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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Danilo de Melo Costa

China has invested massively in higher education, reaching a mass system, envisaging, as a next step, reaching a universal system. Brazil is still an elite system but…

Abstract

Purpose

China has invested massively in higher education, reaching a mass system, envisaging, as a next step, reaching a universal system. Brazil is still an elite system but needs to create adequate public policies to migrate to a mass system. The purpose of this article is to analyze the paradigms for a mass educational system, with regard to the quality of education offered, and the prospects for achieving a universal system, with Brazil and China as a reference.

Design/methodology/approach

The author applied an exploratory and qualitative method, through categorical content analysis. The data were collected through nine interviews with government managers, 15 unstructured (open) questionnaires to specialists in higher education and four student leadership.

Findings

The results indicate that the change from an elite system to a mass system impacts quality, as there is an inevitable change in experience. However, this modification does not testify against the mass system, as it is necessary for a nation to pass through it and structure itself adequately in order to reach the universal system, a path desired by both countries.

Originality/value

The study presented the reflections observed by the migration from the elite system to the mass system from the main stakeholders of the system in China and the prospects for Brazil to become a mass system. Additionally, it presented the perspectives for both countries to achieve the desired universal system.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Karin Amos, Lúcia Bruno and Marcelo Parreira do Amaral

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting…

Abstract

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting canonical knowledge and generating new knowledge is normally associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt. Other highly influential university models were provided by France and Great Britain. The association of certain types of universities with particular countries is a strong indicator of the intricate link between nation-state and education. Hence, the history of tertiary education and its elite institutions, the research universities, must be considered in relation with a sea change in educational history – the gradual emergence of national education systems. Only under the conditions of the by now standard form of organizing modern societies as nation-states did education become a central institution (Meyer, Boli, Thomas, & Ramirez, 1997) collapsing individual perfectibility and national progress. The nationally redefined university was integrated into the education system as its keystone while also being considered the motor of societal development. From a social history perspective, the latter aspect in particular indicates the pragmatic (training professionals, imparting military and technical knowledge, etc.) and symbolic expectations, “myths” of the nation-state that have been so aptly described and analyzed in numerous macro-sociological neo-institutionalist studies (Meyer, Ramirez, & Soysal, 1992; Meyer et al., 1997; Ramirez & Boli, 1987). In a macro-phenomenological perspective, the term “myth” is used to denote a fundamental change in the self-description of European society which since the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries no longer views itself as consisting of separate collectivities divided from each other by social origin – as was the case under feudal conditions – with each collectivity providing itself the necessary education for its members or being provided for by others in the case of neediness. Instead, as a result of a number of material and immaterial changes, society now defines the individual as its key unit, with the nation being consequently the aggregate of individuals and not of collectivities and the state redefined as the guardian of the nation. This conception might be taken as a kind of overlapping area which includes different approaches, such as Michel Foucault's concept of the disciplinary society (Foucault, 1977), Balibar and Wallerstein's (1991) deliberations on the relation between race, class, and nation, and Benedict Anderson's (1991) description of nations as imagined communities. All these studies could be taken as sharing the notion of “constructedness” (cf. Berger & Luckmann, 1972) of modern society with the neo-institutionalist perspective. The concept of a “world polity” which encompasses the “myths” society is based on, the overall notion of a cognitive culture, which takes Max Weber's concept of rationality as a point of departure, is identified as the basis of isomorphic change in the organizational structure of modern education systems (cf. Baker & Wiseman, 2006). However, the strong emphasis on international, world system embeddedness of nation-states and their education systems is not to be taken as a unidirectional dependence on external forces. While modern nation-states originate from and remain tied to international dynamics and developments, they are conceived as unique entities. For most of their history, modern nation-states have been preoccupied with making themselves distinct from each other. Thus, while international competition has always been present, looking abroad traditionally meant reworking, adapting, and reshaping what was imported, or borrowed (Halpin & Troyna, 1995; Steiner-Khamsi, 2004). This is true for education as well as for other areas of society.

Details

The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2011

Kathryn Mohrman, Yingjie Wang and Xu Li

This chapter examines the development of a quality assurance system for undergraduate education as one aspect of the transformation of education policy in China. The…

Abstract

This chapter examines the development of a quality assurance system for undergraduate education as one aspect of the transformation of education policy in China. The central structure of the chapter is the process/stages of policy development and implementation, with particular attention to the changes over time in central control versus institutional autonomy. The Chinese government has moved to a “steering at a distance” approach with ex post accountability, giving institutions of higher education greater autonomy for undergraduate education. Government authority continues to be strong, however, even though the mechanisms of control have changed. This study provides an analysis of quality assurance in Chinese higher education and the changing relationship between government and campuses, using the lens of policy development and implementation.

Details

The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-186-2

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Frans A. van Vught, Marijk C. van der Wende and Don F. Westerheijden

In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about…

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about mechanisms affecting diversity distinguished by van Vught (environmental conditions, competition for resources and academic norms) remain the same, but the initial conditions have changed. Governmental policy, in particular, affects the degree of openness of higher education systems (positively or negatively), either through (de-)regulation or by affecting higher education institutions’ strategies for internationalisation. Thus, we add as a fourth proposition that increasing institutional autonomy increases system diversity in the context of globalisation.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-277-0

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2012

Daniel G. Shimshak and Janet M. Wagner

As state funding for public higher education has declined, there is a rising demand for accountability. Past studies have relied on indicator ratios to look at the…

Abstract

As state funding for public higher education has declined, there is a rising demand for accountability. Past studies have relied on indicator ratios to look at the relationship between funding and performance measures. This approach has some inherent problems that make it difficult to identify inefficiencies. This chapter will study efficiency in state systems of higher education by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA methodology converts multiple variables into a single comprehensive measure of performance efficiency and has the ability to perform benchmarking for the purpose of establishing performance goals. The advantages of DEA modeling will be shown by comparing results with those from a recent study of higher education finance based on publicly available data. DEA is shown to be feasible and implementable for studying state systems of higher education, and provides useful information in identifying “best practice” state systems and guidance for improvement. The value of DEA modeling to state policy makers and education researchers is discussed.

Details

Applications of Management Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-100-8

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Sunwoong Kim

The basic structure of Korea's formal education system is 6-3-3-4. This school system, which was established soon after its independence from Japan after World War II, has…

Abstract

The basic structure of Korea's formal education system is 6-3-3-4. This school system, which was established soon after its independence from Japan after World War II, has not been changed very much until recently. Primary education covers grades 1–6. Kindergarten has not been a part of the official school system until now, although making it a part of the pubic school system has been under discussion for some years. In the secondary education sector, there are two levels of schools: middle schools covering grades 7–9, and high schools covering grades 10–12. After 12 years of formal education, students advance to higher education. Typically, undergraduate degree (B.A. or B.S.) takes four years.

Details

The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Hugh Africa

Education systems are subject to periodic reviews that may be undertaken as part of a process of quality enhancement or are necessitated by some shift in ideological…

Abstract

Education systems are subject to periodic reviews that may be undertaken as part of a process of quality enhancement or are necessitated by some shift in ideological orientation. In countries where social and political roles have remained more or less unchanged, these reviews rarely result in sudden and fundamental change. However, any change in a system engenders positive and negative reactions. In this day and age, there are examples of countries emerging from repressive systems of governments to relatively freer, more transparent and democratic systems. In order to keep pace with the new political dispensation and to ensure its survival, it becomes essential that the education system of such a state is transformed and reengineered to respond to and reflect the aspirations of the changing society.

Details

Higher Education in a Global Society: Achieving Diversity, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-182-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Fatma Mizikaci

To propose an evaluation model for the quality implementations in higher education through an analysis of quality systems and program evaluation using a systems approach.

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9488

Abstract

Purpose

To propose an evaluation model for the quality implementations in higher education through an analysis of quality systems and program evaluation using a systems approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical background, research and practice of the quality systems in higher education and program evaluation are analysed in conjunction with the concepts of systems approach. The analysis leads to a systems approach‐based program‐evaluation model for quality implementation in higher education.

Findings

The three concepts, quality systems in higher education, program evaluation and systems approach, are found to be consistent and compatible with one another with regard to the goals and organizational structure of the higher education institutions. The proposed evaluation model provides a new perspective for higher education management for the effective and efficient implementation of the quality systems and program improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The implementation of the model in a real university setting is necessary for the clarification of the processes.

Practical implications

The study provides a constructive analysis of highereducation‐related concepts, and a new dimension of quality systems and program evaluation is developed in the model. The approach comprises three subsystems; “social system”, “technical systems”, and “managerial system”. The evaluation of quality in higher education requires inquiry of the components of the systems.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an innovative evaluation model integrating the systems approach into quality tools. The model is claimed to be the first in integrating the three approaches.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

David Fátima and Rute Abreu

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation and developments of the Bologna Process in the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a new paradigm of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation and developments of the Bologna Process in the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a new paradigm of the European system of higher education, in general, and of the Portuguese system, in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses firstly, higher education system statistics; secondly, Government and European Union documents; and thirdly, academic papers that conceptual frame the issues under discussion.

Findings

Portuguese HEIs are engaged in the Bologna process, but it shows some contradictions within the higher education system. One of these contradictions is the restructuring of the degrees and cycles had led to the apparently destruction of the binary system (universities and polytechnics) which existed in for more than 30 years. Another contradiction is carry out common European priorities and, at the same time, maintaining the national culture, language, education systems and HEIs autonomy. Although, the system promotes the cooperation between HEIs and increases the research, the innovation and the sustainable development, at a national level, as well as, an international level.

Practical implications

HEIs need to promote the strategic function of higher education and it demands a constant adaptation of the conceptual field, especially, in the social, economic and technological perspectives. These perspectives will assurance the enhancement and the preservation of quality of teaching/learning. These will improve the education for sustainable development that it develops higher growth and better educational performance.

Originality/value

Provides empirical evidence about the social dimension of the higher education system and analyse the Bologna Process in the HEIs.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Steve O. Michael

Suggests that institutions of higher education in the USA encounter problems that are unique to the market environment. These problems include competition for resources…

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3373

Abstract

Suggests that institutions of higher education in the USA encounter problems that are unique to the market environment. These problems include competition for resources, escalating costs, and resource constraints. In response to these problems, higher education systems within this kind of environment tend to borrow strategies from organizations operating under the most competitive environment ‐ the business sector. Discusses specific strategies adopted by institutions of higher education in North America. Examines how these strategies have affected the culture of higher education. Discusses the shift occurring between the consumerism‐ professorialism continuum. Calls for the need to understand the dual nature of higher education so that strategies can be selectively adapted.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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