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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

Eric Frank

This monograph is on developments and trends in vocationaleducation and training in Europe. An overview is given of what is beingplanned in Western Europe. This is…

Abstract

This monograph is on developments and trends in vocational education and training in Europe. An overview is given of what is being planned in Western Europe. This is illustrated by a detailed description of the educational systems of a selection of EC and non‐EC countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Switzerland), followed by discussion of the current provision for vocational education and training within those systems and also in commerce and industry. Also provided are additional information on the work of CEDEFOP and of the European Commission, further reading, useful addresses and a glossary of some European language vocational education terms.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2012

Dobrochna Hildebrandt-Wypych

The aim of the chapter is to investigate the changing structural position of post-secondary schools in Poland, seen from the perspective of the expansion of higher

Abstract

The aim of the chapter is to investigate the changing structural position of post-secondary schools in Poland, seen from the perspective of the expansion of higher education from one side and the current reform of vocational education from the other. Do post-secondary schools enhance opportunities for those who might not otherwise consider further education, especially when we consider lower cost, open admissions and greater accessibility in comparison with higher education institutions? Or do they play a role of a ‘discounted’ and ‘undervalued’ education for those who could not manage to enter three-year-bachelor cycles in tertiary education and thus were forced to lower their initial educational aspirations? The opening up of higher education to new student populations was done by the rapid expansion of the private (paid for) sector and the fee-paying courses in the public sector. Liberal educational policy not only opened an opportunity for the privatization in higher education, but also expanded the market-driven provision at the post-secondary level. The discussion on the relevance of post-secondary vocational qualifications must be seen within the context of the continual inflation of diplomas/degrees and the unemployment of graduates after finishing higher education. Since 2010, there has been a reverse process initiated at the governmental level in Poland: reform schemes to increase the participation of young people in vocational education and training. However, the structural position and functions of post-secondary schools, as well as their role in the employability of young people, are not subject to any open discussion at the political level. This sort of status quo concerning post-secondary institutions means that their institutional identity issues are resolved and their structural position defined predominantly by market forces.

Details

Community Colleges Worldwide: Investigating the Global Phenomenon
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-230-1

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Felix Rauner

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the internationalisation of nearly all spheres of society and the process of European integration will be leading to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the internationalisation of nearly all spheres of society and the process of European integration will be leading to the development of a European vocational education and training (VET) architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of the “Copenhagen process” is based on the EU documents on the realisation of a European Qualifications Framework and a credit transfer system.

Findings

The result of the study shows that the strategy adopted by the European Union for the establishment of a European area of vocational education is confronted with a dilemma. The European Qualifications Framework is highly abstract since any reference to real educational programmes and qualifications and any concrete provision for the transition and for the transferability between educational levels and sectors (vocational and higher education, initial and continuing training) was avoided in order to adhere to the anti‐harmonisation clause. The result is an abstract, hierachically structured one‐dimensional qualifications framework that lacks any reference to existing VET systems and that contradicts all scientific insights from VET research and knowledge research.

Practical implications

The implications for VET policy are far‐reaching. A European area of vocational education can be established only on the basis of European open core occupations and an open VET architecture, which ensures that vocational education becomes an integral part of national educational systems. The qualification of employees for the intermediary sector can be realised only as a European project.

Originality/value

There are only a few contributions available that undertake a conceptual analysis and critique of the European Qualifications Framework.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 32 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Indermit S. Gill, Amit Dar and Fred Fluitman

This article traces the experience of countries reforming their vocational education and training policies and summarizes the lessons learned. It is based on a recent…

Abstract

This article traces the experience of countries reforming their vocational education and training policies and summarizes the lessons learned. It is based on a recent joint World Bank‐ILO study focussing on the obstacles to implementing change in vocational education and training systems in response to changing labor markets and innovative approaches to overcoming these constraints in 19 countries worldwide. It tracks the demand‐side pressures and supply‐side responses and highlights some critical issues, constraints and innovations in the reform of these systems. The main messages from this study are: matching instrument to target group is as important as picking the best delivery mode; the government’s role in facilitating the provision of information about vocational education and training has been relatively neglected; a vigorous private response has refuted claims of the reluctance of private providers to enter the field; and political will, not institutional capacity, is the main obstacle to comprehensive reform.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Georg Spöttl

Parity of esteem between general and vocational education is a widely discussed topic in those countries which have established a system of vocational education and

Abstract

Purpose

Parity of esteem between general and vocational education is a widely discussed topic in those countries which have established a system of vocational education and training (VET) beside the system of general education, leading to numerous qualifications and licenses. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative consideration of curricular basic structures of TVET and higher education will reveal the qualitative differences in the different study courses and entailing barriers for permeability between TVET and higher education. A deepening analysis compares the curricular structures and evaluates the differences with the aid of selected criteria.

Findings

The article clarifies the hidden obstacles of permeability between vocational and higher education, and points out ways to shape lateral and vertical permeability with a view to career paths to build up human capabilities. However, until now most of these do not entail permeability to learning pathways in higher education. This is especially true when vocational programmes do not prepare for higher education at the same time, i.e. do not include a university entrance qualification. This discussion has gained a new momentum with the adoption of the European Qualifications Framework by the European Parliament and the Council in 2008, motivating member states to reconsider this context. Since then there is an intensive debate about opening universities for learners with vocational qualifications.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the traditionally clear‐cut division between vocational and academic education and a separate dealing with the different concepts, organizations and institutions, a comparative research with methods and instruments has not yet developed. With regard to a comparison of vocational and academic education, research is still at the very beginning. There are currently no confirmed reliable answers to the question how the transitions between vocational and academic education could be shaped in order to ensure their success.

Practical implications

European initiatives and the implementation of instruments such as the Qualifications Framework to support permeability call for ways to offer academic education with degrees to persons with a qualified vocational background. The curricular structures of the universities are currently not geared to these requirements.

Social implications

The relevant social dimension aims at an equivalence of vocational and academic education that has been discussed in some European countries since the 1960s. Some European initiatives (EQF, ECVET, etc) over recent years have led to the opening of universities for persons with a qualified vocational background. This helps to overcome social barriers.

Originality/value

The value added is a frame for comparison of curricular structures. The findings can then be thoroughly discussed in connection with the European Qualification Framework. In addition the article offers options for overcoming the obstacles for comparative research on vocational and academically qualified persons.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Leesa Wheelahan and Richard Carter

National training packages have become the mandated framework for course delivery in Australia’s vocational education and training sector. Each training package contains…

Abstract

National training packages have become the mandated framework for course delivery in Australia’s vocational education and training sector. Each training package contains: qualifications that can be issued, industry‐derived competencies, and assessment guidelines but do not contain an endorsed curriculum component or learning outcomes. All public and private vocational education and training providers must use training packages, or industry‐endorsed competencies in cases where they do not exist, if they are to receive public funding for their programs. This article describes the operation of Australia’s national training packages and considers some of their strengths and weaknesses, many of which may be shared by similar systems elsewhere. Argues that training packages may result in poorer student learning outcomes, and that they may threaten the end of effective credit transfer between the vocational education and training and higher education sectors. Suggests that national training packages are not a good model for other countries and that Australia’s current vocational education and training policy needs to be reviewed.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Yana van der Meulen Rodgers and Teresa Boyer

Seeks to examine the extent to which education systems around the world embrace vocational schooling and the degree to which exposure to vocational schooling differs by…

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to examine the extent to which education systems around the world embrace vocational schooling and the degree to which exposure to vocational schooling differs by gender and race.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses distributional analysis applied to cross‐country data from Unesco to examine shares of secondary school students enrolled in the vocational track, by gender. Also uses descriptive statistics based on US Department of Education data to examine fields of study within the vocational track.

Findings

The emphasis on vocational education and access to different types of training across demographic groups varies considerably around the world. European countries in particular, long known for their heavy emphasis on specialized vocational schooling, have relatively high vocational school shares in secondary school. At the other end of the distribution, almost 30 countries in the sample, most of them low‐income, have vocational school shares below 4 percent. In the majority of countries, a higher share of male secondary school students enroll in the vocational track compared with female students. Latin American countries stand out for having a high female representation among vocational school students. In the USA, male students cluster in trade and industrial courses, while female students cluster in business preparation courses. Also, white students are relatively concentrated in the trades, black and Hispanic students cluster in business courses, and Asian students are concentrated in technical courses.

Originality/value

These stylized facts set the stage for new research on vocational education and for new policy initiatives that create new opportunities for specialization in vocational training.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Eric Frank

An attempt is made to illustrate the multi‐faceted and multifarious nature of human resource development worldwide, following a definition of it and a description of how…

Abstract

An attempt is made to illustrate the multi‐faceted and multifarious nature of human resource development worldwide, following a definition of it and a description of how it operates in a number of countries throughout the world, including the US, the EEC countries, India, Singapore, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The roles and functions of HRD practitioners are examined, and the competences required listed. A short history of the International Federation of Training and Development Organisations is offered and a list of conferences described.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Chris Sakellariou

This study sets out to investigate the pattern of benefits from education along the earnings distribution and compares this pattern between general and vocational

Abstract

Purpose

This study sets out to investigate the pattern of benefits from education along the earnings distribution and compares this pattern between general and vocational/technical education in Singapore, with a particular focus on male‐female differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantile regression methodology is used, which allows for estimates of education benefits that differentiate the contribution of the quantity and quality of education along the earnings distribution. The quantile regression estimates highlight where in the income/ability distribution the impact of education is more pronounced.

Findings

Finds that, while the pattern of returns to an additional year of education for general education follows that of other high income countries, exhibiting increasing returns to education as one goes from lower to higher income quantiles, the returns to vocational education exhibit much lower heterogeneity. Based on the findings, the vocational education system in Singapore has served women with secondary vocational qualifications particularly well. They earn more, have higher labor force participation, experience higher employment rates and are associated with a narrower gender earnings gap compared with women with general education. However, this is not the case for women with polytechnic qualifications, who earn much less than men with such qualifications.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that, by and large, Singapore's vocational education system at the secondary level has successfully addressed the needs of the industry and has contributed towards narrowing gender earnings differentials. It has also contributed towards less overall earnings inequality, because it results in less heterogeneity in the returns to education, compared with general education. However, the curricula of polytechnics need to be re‐examined to identify the cause of the sharply lower female benefits from this type of education.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the empirical literature with its use of the quantile regression methodology in evaluating the benefits of vocational versus general education for men and women.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1982

RAY THOROGOOD

This overview of current themes in vocational education and training policies and systems is presented in three parts. PART 1 treats the context of vocational education and

Abstract

This overview of current themes in vocational education and training policies and systems is presented in three parts. PART 1 treats the context of vocational education and training and discusses the major issues influencing national Governments to change their role in vocational education and training. PART 2 discusses the common themes in how central Governments are changing their role in vocational education and training, particularly concerning the devolution of training responsibility to local bodies. The ways in which vocational education and training systems controlled by these local bodies are reacting to this increased responsibility are pursued in detail. PART 3 discusses the growing realization by central Governments that their responsibility for economic development and productivity can be discharged by a closer focus on vocational education and training, not at the delivery level, but at a policy level which includes both policies for vocational preparation of all citizens — particularly youth — and policies which promote new and existing enterprises which show high returns on investment and productivity.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 14 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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