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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Hisham Yaacob, Saerah Petra, Azimah Sumardi and Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purpose of this paper is to review, understand and document the contemporary waqf-S management, financial accounting and reporting practices and to understand relevant…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review, understand and document the contemporary waqf-S management, financial accounting and reporting practices and to understand relevant drivers behind the current accountability culture in waqf-S, aiming at exploring the intertwined nature of accounting, reporting and the religion of Islam. The accountability literature has been relatively scant on the role played by accounting and reporting in not-for-profit, religious-based organizations and its implications for accountability discourse. Three accountability drivers of regulatory, stakeholders and religious image are tested. It is interesting to research how management, accounting and reporting are being practiced in an Islamic organization setting in a non-Islamic country.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with the established research objectives, this study adopts the qualitative research approach of a single case study research involving semi-structured interviews and archival documentation review and analyses. Sample is chosen using purposive sampling to suit the research objectives.

Findings

The paper finds that waqf-S is a very successful awqaf manager. The administration and management are carried out in the most effective manner with comprehensive rules, guidelines and procedures. The awqaf financial reporting and management are impressive as annual financial reports are published on time and available for the public online. The paper proposes three lenses to examine the accountability drivers of waqf-S: Regulatory, Stakeholders and Religious image of Islamic organization and, it turns out that all three are equally important in driving the organization accountability practices.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is an Islamic organization in a non-Islamic country; therefore, the results are unique and may not be generalised to organizations in Islamic nations, as it will be a different setting with different variables. Secondly, the paper only focuses on awqaf financial accounting, awqaf reporting and investigating the driving factors for the institution’s accountability culture.

Practical implications

This paper is important as it shows that the management and administration of awqaf, which has been plague by mismanagement, embezzlements and lack of talents, can be improved and managed systematically, although there is a clear evidence of the lack of capable or talented human resources. It is compensated by the significant use of technology.

Originality/value

Focusing on a single awqaf institution (waqf-S) operating in a non-Islamic Southeast Asian country, our analysis allows us to observe the influence of multiple factors influencing its organizational wide accountability policy. We consider this as a contribution to the literature, as it generates knowledge on how management, accounting and reporting are being devised as strategic tools in the institution’s accountability policy framework, beyond the normal office management, financial data recording and disclosure per se. Multiple factors drive the structured and transparent reporting by waqf-S, transcending beyond the traditional financial accounting and reporting boundary of meeting regulatory requirements; it reaches the concerned while ensuring that the necessary accountability towards stakeholders is observed and upheld.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Hisham Yaacob and Jefri Basiuni

The purpose of this study is to examine a state-owned enterprise corporate governance model in an Asian emerging market. Corporate governance has attracted much attention…

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1710

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine a state-owned enterprise corporate governance model in an Asian emerging market. Corporate governance has attracted much attention and is still a hot topic among shareholders, directors and company regulators. Failure of large corporations in the past decades not only affected the shareholders and investors, rather it adversely affects all the stakeholders. Good corporate governance practices are argued to curb company’s failures due to fraudulent activities, collusion schemes and mismanagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took the qualitative approach. It utilized case study method. The company is designated as Company R, as the study is not allowed to reveal the company’s real name.

Findings

The study found that the corporate governance structure of the board is of unitary or one-tier board, which is common in the Anglo-American settings. The board members are selected and appointed by the government. They are chosen from highly capable and trustworthy government officers to represent and safeguard the government’s interest in the company. As for the ownership structure, it is a typical company with the other Asian state-owned enterprises where the state has full ownership and control of the company.

Originality/value

The study fills the gap in the corporate governance model literature, especially in the context of Asian emerging economies’ state-owned companies. Furthermore, the authors believe that this study is among the first to examine the corporate governance model in this country. It shed lights on the corporate governance model in terms of governance structure, the ownership and shareholders’ right, roles of the board, regulatory framework and control mechanism and, finally, disclosure and transparency.

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar and Hisham Yaacob

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting…

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3668

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting and reporting. Both processes provide lenses through which the extent of managerial accountability in the corporate context could be objectively examined. The sacred religion of Islam as a social order with a complete code of life classifies accountability as being dual; in line with the duality concept in life – in this temporal world and eternal hereafter, necessitating for accountability concept in accounting and reporting from the Islamic worldview to transcend beyond the point of worldly objectives. Parallel to this line of reasoning, the purpose of this paper is to undertake a preliminary empirical investigation with respect to accounting, reporting and accountability practices of a Malaysian cash awqaf (Islamic endowment) management institution over a six‐year period, from 2000 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses triangulation research approach, consisting of case study method and archival documentation review and analysis.

Findings

The preliminary findings indicate that, while the root of accountability in the management, accounting and reporting practices seems to exist in the awqaf entity studied, significant improvements remain necessary to ensure accountability could be continuously enhanced and uphold.

Originality/value

Debating accountability concept in the context of management, accounting and reporting as practiced by faith‐based institution of awqaf from the Islamic perspective inevitably directs this study to highlight the notion of Islamic accounting and reporting commonly and extensively discussed in the realm of Islamic finance and banking. The study's conjecture is that, by debunking the myth of Islamic accounting and reporting as only serving the acute domain of transactions reflecting the Islamic financial products in banking environment, it helps to reshape, broaden and emphasize the all encompassing relevance of Islamic accounting and reporting to that of not‐for‐profits, religiously grounded entities such as awqaf institutions. The study further contributes to the accountability and financial reporting literature in Islamic not‐for‐profit organizations by studying the importance of sound accounting practices and reporting transparency in ensuring accountability.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

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171

Abstract

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Anna Che Azmi and Mohamed Hisham Hanifa

– This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

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3127

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on a case study of two Islamic-based organisations that manage waqf. The financial statements of these organisations are analysed using content analysis to assess their compliance with the Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Sharia Standard No. 33 (SS 33) on waqf.

Findings

The authors found that both Islamic-based organisations use different sets of accounting procedures and practices, but that these accounting practices do not contradict the Sharia requirements prescribed in the SS 33 on waqf. However, the SS 33 on waqf requires that waqf funds to be utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and that the accounting practices of both organisations do not adequately address this disclosure requirement. This study also found that the existing accounting practices adopted by organisations that manage waqf need to incorporate more disclosure on their Sharia-based financing and their investment of waqf funds.

Research limitations/implications

This study found that the AAOIFI’s SS33 on waqf is a useful guide for identifying the gap between Sharia principles and conventional financial reporting practices for non-profit organisations, and that there are aspects of Sharia-based disclosure practices that are not adequately implemented in financial reporting practices of institutions managing waqf.

Practical implications

This study proposes two essential Sharia-based disclosure practices for Islamic-based organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf. These two aspects are the disclosure on whether waqf funds are adequately utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and what modifications to their existing financial reporting of their Sharia-based financing and investments are required to comply with the unique nature of waqf.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how Sharia principles can be incorporated into the financial reporting practices of organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Mustafa Mohd Hanefah, Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin, Supiah Salleh, Zurina Shafii and Nurazalia Zakaria

The existence of internal control for Sharīʿah-compliance promotes reasonable assurance that the Islamic financial institution’s (IFI’s) objectives are achieved in the…

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1929

Abstract

Purpose

The existence of internal control for Sharīʿah-compliance promotes reasonable assurance that the Islamic financial institution’s (IFI’s) objectives are achieved in the following categories, namely, the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, the reliability of financial reporting and the level of compliance with applicable laws and regulations, as well as accounting and auditing standards. Sharīʿah non-compliant income (SNCI) is an important issue in IFIs’ operations. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify issues related to governance and internal control of SNCI in selected IFIs in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a case study approach to gather data on the measures of governance and risk management in relation to the internal control for SNCI in IFIs. Interviews were conducted with officers of the Sharīʿah and internal audit departments on internal control practices regarding SNCI.

Findings

Regulator’s guidelines on SNCI are simple and brief, lacking rigour in terms of governance, risk management and audit procedures. The section on SNCI is only a brief statement within the Bank Negara Malaysia’s Guidelines on Financial Reporting for Islamic Banking Institutions and also in the Operational Risk Integrated Online Network system operated by IFIs. Most of the respondents in the interviews suggested that there should be a proper guideline in determining the classification of SNCI. Second, although IFIs have established the purification account to manage SNCI, the real practice varies from one IFI to another. Third, although there are supposedly documented procedures established in relation to management and administration of SNCI, the following events still occur in practice, namely, no authorisation from the Sharīʿah Committee (SC) on various types of income channelled to the SNCI account; unauthorised use of SNCI for other purposes; SNCI not being reported in the annual financial reports; and distribution of SNCI prior to obtaining the SC’s consent. Fourth, there is an absence of Sharīʿah risk assessment conducted on operational risk by IFIs to identify any potential Sharīʿah non-compliant event.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the importance of Islamic corporate governance theory and Sharīʿah risk management, as well as strengthening the case for reporting SNCI to shareholders. It also contributes to the body of knowledge on the capability of the management in managing the internal control system of IFIs’ SNCI.

Originality/value

A new internal control assessment matrix is proposed for Sharīʿah-compliance in IFIs.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Nori Yani Abu Talib, Radziah Abdul Latiff and Aini Aman

This paper aims to improve the understanding of the institutional pressures that shape the intention to adopt waqf accounting and reporting. The study seeks to answer two…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the understanding of the institutional pressures that shape the intention to adopt waqf accounting and reporting. The study seeks to answer two research questions as follows: what are the challenges in the adoption of waqf accounting and reporting in waqf institutions; and how do institutional pressures influence the adoption of waqf reporting in Malaysia. Drawing on the work of DiMaggio and Powell and Scott of institutional theory, this paper provides empirical evidence of institutional pressures on the adoption of waqf reporting in Malaysia and the challenges faced in adopting waqf accounting and reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses qualitative research method with an explanatory case study approach. Data are collected through semi-structured interviews with the accountants of State Islamic Religious Council and Customs of Terengganu, an informal conversation with the Deputy Director of Accountant Generals Department of Malaysia and document reviews, mainly the Malaysian Accounting Standard Board Research paper.

Findings

The findings show that coercive pressure such as government regulation contributes to challenges in the adoption of waqf accounting and reporting. Normative pressures contribute to challenges in formulating standardised waqf accounting and reporting, whereas mimetic pressure contributes to challenges in the comparability of the waqf accounting and reporting among the state Islamic religious councils in Malaysia. In the efforts towards the standardisation of waqf accounting and reporting practice, a similarity of the process of the standard implementation or the institutional isomorphism of the State Islamic Religious Council in Terengganu is strongly influenced from the result of the mandate of its Board members and Fatwa council members (coercive isomorphism and religion logic) and minor influence from the normative isomorphism (the result of the participants’ education and profession) as well as the result of imitating other State of Islamic Religious Councils (SIRCs) because of the ambiguity of the process or certain practice.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the knowledge by extending institutional theory and the possible role of religion logic in Islamic perspective to organisational behaviour and accounting development in SIRCs. This study is limited to the understanding of the challenges in the adoption of waqf accounting and reporting but could also be applicable to the adoption of other accounting standards or regulations.

Practical implications

This paper offers key implications for research, in improving the understanding of contextual factors and decision to adopt waqf accounting and reporting. The standard setter needs to be aware of the influence of contextual factors that shape decision towards standardisation of accounting and reporting for waqf.

Originality/value

The interplay of institutional pressures and implications of religion logic provides an interesting approach to understanding the waqf institutions’ intention to adopt accounting and reporting for waqf.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Ravichandran Subramaniam and Mahenthiran Sakthi

To examine the board of directors’ performance and if higher performance helps protect minority shareholders in an emerging capital market. Additionally, we determine if…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the board of directors’ performance and if higher performance helps protect minority shareholders in an emerging capital market. Additionally, we determine if the different types of company ownership moderate the level of protection to minority shareholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops a measure of board performance with their compensation. And it tests its association with the dividend payout decision of 300 of the largest Malaysian public listed companies (referred to as PLCs) over the period 2008 to 2014.

Findings

The results find that higher board productivity in terms of return on capital employed is associated with higher dividend payout. Additionally, the study finds that the board performance measure interacts with race, ethnicity and gender of the board of directors and CEO duality to affect the dividend payout decision of Malaysian PLCs.

Research limitations/implications

It is a single-country study of large Malaysian PLCs. And it uses only the governance mechanisms that have been shown in emerging capital markets to have the most significant effect on affecting the relationship between board performance and dividend payout.

Practical implications

The findings show the importance of inclusivity and diversity in governing State-controlled firms in an emerging capital market.

Originality/value

The findings suggest improving corporate boards’ performance, protecting minority shareholders and contributing to the corporate governance literature. Notably, the study highlights boardroom diversity’s importance to enhance the boards of State-controlled firms’ performance.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2020

Hassanudin Mohd Thas Thaker, Ahmad Khaliq, Mohamed Asmy Bin Mohd Thas Thaker, Anwar Bin Allah Pitchay and K. Chandra Sakaran

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factor persuading the acceptance of Islamic pawn broking (Ar-Rahnu) among Islamic bank customers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factor persuading the acceptance of Islamic pawn broking (Ar-Rahnu) among Islamic bank customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected the data using a self-administered questionnaire design and analysed using SPSS Statistics and smart partial least square. The study is restricted to only respondents who are based in the area of Klang Valley (Selangor and Kuala Lumpur), as these two areas have a larger number of Islamic banks and a decent number of Islamic banks’ clients. A total of 381 respondents’ responses are used for this study, and the constructs involved for analysis purpose are affect, social factor, facilitating conditions, perceived financial benefits and perceived risk constructs.

Findings

The finding suggests a significant positive association for social factor and perceived risk, while negative association learnt for affect on acceptance of Ar-Rahnu financing. On the same note, the facilitating condition and perceived financial benefit are found insignificantly related.

Practical implications

The findings generated from this study are expected to enrich the literature on the body of knowledge, as it has served to broaden the understanding of the Ar-Rahnu acceptance level in Malaysia. As mentioned, there is limited literature available using this type of financing. Existing studies focus too much on conventional financing products such as personal financing, credit card, short-term loan and many others. Less attention is given to Ar-Rahnu financing. Thus, this study expected to add value to the literature available in the context of Islamic pawn broking business. Moreover, the findings of this study will be very helpful for the Islamic financial institutions to find the best way to retain Ar-Rahnu clients and encourage more client to choose Ar-Rahnu as a mode of financing.

Originality/value

This study owns greater potential to assist Islamic financial institutions to discover the best techniques to retain and encourage the grander number of clients for Ar-Rahnu as a mode of financing.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin and Sofiah Md Auzair

This study aims to present an effort to construct a measurement instrument to capture Islamic accountability from “accountability for what” aspect. These measurement…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present an effort to construct a measurement instrument to capture Islamic accountability from “accountability for what” aspect. These measurement instruments are developed by considering both social and economic natures in Islamic organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study defined the concept of Islamic accountability from the perspective of “accountability for what”. It is decomposed into specific items that suit an Islamic social enterprise (ISE). Next, these items are operationalised into scale items and re-composed empirically through factor analysis on data obtained from ISE stakeholders in Malaysia.

Findings

This study successfully developed an Islamic accountability measurement instruments from the “accountability for what” perspective for ISE. A total of 25 items are recognised and validated under four accountability dimensions, namely, accountability for input, accountability for output, accountability for procedural and accountability for Islamic principles and values.

Research limitations/implications

Not all measurement instruments are fit for every Islamic organisation type because of the different characteristics of Islamic organisations.

Practical implications

Developed items can be used as part of Islamic accountability index, especially by ISE and other similar organisations to measure their accountability practices. Besides, these developed items can also be adopted for reporting purposes. In the case of Malaysia, respective government agencies, such as the Companies Commission of Malaysia , the Registry of Society, the Ministry of Entrepreneur Development as well as the Malaysia Institute of Accountant, should have a look at the developed items to be considered into their respective guidelines or standards.

Originality/value

This study is believed to be a pioneering study in developing measurement instruments of Islamic accountability specific for ISE. It proposes measurement instruments of Islamic accountability that can be re-used for future research and is among the few studies of ISE.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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