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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Melissa May Yee Lau

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students’ selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students’ selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong. The factors that affect students’ selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes have not been studied in higher education market of Hong Kong. This research is to fill the gap by examining the effects of 8Ps (“Product Elements”, “Price and Other User Outlays”, “Place and Time”, “Promotion and Education”, “People”, “Process”, “Physical Environment” and “Productivity and Quality”) on self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The research taken was a quantitative survey of students at Community College at Lingnan University in Hong Kong.

Findings

The results reveal that “Productivity and Quality” is the most important element of 8Ps of services marketing. Accreditation of programmes seeking recognition in Hong Kong and overseas can increase student enrolment. “Promotion and Education” element is the least important element of 8Ps of services marketing. Self-financed higher education institutions should develop strategies to build relationships with the secondary school teachers and counsellors rather than invest money on advertising.

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected from a particular community college in Hong Kong only.

Practical implications

Management can increase student recruitment by allocating minimum amount of limited resources to recruit maximum number of students.

Originality/value

This research adds knowledge to the marketing of higher education in Hong Kong. The management of self-financing sub-degree programmes can use the findings of this research as a reference to develop their marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dmitry V. Didenko

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and…

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and households. It contributes to the literature discussing theoretical issues and empirical patterns of modernization, human development, as well as the transition from a centralized to a market economy. The empirical evidence is based on extensive utilization of the dataset introduced in Didenko, Földvári, and Van Leeuwen (2013). Our findings provide support for the view expressed in Gerschenkron (1962) that in late industrializers the government tended to substitute for the lack of capital and infrastructure by direct interventions. At least from the late nineteenth century the central government's and local authorities' budgets played the primary role. However, the role of nongovernment sources increased significantly since the mid-1950s, i.e., after the crucial breakthrough to an industrial society had been made. During the transition to a market economy in the 1990s and 2000s the level of government contributions decreased somewhat in education, and more significantly in research and development, but its share in overall financing expanded. In education corporate funds were largely replaced by those from households. In health care, Russia is characterized by an increasing share of out-of-pocket payments of households and slow development of organized forms of nonstate financing. These trends reinforce obstacles to Russia's future transition, as regards institutional change toward a more significant and sound role of the corporate sector in such branches as R&D, health care, and, to a lesser extent, education.

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Elissa Chin Lu

As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers…

Abstract

As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers, especially borrowers from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Drawing upon the concepts of cultural capital and habitus (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977), this research explores how student debt and social class intersect and affect individuals’ trajectory into adulthood. Based on 50 interviews with young adults who incurred $30,000–180,000 in undergraduate debt and who were from varying social classes, the findings are presented in terms of a categorization schema (income level by level of cultural capital) and a conceptual model of borrowing. The results illustrate the inequitable payoff that college and debt can have for borrowers with varying levels of cultural resources, with borrowers from low-income, low cultural capital backgrounds more likely to struggle throughout and after college with their loans.

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Paradoxes of the Democratization of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-234-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

John Creedy and Patrick Francois

Examines, using a simple model, the choice of appropriatecontributions of taxes and fees used to finance higher education. Atwo‐period model is developed in which…

Abstract

Examines, using a simple model, the choice of appropriate contributions of taxes and fees used to finance higher education. A two‐period model is developed in which individuals in cohort invest in higher education in the first period, and the interdependences between educational choice and the tax system are considered. The implications of majority voting and the maximization of a social welfare function, allowing for a trade‐off between equity and efficiency, are examined in progressive and proportional tax systems.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Darryl G. Greer and Michael W. Klein

The purpose of this paper is to suggest public service corporations as a new means of helping to finance comprehensive public colleges and universities based on a

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest public service corporations as a new means of helping to finance comprehensive public colleges and universities based on a well‐documented assumption that the current shared responsibility for financing public colleges is broken.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on financing comprehensive public colleges and universities, and explicitly does not focus on research, community, or proprietary institutions. The paper draws heavily from national data and literature on college finance and productivity, and uses New Jersey's state colleges and universities as primary examples.

Findings

The paper asserts that a new funding rationale for public colleges is imperative or these institutions will fail the principal mission of broad access for middle‐income students. Citing examples from New Jersey and other states, and drawing on work of other policy analysts, the paper proposes creation of new public service corporations not only as a means of generating new revenue to replace diminished state investment, but also as a means of enhancing transparency, accountability and public trust. The paper discusses explicit purposes and measurable benefits of the public service corporation.

Originality/value

The paper is written by two higher education policy practitioners with a combined 40 years executive experience in higher education law and policy at the state and national levels. They have been a leading voice for policy innovation in New Jersey. The paper has significant value for college presidents, trustees, governors, legislators, and policy analysts.

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On the Horizon, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Noor Ain Alin @ Nordin and Asmak Ab Rahman

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to study the concept of infaq in Islam, investigate its practice in Malaysia, analyse its role in public universities (PUs)…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to study the concept of infaq in Islam, investigate its practice in Malaysia, analyse its role in public universities (PUs), investigate the issues and constraints of infaq for financing of higher education in Malaysia and suggest recommendations for improvement.

Methodology/approach – This study used a qualitative methodology and was conducted to obtain information on the practice of infaq in financing tertiary-level education in Malaysia, to learn about the recommended practice of infaq in Islam, to analyse its implementation and to explore the constraints faced in the financing of higher education in Malaysia.

Findings – This study indicated that the practice of infaq helps to ease the burden of rising fees and the cost of living for university students.

Research limitations/implications – The study only focused on the role of infaq in financing higher education in Malaysia. The sample for this study involved four PUs in the Klang Valley.

Originality/value – This study provides new contributions to the field of education infaq in Malaysia.

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Irina Abankina, Liudmila Filatova and Elena Nikolayenko

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes in higher education under the new configuration of resources based on the income structure of universities located in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes in higher education under the new configuration of resources based on the income structure of universities located in the Central Federal District (CFD). Particular focus is given to the changes in the structure of public financing of higher education, considering the explicit priorities of increasing teaching staff salaries and promoting research. The study also assesses regional differentiation in financial resources for the maintenance of university property and the accumulation of funds from extra-budgetary sources.

Design/methodology/approach

Using statistical and economic analysis methods, the research reveals the main trends of structural changes in public funding of higher education in Russia as a whole, and the regional peculiarities of financial support in the universities of the CFD.

Findings

The results of this investigation of universities in the CFD point to inertia in the development of universities in the regions, and problems transitioning to new business models. Groups of universities in the region often lobby for the “previous rules of the game.” The results evidence a change in financial support from different income sources and in cost structures at the university level. These are the result of higher education reform and university support programs aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of the leading Russian universities and developing a competitive national education system.

Originality/value

A costs optimization policy has led to polarization of universities and reduced development opportunities for a significant proportion of regional universities. In order to maintain their properties in good condition, they have to make active efforts to seek non-budgetary funding sources against a fall in effective demand from the population.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Faris Nasif Alshubiri

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of financial sustainability indicators of higher education on foreign direct investment (FDI) using empirical evidence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of financial sustainability indicators of higher education on foreign direct investment (FDI) using empirical evidence from 26 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The basic criterion for determining the financial sustainability of higher education institutions included indicators of income generated by higher education institutions being greater than the operational costs. However, this requires financial sustainability, which depends on financial self-sufficiency without seeking external financial assistance. This situation is affected by investment attractiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Three quantitative proxies were used in this study to explain the financial sustainability indicators in higher education institutions of OECD countries: financial expenditures proxy measured by current tertiary education expenditure (CE); efficiency proxy measured by university-life expectancy (ULE) and endogenous growth proxy measured by gross enrolment tertiary ratio (GETR) to show the effect on FDI. Also, this study used six control variables considered an important part of experimental design and refers to contributing factors that were eliminated to clarify the independent variable and a dependent variable nexus. The quantitative data was collected from World Development Indicators (WDI). This study applied a STATA version using panel data techniques for over 15 years from 2001 to 2015 and also used fixed effect (FE) and random effect (RE) estimations to address problems of heterogeneity. To mitigate the endogeneity problem, the generalized method of moments (GMM) was also used.

Findings

The results of this study were derived from the adoption of financial models applied in higher education institutions to test the financial sustainability indicators. Based on the RE and FE results, a one per cent increase in the current tertiary education expenditure caused about 0.19 and 0.18 per cent increase in FDI in the OECD economies. This positive and significant impact was higher when considering the problem of endogeneity by applying the GMM estimations. FDI grew by about 0.22 per cent when the CE increased by one percent. Meanwhile, there was a significant and negative relationship between FDI and the GETR variable for the FE results but this previous relationship was insignificant for RE estimations. The FDI in OECD economies decreased by about 0.0006 per cent when the GETR increased by 1 per cent. This negative effect became larger when applying the GMM estimations. Finally, the ULE results showed there was a positive and insignificant relationship between ULE and FDI for all estimators.

Practical implications

The management and analysis of the financial health indicators is necessary to evaluate educational activities but is not sufficient to achieve financial sustainability, which extends beyond the indicators of financial health to encompass factors such as student achievements; research and scientific output; community engagement; productive capacity; quality inputs; risk and infrastructure; and systems.

Originality/value

This study is considered one of the few existing studies examining the ways in which to achieve financial sustainability in higher education institutions using quantitative financial methods. Specifically, this study adopted Pecking order theory in its analysis of the financial sustainability indicators to clarify whether the financial sustainability indicators of higher education institutions lead to an improvement in the attractiveness of foreign investment in OECD countries in the long run. The findings contribute to the necessity of adopting internal financing sources in accordance with the Pecking Order theory to help achieve financial sustainability growth.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2015

Helena Sampaio

This paper focuses on the analysis of how mass inclusion has taken place primarily in the private higher education sector. I present data on the evolution of Brazilian…

Abstract

This paper focuses on the analysis of how mass inclusion has taken place primarily in the private higher education sector. I present data on the evolution of Brazilian higher education, indicating the complementary roles undertaken by public and private sectors and their effects on the present configuration of our higher education. Then, I discuss the increase in higher education enrollment, in view of two factors: the widening of the supply and demand base – the former specifically by means of the expansion of for-profit private sector – and the adoption of mechanisms for access and commitment to higher education by public financing for students in private institutions.

Details

Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-291-7

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2013

Christopher S. Collins

The African continent is filled with a textured history, vast resources, and immense opportunity. The landscape of higher education on such a diverse continent is…

Abstract

The African continent is filled with a textured history, vast resources, and immense opportunity. The landscape of higher education on such a diverse continent is extensive and complex. In this review of the landscape, four primary topics are evaluated. The historical context is the foundational heading, which briefly covers the evolution from colonization to independence and the knowledge economy. The second main heading builds upon the historical context to provide an overview of the numerous components of higher education, including language diversity, institutional type, and access to education. A third section outlines key challenges and opportunities including finance, governance, organizational effectiveness, and the academic core. Each of these challenges and opportunities is interconnected and moves from external influences (e.g., fiscal and political climate) to internal influences (e.g., administrative leadership and faculty roles). The last layer of the landscape focuses on leveraging higher education in Africa for social and economic progress and development. Shaping a higher education system around principles of the public good and generating social benefits is important for including postsecondary institutions in a development strategy.

Details

IThe Development of Higher Education in Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-699-6

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