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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Dana L. Joseph, Daniel A. Newman and Hock-Peng Sin

Purpose – This chapter (a) summarizes leader–member exchange (LMX) measurement practices since the influential reviews by Schriesheim, Castro, and Cogliser (1999) and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter (a) summarizes leader–member exchange (LMX) measurement practices since the influential reviews by Schriesheim, Castro, and Cogliser (1999) and Gerstner and Day (1997), (b) clarifies the status of LMX as a broad construct from a hierarchical factor model, (c) conducts multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analyses on leader and follower reports of multidimensional LMX, and (d) investigates discriminant validity between Member LMX and satisfaction with supervisor.

Methodology/Approach – We used (a) a literature search of LMX measurement practices, (b) a combination of meta-analysis and factor analysis to specify the broad LMX construct underlying Liden and Maslyn's (1998) (LMX-MDM) multidimensional instrument, (c) MTMM analyses of leader and member ratings of the LMX-MDM, and (d) a combination of meta-analysis and multiple regression to assess incremental validity of Member LMX beyond satisfaction with supervisor.

Findings – Since 1999, 85% of LMX studies now use one of two dominant LMX scales (LMX-7, Scandura, & Graen, 1984; LMX-MDM, Liden & Maslyn, 1998). These two measures are correlated (rcorrected=.9), suggesting the LMX-7 and the LMX-MDM are alternate forms of the same instrument. 94% of studies that used these two measures treat LMX as a single, broad construct rather than as a multidimensional set of constructs. MTMM analyses suggest Leader LMX and Member LMX are two, separate-but-related constructs (i.e., confirming two source factors and no lower-order trait factors). Last, Member LMX meta-analytically correlates with satisfaction with supervisor at rcorrected=.8. There is some incremental validity of LMX, but the pattern is inconsistent across samples.

Social Implications – We point out that LMX researchers have now moved toward standard measurement of LMX – as a broad, higher-order factor that varies between leader and follower. By doing so, we reveal that the stage is set for cumulative and replicable research on leadership as a dyadic, follower-specific phenomenon.

Originality/Value of Paper – Our chapter is the first to reveal consensus in LMX measurement across studies; to summarize the standard treatment of LMX as a single, broad factor; and to apply MTMM analyses to demonstrate separate Leader LMX and Member LMX source factors.

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Rajashi Ghosh, Ray K. Haynes and Kathy E. Kram

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how an adult development perspective can further the understanding of developmental networks as holding environments for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how an adult development perspective can further the understanding of developmental networks as holding environments for developing leaders confronted with challenging experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The article utilizes constructive developmental theory (C‐D theory) to explore and address the implications of an adult development lens for leader development, especially as they confront complex leadership challenges that trigger anxiety.

Findings

Theoretical propositions suggest different kinds of holding behaviors (e.g. confirmation, contradiction, and continuity) necessary for enabling growth and effectiveness for leaders located in different developmental orders.

Research limitations/implications

Propositions offered can guide future researchers to explore how leaders confronted with different kinds of leadership challenges sustain responsive developmental networks over time and how the developers in the leader's network coordinate to provide confirmation, contradiction, and continuity needed for leader development.

Practical implications

Leaders and their developers should reflect on how developmental orders may determine which types of holding behaviors are necessary for producing leader effectiveness amidst challenging leadership experiences. Organizations should provide assessment centers and appropriate training and development interventions to facilitate this reflection.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the important role that developmental relationships play in leadership effectiveness and growth over time. Individuals and organizations are urged to attend to the quality and availability of high quality developmental relationships for purposes of continuous learning and development.

Originality/value

This article re‐conceptualizes developmental networks as holding environments that can enable leader's growth as an adult and, hence, increase their effectiveness as leaders amidst complex leadership challenges.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Walter E. Grinder and John Hagel

Of all the various interventions into the market economy, which have been invented and implemented by man and state, those that historically have caused the gravest…

Abstract

Of all the various interventions into the market economy, which have been invented and implemented by man and state, those that historically have caused the gravest consequences in the advanced industrialized economies surely are the inflationist policies, which lead inexorably to the business cycle in all of its various aspects and manifestations. In this paper, we shall attempt to trace through a number of socio-economic consequences and implications of the business cycle. We are convinced that ultimately the business cycle has political implications, which are just as far reaching and grave as its numerous economic consequences.

Details

The Dynamics of Intervention: Regulation and Redistribution in the Mixed Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-053-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Pavlos Delias and Ioannis Kazanidis

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to reveal complex events structures in events’ occurrences by analyzing event databases, targeting to systematizing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to reveal complex events structures in events’ occurrences by analyzing event databases, targeting to systematizing events’ analysis and surpassing the need for idiographic approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

A process-oriented point of view is enabled by purposeful data transformations, and higher-order dependencies are discovered and exploited to capture the flows among the events.

Findings

Political events do not follow a linear movement that is implied by a sequence, but they occur in varying patterns that cannot be reflected accurately when assuming only first-order dependencies.

Originality/value

The methodology suggests a novel way to look and to analyze raw event data and it offers an accessible, practicable and supplementary tool as it does not disturb any of the established relevant research designs, and it does not require any additional data to be applied.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Janet Davey, Rachael Alsemgeest, Samuel O’Reilly-Schwass, Howard Davey and Mary FitzPatrick

The purpose of this paper is to investigate intellectual capital (IC) reporting, from a service-centric approach, in the hotel industry. The strategic enhancement of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate intellectual capital (IC) reporting, from a service-centric approach, in the hotel industry. The strategic enhancement of value-creation and sustainable competitive advantage requires both management and measurement. Sound measurement and reporting practices enable management performance to be judged; one such practice is IC disclosure. Service-dominant (S-D) logic emphasizes that intangible operant resources, the foundation of IC, are at the core of competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

A disclosure instrument based on S-D logic and designed specifically for the hotel industry was applied to the annual reports and sustainability reports (in English) of 30 Asian hotel companies. Content analysis measured the disclosures of dynamic IC assets typically overlooked by traditional IC disclosure instruments.

Findings

The majority of IC communication concerns lower-order basic operant resources. Although more than one-third of the companies’ disclosures of IC assets relate to collaborative processes and practices that support networked value-creation, most disclosures demonstrate a prevailing firm-centric orientation. IC items regarding reciprocated relationship and informational management were minimally reported.

Research limitations/implications

A single research approach was used. Future research could use other communication channels to triangulate.

Practical implications

The results highlight opportunities for hotel companies to better report their IC assets as part of their value-creating strategies.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to operationalize S-D logic concerning IC. It provides a promising framework for understanding IC reporting in the hotel industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Artur Swierczek

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer, affects relational embeddedness and thus contributes to yielding the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer, affects relational embeddedness and thus contributes to yielding the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the theoretical tenets of transaction cost analysis, complemented by the underpinnings of social capital theory, this study involves an empirical investigation that uses survey data collected from the triadic supply chains in Europe. The research covers a two-step analysis. In the first step, the Coleman rent was estimated through the regression analysis with the interaction effects. Then, partial least squares–structural equation modeling was used to estimate the reflective-formative nature of higher component model and test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results of the study demonstrate that the distribution of three mechanisms in network governance is relatively even; however, market and hierarchy still emerge as the most impactful dimensions. Interestingly, though, this study shows that social capital can actually coexist with market and hierarchy in the triadic supply chains with the structural hole. Likewise, the research indicates that the impact of brokered network governance on the strength of network relational embeddedness is significant, but relatively weak, whereas network relational embeddedness has a strong and positive effect on the Coleman rent.

Research limitations/implications

This study makes three major contributions. First, this study is one of very few that explicitly considers brokered network governance, run by the manufacturer positioned on the structural hole in its triadic supply chain. Second, as the triadic perspective is still uncommon in the supply chain studies, this research investigates a triad with the structural hole within the manufacturing setting. Third, the paper seeks to investigate the ability to yield the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chains with the structural hole, although this type of rent is typically linked to another arrangement called closure.

Originality/value

Given the increasing attention paid to the role of social capital within supply chains, this study investigates how relational embeddedness can be used by the manufacturer, sitting on the structural hole and running the network governance mechanism, to yield the Coleman rent in the triadic supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Erika Suárez Valencia, Víctor Bucheli, Roberto Zarama and Ángel Garcia

– The purpose of this paper is to focus on the underpinning dynamics that explain collective intelligence.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the underpinning dynamics that explain collective intelligence.

Design/methodology/approach

Collective intelligence can be understood as the capacity of a collective system to evolve toward higher order complexity through networks of individual capacities. The authors observed two collective systems as examples of the dynamic processes of complex networks – the wiki course PeSO at the Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia, and an agent-based model inspired by wiki systems.

Findings

The results of the wiki course PeSO and the model are contrasted with a random network baseline model. Both the wiki course and the model show dynamics of accumulation, in which statistical properties of non-equilibrium networks appear.

Research limitations/implications

The work is based on network science. The authors analyzed data from two kinds of networks: the wiki course PeSO and an agent-based model. Limitations due to the number of computations and complexity appeared when there was a high order of magnitude of agents.

Practical implications

Better understanding can allow for the measurement and design of systems based on collective intelligence.

Originality/value

The results show how collective intelligence emerges from cumulative dynamics.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Benjamin Stuart Rodney Farr-Wharton, Kerry Brown, Robyn Keast and Yuliya Shymko

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organisational business acumen and social network structure on the earnings and labour precarity experienced by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organisational business acumen and social network structure on the earnings and labour precarity experienced by creative industry workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Results from a survey that collected data from a random sample of 289 creative workers are analysed using structural equation modelling. Mediating effects of social network structure are explored.

Findings

Results support the qualitative findings of Crombie and Hagoort (2010) who claim that organisational business acumen is a significant enabler for creative workers. Further, social network structure has a partial mediating effect in mitigating labour precarity.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study is novel in its use of a quantitative approach to understand the relationship between labour and social network dynamics of the creative industries. For this reason, developed scales, while robust in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, warrant further application and maturity.

Practical implications

The organisational business acumen of creative workers is found to mitigate labour precarity and increase perceived earnings.

Social implications

The results from this study call for policy and management shifts, to focus attention on developing business proficiency of creative workers, in an effort to curb labour precarity in the creative industries, and enhance positive spillovers into other sectors.

Originality/value

The paper fills a gap in knowledge regarding the impact of organisational business acumen and social network structure on the pay and working conditions of people working in a sector that is dominated by self-employed and freelance arrangements.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

David Wyman, Elaine Worzala and Maury Seldin

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine the lack of reliability of traditional neo-classical models and to argue that it is due to the hidden complexity and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine the lack of reliability of traditional neo-classical models and to argue that it is due to the hidden complexity and non-linearity that may operate at times in residential housing markets. As a result, market efficiency may be a special case, rather than the prevailing rule. An alternative framework that incorporates the higher order concepts of complexity – based on the non-linear, emergent behavior of multiple agents – is required to model discontinuities and imbalances in the housing markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the building block concepts required to model the complexity of the housing market and analyzes their implications. These implications can be counter-intuitive and help explain the failure of policy makers to model the recent bust in global housing markets.

Findings

The paper finds that policy makers need to adopt an analytical framework that incorporates non-linearity, emergence and other building blocks of complexity in order to construct representative financial models that help understand systemic imbalances that may afflict residential housing markets.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to one's knowledge that argues that policy makers should adopt an alternative theoretical framework based on complexity concepts in order to create more effective financial models; such models should include indicators that provide early warning signals of potential discontinuities in housing markets.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Margit Neisig

The purpose is to investigate a position for engaged scholarship bridging the gulf between theorizing and practice in a social system perspective using Design Thinking for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to investigate a position for engaged scholarship bridging the gulf between theorizing and practice in a social system perspective using Design Thinking for assisting the emergence of a semantic reservoir in a polycentric network “in spe”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper combines social systems theory with the concept of engaged scholarship based on Design Thinking, and illustrates how such a research position might be applied to problems of polycentric networks as a theoretical/methodological case.

Findings

The paper concludes on a possible role for an engaged scholarship as a midwife assisting the emergence of a shared semantic reservoir that is needed to make commitments and couplings possible to become a polycentric network. Design Thinking is explained as a structured way to irritate (disturb) other systems, and the role of a shared semantic reservoir for a polycentric network “in spe” is accounted for.

Originality/value

Bridging the gulf between theorizing and practice in management theory is under-explored, and social systems theory underlines the immanent rigor-relevance gap, which this paper suggests a way not to overcome, but to bridge. The discussion of the rigor-relevance gap is revisited. Also, the critical process for a shared semantic reservoir to emerge in the formation of poly-centric networks is underexplored and so are its role for coupling of networks. The conceptual understanding thereof is also contributed to.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000