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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Nelofer Halai

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the development of education in private sector universities in Pakistan as compared to public universities…

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1712

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the development of education in private sector universities in Pakistan as compared to public universities. Additionally, the purpose is to understand the quality of education in private universities in light of the 2012 higher education commission (HEC), Pakistan ranking data.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes the data shared by HEC at its web site (http://hec.gov.pk) and compares the total scores and the scores for research of private universities in the top ten ranking within the given categories. This comparison is used to evaluate issues related to access and quality of private higher education in Pakistan.

Findings

The private higher education sector is agile and more responsive to market demands. Furthermore, it has allowed the “youth bulge” of Pakistan access to higher education. However, with few exceptions the quality of private higher education is inadequate.

Originality/value

The need for Pakistan to reform its education to counter the grave twin dangers of religious extremism and militancy has been well recognized. High‐quality education at all levels is seen as one of the ways to create a more liberal society. This paper is among the first to evaluate private higher education in Pakistan in light of the most recent HEC rankings published in 2012.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2015

Meher Rizvi

An analysis of traditional authoritarian preservice teacher development approaches in Pakistan demonstrates that they develop teachers as technicians who carbon copy the…

Abstract

An analysis of traditional authoritarian preservice teacher development approaches in Pakistan demonstrates that they develop teachers as technicians who carbon copy the same authoritarian training model in their classrooms. The more contemporary approaches to teacher education with leadership development focus are mostly limited to in-service teacher education programs. The key dilemma with in-service education is that once the teachers have received higher qualification they tend to move out of the classrooms to assume management positions. What Pakistan requires is classroom teacher leaders who have the capacity to initiate and sustain school improvement. I propose the pedagogy of transformation, which is based on the principles of participation and emancipation suited to develop preservice teachers as active professionals who have the capacity to influence and drive improvements in their own learning and in the learning of the children. The transformation pedagogy encompasses five specific instructional strategies for nurturing teachers’ leadership skills in the current preservice teacher preparation program in Pakistan. These are: encourage active involvement and delegation of authority among preservice teachers, engage preservice teachers in critical analysis and meta-cognitive tasks, building collaborative teams and professional networks among preservice teachers, providing preservice teachers with experience of working with real-life teacher leaders, and develop preservice teachers’ moral and ethical reasoning. I bring the discussion to a closure in the form of a framework which encompasses key elements of the proposed pedagogy. The framework can be adopted or adapted to give due considerations to the complexities of the contexts where it is being implemented.

Details

International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part B)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-669-0

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Javed Nayyar and S. Sohail H. Naqvi

This study is a theoretical debate on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in the state government higher education institutions (HEIs) in Pakistan with a generally accepted…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a theoretical debate on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in the state government higher education institutions (HEIs) in Pakistan with a generally accepted conceptual model. The objective of the study is to measure the mediation effect of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) on the relationship between the structure, managerial strategy, culture, environment and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The inferential statistic is used in order to achieve the objective of this study. Pearson correlation and multiple regressions are used to analyze the findings. Pearson correlation is used to see any association between the independent variables which are structural factors, managerial factors, cultural factors, and environmental factors and the dependent variable which are organizational performance. The association enables the reader to identify whether there is any relationship between the variables. It showed the strength and direction of the relationship. Meanwhile, a regression test was done to identify the predictive ability of each variable towards the organizational performance construct and mediation.

Findings

This framework of corporate entrepreneurship in the public sector tertiary education sector may have some uncertain assumptions and statements inconsistent with previous research. Nonetheless, the research framework provides a starting point to develop a more applicable corporate entrepreneurship model to higher education management and enhance the quality of public entrepreneurship research.

Social implications

Focusing the effect of mediation between the relationship of four determinant factors, and corporate entrepreneurship on the organizational performance of the schools/faculties of the state government higher education institutions in Pakistan provides some insights for to the schools/faculties' deans into how the integration of some strategies can help in creating the competitive advantage to enhance the overall performance.

Originality/value

The working paper is original in its kind that the framework is presented here is a contribution to the knowledge that fulfill the gap of enhancing performance in the state government higher education institutions in Pakistan by presenting an innovative entrepreneurial mindset.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Zainab Fakhr and Hazel Messenger

Academic freedom and the right to express one’s views in higher education (HE) are important for faculty and students alike, so enabling intellectual integrity and…

Abstract

Academic freedom and the right to express one’s views in higher education (HE) are important for faculty and students alike, so enabling intellectual integrity and professional autonomy. However, this might not be the case for female academics in countries where females are marginalised, and their opinions are dominated and limited by the society and culture. Gender inequality and how it negatively influences the opportunities available for females to progress is a universal issue; however, although initiatives designed to tackle this problem are being seen to result in gradual improvement internationally, particularly in industrial countries, the situation in developing countries remains a concern. In developing countries, women tend to be either absent from many organisations or exist at the margins of organisational life with the result that they have fewer opportunities for development or career progression. This has a negative impact on the growth and development of a country at national level, particularly when there has been investment in female education from an earlier stage. It would seem that this certainly is the case in Pakistan where cultural norms intertwine with organisational politics thus militating against female employees. The experiences and issues discussed in this chapter highlight the social barriers faced by female academics in HE that have a significant impact on their academic freedom and expression.

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Ghalib Khan and Rubina Bhatti

This study aims to investigate the annual financial management of university libraries in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, and its relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the annual financial management of university libraries in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, and its relationship with Higher Education Commission (HEC) grants to examine libraries’ share.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey methods, this study explores the annual budget allocation of well-established university libraries in the province of KPK in the past five years and its relationship with HEC grants to determine libraries’ shares. The survey followed a qualitative design based on an interview technique of data collection. The scope of this study covers all those public sector universities which are chartered by the Government of KPK, recognized by HEC, and eligible for HEC grants on annual basis. Based on this formulation, 15 public sector universities were selected for the survey.

Findings

The data analysis of the present study revealed that no specific norms are followed by the university administrations in allocating funds for libraries out of HEC annual grants. University libraries in the province either do not have funding polices or are administered by the concerned establishments where Library and Information Science professionals have no role in the financial management of libraries. The study also found that university administrations in KPK either do not provide sufficient share to libraries out of HEC grants or specify an inadequate share which is in violation of the clear instructions of HEC ordinance 2002, Section 10(h).

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan as it provides an insight into how much budget is allocated for collection development in the university libraries, compares it with HEC grants to calculate libraries’ share in percentage and suggests to the HEC to encourage university administration to allocate sufficient budget for libraries to improve collection development, service provision, acquisition, selection and patronage.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Shakhawat Hossain Sarkar, Syed Zabid Hossain and Rashidah Abdul Rahman

Using secondary sources, this study strives to appraise both the revenue and development budget allocation for education in Bangladesh compared to other South Asian…

Abstract

Using secondary sources, this study strives to appraise both the revenue and development budget allocation for education in Bangladesh compared to other South Asian countries giving special emphasis to higher education. It is observed that an insufficient budget for education in Bangladesh has a negative impact on expansion of higher education and the human development index (HDI). Inappropriate distribution among different subheads and noncompliance of the guideline for implementation of a higher education budget are two serious problems. Besides getting adequate budgetary support from the government, public universities should generate more funds from internal and other external sources. The university budget allocation should be thoroughly reviewed and revised accordingly to make it more productive and with an emphasis on teaching, research and curriculum development.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Abdul Halim Busari, Yasir Hayat Mughal, Sajjad Nawaz Khan, Shahid Rasool and Asif Ayub Kiyani

This paper argues that teachers’ promotion should also have an impact on turnover intention. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between promotion…

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4168

Abstract

Purpose

This paper argues that teachers’ promotion should also have an impact on turnover intention. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between promotion and turnover intention of advance learning institutions of the Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa Province of Pakistan and the moderating effect of the analytical cognitive style.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach is used predominantly. A questionnaire survey research design is used to collect the data from the entire province and 502 completed questionnaires were collected from the respondents. The questionnaire included the Job Descriptive Index consisting of seven items on job satisfaction, the turnover intention questionnaire consisting of three items and a five-point Likert scale used to determine cognitive style index (CSI); the CSI was used. The fourth section included an open-ended questionnaire and the fifth section included demographic variables. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to check how much variance promotion occurs upon turnover intention and it also determined how much variance analysis cognitive style occurs upon promotion and turnover intention of advance learning institutions of the KPK province of Pakistan. The correlation results from a bivariate Pearson correlation showed significant results, which were later strengthened by the regression results.

Findings

The findings suggested that a negative relationship was found between promotion and turnover intention, whereas a weak correlation was found between promotion and analytical. Moderating results show that analytical cognitive style does act as a moderator between the promotion and turnover intention.

Research limitations/implications

This research was only carried out on advance learning institutions; thus, the findings can only be generalized to higher education institutions in the Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa state.

Practical implications

This extended model of job satisfaction will be useful to lead to changes in job satisfaction and turnover intention of academicians of the Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa province of Pakistan. The findings of this study could be used to guide the management of advance learning institutions and professional academicians to build targeted learning activities around key components of the academician’s promotion, determine where individuals are in their journey, set personalized goals and provide feedback to the management in the process of the development of policies for academicians of advance learning institutions.

Social implications

The findings of this study will help the higher education commission of Pakistan to make policies that will enable higher education institutions to formulate flexible promotion policies for teachers in order to retain them.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are a valuable extension of the relevant research as this is the first empirical study to examine the effects of cognitive style on promotion policies and turnover intention in advance learning institutions of Pakistan. In the context of an efficient and effective educational policy, a greater understanding of an academician’s promotion could facilitate the development of a more effective policy practice that would increase not only the job satisfaction of the academicians but decrease the turnover intention of the academicians.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Ghalib Khan, Rubina Bhatti, Amjid Khan and Rahim Jan

The purpose of this study is to suggest strategic-based measures for improving the current situation of academic law libraries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to suggest strategic-based measures for improving the current situation of academic law libraries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey method, this study attempted to explore a strategic-based measure for improving academic law libraries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data were collected from 43 respondents through semi-structured interviews, including library and information science professionals, academicians and administrative officers of the affiliation awarding institutions and principals of the law colleges.

Findings

Based on the interview findings, the study found that most of the law colleges do not pay attention towards the development of their institutional libraries. Outdated collections, scarcity of information and communication technologies and budgetary issues, inactive roles of regulating bodies and professional associations, limited roles of professional library staff, limited access to the Higher Education Commission digital library, absence of proper library setup and moral obligations and responsibilities of institutional administrations towards the development of academic law libraries were the main challenges.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this paper covers Constituent Law College of the University of Peshawar and its 18 affiliated law colleges (Total 19), and the geographical area is restricted to the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The scope of this paper can be extended to additional private and public sector universities in Pakistan, as well as abroad.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan which will help the stockholders of affiliated and affiliation granting institutions to improve the current situation of academic law libraries in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study presents a number of suggestions for the improvement of academic law libraries, which may be of value to the local institutions and developing countries with similar situations.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Khalida Nasreen and Muhammad Tanveer Afzal

The purpose of the study is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in higher education regarding distance learning system in Pakistan.

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13878

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in higher education regarding distance learning system in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method research design was used in this study. The population of the study was all the previous students of research work and all the teachers of these students working at MPhil and PhD level in AIOU in Pakistan. Stratified random sampling technique was used in this study. This study used the questionnaire and interview technique to collect data. Data of questionnaire was in numbers and data of interview was narrative. So it was the need of the study that a mixed-method approach, i.e. both quantitative and qualitative techniques should be used in this study.

Findings

The findings of the study show that AIOU has also strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in higher education related to distance education like all the formal and distance universities of Pakistan and World. This study reflected that AIOU is a great blessing for those who cannot acquire their education regularly because of financial/family problems or they are job holders. But this study also described that at higher level students are facing a lot of problems especially there is a delay in research process and provision of no scholarships to students. The teachers have a low salary package than the other public universities of Pakistan and a lot of responsibilities to attend meetings, seminars, conferences and workshops. So they have less time for research work. And AIOU provides them fewer opportunities to go abroad for further studies or to attend conferences/seminars. This study recommended that there should be adopted such policies in AIOU that students could get their study materials, assignments duration, workshops schedule and degrees in time, the teachers of the concerned departments should allow to take more in numbers the students under their supervision, the pay package for the teachers working at MPhil and PhD level should be raised and the opportunities for the faculty members to go.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to analyze the higher education system especially the distance learning system in Pakistan.

Practical implications

This study has indicated the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in higher education which the AIOU is facing recently and the policymakers can develop plans/strategies to make better the distance learning system especially at higher level in Pakistan. This study can be helpful for the stakeholders who are interested in distance learning system. This study was conducted at higher level in the distance learning system but it can open the ways for the other researchers to conduct research in other disciplines related to distance education, i.e. at matric level, F.A/F.SC, B.Sc programs, Master level and M.Sc programs at AIOU.

Social implications

Through this study, it can be acknowledged how the AIOU is providing the opportunity of education to a large number of people in the society who cannot study regularly in the formal institutions especially those who are job holders, some financial problems and women who have some family problems and above one million people are benefitting from AIOU in Pakistan and world.

Originality/value

This study is original in this respect because the data has been collected from the participants, i.e. students and teachers of AIOU. And it has also great value because this is the first SWOT analysis which has been conducted in this university to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing AIOU at present time. This study can also become a base for the stakeholders', i.e. policymakers, administration and higher education depart. of Pakistan in developing strategies to improve and amend the distance learning system of Pakistan especially at higher level in AIOU.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Aminudin Zuhairi, Maria Rowena Del Rosario Raymundo and Kamran Mir

Quality assurance (QA) in open and distance learning (ODL) has always become universal concerns of stakeholders. The quality of ODL has been confronted with challenges in…

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21301

Abstract

Purpose

Quality assurance (QA) in open and distance learning (ODL) has always become universal concerns of stakeholders. The quality of ODL has been confronted with challenges in terms of the diversity of inputs, processes, the complex supply chain management of ODL and recent paradigm shift into online learning. Assuring the quality of ODL are daunting tasks at individual, institution and system levels. Completed before the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, this study aims to better understand the implementation of QA system in three Asian open universities (OUs), namely University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU), Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia and Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative method was employed involving analysis of documents of the three Asian OUs and focus group discussions and interviews with management and staff. Data collected were then analyzed to draw conclusions and possible recommendations.

Findings

Findings of this study presented good practices, challenges and rooms for improvement of the QA system in the three Asian OUs. Focusing on students and stakeholders in their QA effort, this study has revealed that quality begins with inner self and is multidimensional. QA is principally viewed as continuous improvement, as mechanism and assessment and as effort at exceeding expectations of students and stakeholders. The recent challenge for QA is to embrace a delicate process of ODL transformation into online digital system. The recent COVID-19 outbreak has further implications and challenged QA implementation in ODL in higher education into the next level of complexity.

Practical implications

This study revealed the diversities in how OUs met the societal needs of their respective stakeholders and addressed the challenges ahead for QA in ODL.

Originality/value

These findings were expected to enhance the understanding of the theory and practice of QA in ODL and to contribute to quality improvement of ODL programs.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

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