practical implications

The proposed approach focuses on the visualization of probable event occurrences on the basis of historical data. Such visualization can be utilized by industrial managers to evaluate the status of any given instance during business processes and to easily predict possible subsequent states for purposes of effective and efficient decision making. The proposed method was developed in a prototype system for proof of concept and has been illustrated using a simplified real‐world example of a business process in a telecommunications company.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper lies in the development of a real‐time monitoring approach of ongoing processes. The authors have provided a new data structure, namely a reachability lattice, which visualizes real‐time progress of ongoing business processes. As a result, current and probable next states can be predicted graphically using periodically conducted analysis during the processes.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 111 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2018

Victor Kuzmichev, Aleksei Moskvin, Mariia Moskvina and Jane Pryor

Virtual design of contemporary and historical clothes is a very intensive and developing area of science that can be considered as a bridge between costume heritage and…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtual design of contemporary and historical clothes is a very intensive and developing area of science that can be considered as a bridge between costume heritage and modern way of its presentation by means of CAD. The purpose of this paper is to apply 2D and 3D existing CAD for virtual reconstruction of the very specific kind of women’s clothes such as a side-saddle riding habit (RH) used in 1875–1915.

Design/methodology/approach

The construction of RH was adapted to the aesthetic rules of the mentioned time, ergonomic posture of a woman sitting on a horse, surface of the horse’s body which the woman is sitting on. For the new method, the huge databases were obtained after analyzing the historical pattern manuals and features of pattern blocks used, possible postures of riding, construction of RH and converting it into virtual system “avatar – RH.” To reconstruct the side-saddle RH in virtual reality, the images dated 1887 and authentic pattern blocks were used. Special attention has been given to the topology of contacting areas existing between the sitting woman and “shaped” riding skirt and to the method of presenting it by means of special points combination.

Findings

The authors have developed a new method of virtual reconstruction of an RH that is based on automatic consideration of all joining elements such as “shaped” riding skirt, avatar and its ergonomic posture. The new approach allows reconstruction of the clothes in virtual reality in three ways: by using the real skirts, the historical pattern blocks or pictures.

Originality/value

The results obtained allow increased possibilities of virtual reconstruction and include in the list new objects of engineering achievements of the nineteenth century such as the side-saddle RH. This study should help researchers and practical specialists to recreate and save the historical treasure in a digital way.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Peter Gronn

With the recent emergence of organizational and systemic restructuring in Anglo‐American societies, leadership and the search for prospective leaders has taken on new…

Abstract

With the recent emergence of organizational and systemic restructuring in Anglo‐American societies, leadership and the search for prospective leaders has taken on new significance. Focuses on leader development and defines the nurturing of leaders as leader formation. Doubt is cast on the efficacy of currently popular leader models, such as transformational leadership, which purport to facilitate and enhance organizational learning. Instead, if leaders are to promote learning, recognition of a shift in focus in leadership studies towards constructivism and contextualism is required. Documents and illustrates these trends by a historical instance of institutionalized leader formation: the English public school tradition of gifted amateur, gentlemanly power. Draws the implications of the case for instrumental approaches to leadership, organizational learning and programmes of management development.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Prithviraj Chattopadhyay, Elizabeth George and Carmen Kaman Ng

In this chapter, we review relational demography literature underpinned by the similarity–attraction paradigm and status characteristics and social identity theories. We…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review relational demography literature underpinned by the similarity–attraction paradigm and status characteristics and social identity theories. We then develop an uncertainty reduction model of relational demography, which describes a two-stage process of uncertainty emergence and reduction in a workgroup setting. The first stage depicts how structural features of the workgroup (workgroup composition) and occupation (the legitimacy of its status hierarchy) induce two forms of uncertainty: uncertainty about group norms and uncertainty about instrumental outcomes. The second part of the model illustrates employees' choice of uncertainty reduction strategies, depending on the type of uncertainty they experience, and the status of their demographic categories. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-554-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2018

Alexander Lipton

The purpose of this paper is to introduce blockchains and distributed ledgers and describe their potential applications to money and banking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce blockchains and distributed ledgers and describe their potential applications to money and banking.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The analysis compares public and private ledgers and outlines the suitability of various types of ledgers for different purposes. Furthermore, a few historical prototypes of blockchains and distributed ledgers are presented, and results of their hard forking are illustrated. Next, some potential applications of distributed ledgers to trading, clearing and settlement, payments, trade finance, etc. are outlined.

Findings

Monetary circuits are argued to be natural applications for blockchains. Finally, the role of digital currencies in modern society is articulated and various forms of digital cash, such as central bank issued electronic cash, bank money, Bitcoin and P2P money, are compared and contrasted.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Erik S. Reinert

This paper attempts to trace and describe the role played by the government sector – the state – in promoting economic growth in Western societies since the Renaissance…

Abstract

This paper attempts to trace and describe the role played by the government sector – the state – in promoting economic growth in Western societies since the Renaissance. One important conclusion is that the antagonism between state and market, which has characterised the twentieth century, is a relatively new phenomenon. Since the Renaissance one very important task of the state has been to create well‐functioning markets by providing a legal framework, standards, credit, physical infrastructure and – if necessary – to function temporarily as an entrepreneur of last resort. Early economists were acutely aware that national markets did not occur spontaneously, and they used “modern” ideas like synergies, increasing returns, and innovation theory when arguing for the right kind of government policy. In fact, mercantilist economics saw it as a main task to extend the synergetic economic effects observed within cities to the territory of a nation‐state. The paper argues that the classical Anglo‐Saxon tradition in economics – fundamentally focused on barter and distribution, rather than on production and knowledge – systematically fails to grasp these wider issues in economic development, and it brings in and discusses the role played by the state in alternative traditions of non‐equilibrium economics.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2004

Britt‐Marie Berge

In Sweden, as in most western countries, progressive pedagogy has influenced the rhetoric of education policy and national curricula. In the early twentieth century, ideas…

Abstract

In Sweden, as in most western countries, progressive pedagogy has influenced the rhetoric of education policy and national curricula. In the early twentieth century, ideas about learning by doing and pupil centred education came to Sweden from countries such as Germany, Austria and the US. These ideas were primarily influenced by people interested in preschool education, a few persons who started progressive private schools and those who wanted to introduce a more equal and democratic compulsory school system for all children. However, sixty years and two World Wars elapsed before nine‐year co‐educational compulsory schooling, inspired by progressive ideas, was introduced in 1962 in Sweden.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1899

The method of dealing with the proposed additions varies in different libraries. In the Battersea Library, the librarian makes an author‐entry on a cataloguing slip for…

Abstract

The method of dealing with the proposed additions varies in different libraries. In the Battersea Library, the librarian makes an author‐entry on a cataloguing slip for each book he proposes, with name of publisher, price, and, if necessary, a note as to the review of the work, and its suitability for addition to the library. Before each committee meeting these are arranged in alphabetical order, and at the committee the librarian calls them over and marks on each the decision arrived at. Afterwards the slips can be sorted into “rejected,” “postponed,” and “ordered,” and dealt with accordingly. The “ordered” slips can again be sorted into two lots, one for books to be purchased new, and the other for those whose purchase is deferred until they can be met with second‐hand. When the books are received from the vendors, the number of copies, and the branch libraries to which they are allocated, are marked upon the slips. By this means a rough record is kept of the additions to the library, which is of great use to the librarian.

Details

New Library World, vol. 1 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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