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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2015

Ray Langsten

Since the 1960s, Egypt has sought to increase equality in access to higher education. Data show that completion of pre-tertiary education has become more equal. However…

Abstract

Since the 1960s, Egypt has sought to increase equality in access to higher education. Data show that completion of pre-tertiary education has become more equal. However, this trend toward equality did not extend to higher education. Rather, entry to higher education has become more unequal during this period, principally due to tracking at the secondary level. Secondary track is highly correlated with wealth: students from the poorest families overwhelming attend technical education; most children from wealthy families attend general (academic) secondary. Lucas (2001) has called this relationship between wealth and tracking “Effectively Maintained Inequality.”

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Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-291-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Pradeep Kumar Choudhury

This paper aims to discuss students’ assessment of quality related issues in engineering education in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss students’ assessment of quality related issues in engineering education in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses primary survey data of 1,178 undergraduate engineering students in Delhi, India, in 2009-2010. Students’ experience and views of four important aspects such as teaching methods used in the classroom, evaluation pattern, skills acquired by students during the course and the involvement of students in different activities other than classroom teaching are discussed using descriptive statistics and correlation to examine the quality issues.

Findings

The study finds that the lecture method is still dominant in the teaching and learning of engineering institutions compared to technical demonstration and laboratory work. Around half of the engineering students reported that they had never gone through any field work or industrial visits during their entire program of study. Involvement of students in the activities other than classroom teaching (e.g. working on research projects, attending engineering internships, studying a foreign language and opting for interdisciplinary courses) is more prevalent in government institutions compared to private institutions. The findings suggest that engineering institutions (particularly private colleges) should change their focus from traditional methods of teaching and evaluation of students to interactive methods of learning to improve the quality of technical education in India.

Originality/value

The literature reveals that the quality assessment of engineering and technical education in India is largely based on the information collected from stakeholders other than students. Therefore, this study contributes a new dimension to the existing literature by considering students’ assessment of the quality of engineering education.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2019

Geetha Rani Prakasam, Mukesh Mukesh and Gopinathan R.

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble…

Abstract

Purpose

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble attempt to fill this gap using NSSO 71st round data on social consumption on education. The purpose of this paper is to use multinomial regression model to study the different factors that influence course choice in higher education. The different factors (given the availability of information) considered relate to ability, gender, cost of higher education, socio-economic and geographical location. The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper follows the same approach as that of Turner and Bowen (1999). The Multinomial regression is specified as P ( M i = j ) = ( exp ( β j × X i ) / j 1 5 exp ( β j × X i ) ) , where P (Mi=j) denotes the probability of choosing outcome j, the particular course/major choice that categorizes different disciplines. This response variable is specified with five categories: such as medicine, engineering, other professional courses, science and humanities. The authors’ primary interest is to determine the factors governing an individual’s decision to choose a particular subject field as compared to humanities. In other words, to make the system identifiable in the MLR, humanities is treated as a reference category. The vector Xi includes the set of explanatory variables and βj refers to the corresponding coefficients for each of the outcome j. From an aggregate perspective, the distribution of course choices is an important input to the skill (technical skills) composition of future workforce. In that sense, except humanities, the rest of the courses are technical-intensive courses; hence, humanities is treated as a reference category.

Findings

The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Research limitations/implications

Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities. This course and regional imbalance need to be worked with multi-pronged strategies of providing both access to education and employment opportunities in other states. But the predicted probabilities of medicine and science remain similar across the board. Very few research studies on the determinants of field choice in higher education prevail in India. Research studies on returns to education by field or course choices hardly exist in India. These evidences are particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work.

Practical implications

The research evidence is particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work, as well as how to address the gender bias in the course choices.

Social implications

The paper has social implications in terms of giving insights into the course choices of students. These findings bring in implications for practice in their ability to predict the demand for course choices and their share of demand, not only in the labor market but also across regions. India has 36 states/UTs and each state/UT has a huge population size and large geographical areas. The choice of course has state-specific influence because of nature of state economy, society, culture and inherent education systems. Further, within the states, rural and urban variation has also a serious influence on the choice of courses.

Originality/value

The present study is a value addition on three counts. First, the choice of courses includes the recent trends in the preference over market-oriented/technical courses such as medicine, engineering and other professional courses (chartered accountancy and similar courses, courses from Industrial Training Institute, recognized vocational training institute, etc.). The choice of market-oriented courses has been examined in relation to the choice of conventional subjects. Second, the socio-economic background of students plays a significant role in the choice of courses. Third, the present paper uses the latest data on Social Consumption on Education.

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Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Zakarya A. Alzamil

In Saudi Arabia, technical education is managed by Technical and Vocational Training Corporation. However, there is no independent accrediting body to accredit the…

Abstract

Purpose

In Saudi Arabia, technical education is managed by Technical and Vocational Training Corporation. However, there is no independent accrediting body to accredit the technical institutes and assure its quality, which causes the lack of unified quality assurance standards and manageable quality improvement processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose self-evaluation standards to help the technical institutes to evaluate their performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The author has used a brainstorming technique of local practitioners in quality assurance. Such technique was performed by adopting DACUM that stands for “Developing A CurriculUM”. The author has used a heuristic educational and training process as the foundation of the standards and processes development, namely; curriculum, environment, training managements, and instructors. A team has been established that has been trained locally and abroad on the quality assurance standards and processes. The team studied several quality frameworks of the different countries to come up with guidelines for quality self-evaluation and standards.

Findings

The author has found that such an approach is a very effective tool for improving the institutes' performance and gives them the flexibility to decide about their missions. Most of institutes' staff is reluctant to participate in the self-evaluation process because of the fear it may reveal their weaknesses, but with encouragement and motivation especially from the top management they tend to participate in such a process. Self-evaluation helps the educational institutes to be benchmarked with other international institutions, in which good practices may be adopted by the institutes' managements to achieve their vision.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed approach can help the technical education institutes to manage their quality system. In addition, the implementation of such an approach might be the starting point to develop a quality system framework for the technical education in Saudi Arabia. However, further investigation is needed to measure whether applying such standards may help the technical education institutes to meet the required quality standards to attain an accreditation from the international quality agencies.

Originality/value

The proposed guidelines for quality standards and processes is a contribution in the accreditation and quality assurance processes for many public and private institutions in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it is an important step to standardize the quality processes.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Victor Gambhir, N C Wadhwa and Sandeep Grover

The paper aims to discuss current Technical Education scenarios in India. It proposes modelling the factors affecting quality in a technical institute and then applying a…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to discuss current Technical Education scenarios in India. It proposes modelling the factors affecting quality in a technical institute and then applying a suitable technique for assessment, comparison and ranking.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper chose graph theoretic approach for quantification of quality-enabled model. Further, the paper has validated the approach by taking examples of institutions and applying the methodology.

Findings

The paper provides a systematic methodology to build a quality model for quantification of various factors in a technical institute. The qualitative effect represented in form of a single numerical index is a novel method for such representations. The illustrated methodology in the paper is equally useful for comparison and ranking of a set of institutes.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen factors in the approach, the methodology may not be equally suitable based on type and size of institute and the geographical location.

Practical implications

The paper includes demonstration on application of methodology for comparing the quality in a quantitative manner. The dynamic model allows changing factors and/or their effects as per requirement.

Social implications

In future, the methodology can be taken up by government/regulatory bodies and can convey the comparisons of institutions to stakeholders including students and parents.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to develop a novel method for comparing quality that can be used by accreditation bodies.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2012

Dobrochna Hildebrandt-Wypych

The aim of the chapter is to investigate the changing structural position of post-secondary schools in Poland, seen from the perspective of the expansion of higher

Abstract

The aim of the chapter is to investigate the changing structural position of post-secondary schools in Poland, seen from the perspective of the expansion of higher education from one side and the current reform of vocational education from the other. Do post-secondary schools enhance opportunities for those who might not otherwise consider further education, especially when we consider lower cost, open admissions and greater accessibility in comparison with higher education institutions? Or do they play a role of a ‘discounted’ and ‘undervalued’ education for those who could not manage to enter three-year-bachelor cycles in tertiary education and thus were forced to lower their initial educational aspirations? The opening up of higher education to new student populations was done by the rapid expansion of the private (paid for) sector and the fee-paying courses in the public sector. Liberal educational policy not only opened an opportunity for the privatization in higher education, but also expanded the market-driven provision at the post-secondary level. The discussion on the relevance of post-secondary vocational qualifications must be seen within the context of the continual inflation of diplomas/degrees and the unemployment of graduates after finishing higher education. Since 2010, there has been a reverse process initiated at the governmental level in Poland: reform schemes to increase the participation of young people in vocational education and training. However, the structural position and functions of post-secondary schools, as well as their role in the employability of young people, are not subject to any open discussion at the political level. This sort of status quo concerning post-secondary institutions means that their institutional identity issues are resolved and their structural position defined predominantly by market forces.

Details

Community Colleges Worldwide: Investigating the Global Phenomenon
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-230-1

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2008

Timothy Manyaga

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on development of standards in Tanzania which may be of help to training providers in other countries as they seek to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on development of standards in Tanzania which may be of help to training providers in other countries as they seek to improve the quality and standards of their provision.

Design/methodology/approach

The need to provide quality assured tertiary qualifications in Tanzania to win both national and international recognition is explained. Processes of registration of institutions capable of delivering training programmes adequately and accreditation of the same to offer awards at appropriate levels as a means to ensure quality of provision are explored. Standards of good practice in Tanzanian tertiary education are surveyed and the challenges to their achievement are discussed based on the author's direct experience in Tanzania. Relevant and recent literatures on the topic are surveyed and some lessons drawn.

Findings

Accreditation standards are useful in instilling best practices in education and training. However, education and training institutions need to understand and practice them over a period of time to bring about expected results. It is concluded that ensuring quality in education is a multifaceted phenomenon that calls for the joint efforts of all key stakeholders.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that the National Council for Technical Education is one of the first regulatory bodies in Africa to introduce academic quality standards in tertiary technical institutions. Notable improvements have been recorded since its inception. The experience described is the paper is not very common, so other countries taking similar steps may find it useful.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Surinder Batra

The purpose of this paper is to examine the initiatives being taken in India in recent years to revitalize the national education and skill development systems from the

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the initiatives being taken in India in recent years to revitalize the national education and skill development systems from the perspectives of a knowledge economy. These initiatives include strengthening of the higher and technical education system of the country and bringing about a paradigm shift in the national skill development system through the plans of action contained in the on‐going Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007‐2012). The new policy frameworks for education and skill development developed by respective Government Ministries are also to be examined from the point of view of their efficacy in moving India up the ladder of knowledge economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The critical review is based on an assessment of India's current status on well‐known Knowledge Economy Indices, providing a conceptual understanding of the requirements from the country's education and skill development systems, and the emerging needs for making measurable progress on issues related to education and skill development. The approach is literature‐survey based.

Findings

The paper, while underscoring the emphasis given by the Government in bringing about major changes through mission‐mode activities in both education and skill development systems, highlights possible gaps and mismatches in various initiatives taken up by different agencies, resulting in continuing issues and challenges in India's path towards moving up the ladder of knowledge economy.

Originality/value

The paper gives a fresh look at several initiatives which have been continually taken up by the Government in the past, from the prism of a knowledge economy.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Prashant Mahajan and Suresh Golahit

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships of service marketing mix (SMM) as service input and service output in terms of students’ performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships of service marketing mix (SMM) as service input and service output in terms of students’ performance, satisfaction and referral act in context to higher and technical education (HTE) through the application of structural equation modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research, conducted through a self-administered survey composed by a closed-ended structured questionnaire, was incorporated for the students who were enrolled in the technical educational institutions situated in the Khandesh region of India.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that traditional SMM is statistically linked with the performance of students in terms of skill and knowledge enhancement, satisfaction and referral act of students, which are perceptible new emerging SMM; performance, pleasure and pointing out in terms of service output.

Practical implications

Integrating SMM as service input and service output are productive for HTE in enhancing growth (quantitatively) by the inclusivity of diversified students and development (qualitatively) by enhancing their performance for global standing, making them satisfied and motivating them for recommending their institution to others. This integration can be utilized as a yardstick by the institutions for staying ahead in students’ market with a distinctive competitive advantage.

Social implications

Growth and development of HTE will raise a society’s quality of life and thereby increase a country’s socio-economic status.

Originality/value

The study has exhibited SMM as input and output of a service system that is useful for the growth and development of HTE. The measurement tool presented is effective in (re)framing policies on SMM as service input based on desired service output.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Anil R. Sahu, Rashmi R. Shrivastava and R.L. Shrivastava

The purpose of this paper is to identify critical factors of total quality management (TQM), for use in a possible framework that addresses sustainable quality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify critical factors of total quality management (TQM), for use in a possible framework that addresses sustainable quality improvements in technical institutes as a plausible means of TQM implementation in higher education programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature survey of the TQM and related quality methodologies and content analysis of TQM literature in technical institutes provide the theoretical and practical background for this work. The content analysis was carried out following the standard principles of deductive reasoning and subsequently, relevant factors were identified for implementations.

Findings

Unlike the scenario in industry, TQM philosophies have to be adopted differently for a successful implementation in technical institutes. The identified critical factors of TQM and related quality improvement methodologies provide a comprehensive guideline for an effective and efficient implementation of TQM in technical institutes.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the critical factors of quality improvement initiatives that are most comprehensive and have potential to address the quality issues of technical institutes. The critical factors identified in this study, offer a practical guidance for academics to implement TQM in technical institutes and can form the basis for delineating a mathematical model for these institutes.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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