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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Pengcheng Wang, Dengfeng Zhang and Baochun Lu

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and torque optimization control method is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, when the collision appears, a second-order Taylor observer is proposed to estimate the residual value. Secondly, the band-pass filter is used to reduce the high-frequency torque modeling dynamic uncertainty. With the estimate information and the torque value, a variable impedance control approach is then synthesized to guarantee that the collision is avoided or the collision will be terminated with different contact models and positions. However, in terms of adaptive linear force error, the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer is controlled by the new proximity function.

Findings

Finally, the experimental results show the better performance of the proposed control method, realizing the force control during the collision process.

Originality/value

Origin approach and origin experiment.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Jongwon Lee, Inwook Hwang, Keehoon Kim, Seungmoon Choi, Wan Kyun Chung and Young Soo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot position control, and improved ergonomics.

Design/methodology/approach

A human‐guided robot for the spinal fusion surgery has been developed with a dexterous end‐effector that is capable of high‐speed drilling for cortical layer gimleting and tele‐operated insertion of screws into the vertebrae. The end‐effector is position‐controlled by a five degrees‐of‐freedom robot body that has a kinematically closed structure to withstand strong reaction force occurring in the surgery. The robot also allows the surgeon to control cooperatively the position and orientation of the end‐effector in order to provide maximum flexibility in exploiting his or her expertise. Also incorporated for improved safety is a “drill‐by‐wire” mechanism wherein a screw is tele‐drilled by the surgeon in a mechanically decoupled master/slave system. Finally, a torque‐rendering algorithm that adds synthetic open‐loop high‐frequency components on feedback torque increases the realism of tele‐drilling in the screw‐by‐wire mechanism.

Findings

Experimental results indicated that this assistive robot for spinal fusion performs drilling tasks within the static regulation errors less than 0.1 μm for position control and less than 0.05° for orientation control. The users of the tele‐drilling reported subjectively that they experienced torque feedback similar to that of direct screw insertion.

Research limitations/implications

Although the robotic surgery system itself has been developed, integration with surgery planning and tracking systems is ongoing. Thus, the screw insertion accuracy of a whole surgery system with the assistive robot is to be investigated in the near future.

Originality/value

The paper arguably pioneers the dexterous end‐effector appropriately designed for spinal fusion, the cooperative robot position‐control algorithm, the screw‐by‐wire mechanism for indirect screw insertion, and the torque‐rendering algorithm for more realistic torque feedback. In particular, the system has the potential of circumventing the screw‐loosening problem, a common defect in the conventional surgeon‐operated or robot‐assisted spinal fusion surgery.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

J. Roger‐Folch, V.J. Lázaro Joares and E. Gómez Lázaro

Electrical machine slots cause an undesirable effect on the m.m.f. wave in the airgap. This effect consists of the occurrence of high frequency harmonics. When the rotor…

Abstract

Electrical machine slots cause an undesirable effect on the m.m.f. wave in the airgap. This effect consists of the occurrence of high frequency harmonics. When the rotor turns, the movement of rotor slots in relation to the stator slots produces cycle variations in the magnetic circuit reluctance. This effect results in high frequency harmonics in the current wave spectrum. Simultaneously high frequency harmonics torques appear. These are known as slot harmonics. To avoid slot harmonics, both in the rotor and in the stator slots, the slots are skewed. When this technique is used, the simplified hypothesis of the finite element model (FEM) in 2D cannot be employed, as it is based on the concept that the magnetic field possesses translational symmetry along the machine shaft. In this paper a method for analysing electrical machines with skewed slots is presented without using the 3D analysis.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Juliang Xiao, Fan Zeng, Qiulong Zhang and Haitao Liu

This paper aims to propose a forcefree control algorithm that is based on a dynamic model with full torque compensation is proposed to improve the compliance and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a forcefree control algorithm that is based on a dynamic model with full torque compensation is proposed to improve the compliance and flexibility of the direct teaching of cooperative robots.

Design/methodology/approach

Dynamic parameters identification is performed first to obtain an accurate dynamic model. The identification process is divided into two steps to reduce the complexity of trajectory simplification, and each step contains two excitation trajectories for higher identification precision. A nonlinear friction model that considers the angular displacement and angular velocity of joints is proposed as a secondary compensation for identification. A torque compensation algorithm that is based on the Hogan impedance model is proposed, and the torque obtained by an impedance equation is regarded as the command torque, which can be adjusted. The compensatory torque, including gravity torque, inertia torque, friction torque and Coriolis torque, is added to the compensation to improve the effect of forcefree control.

Findings

The model improves the total accuracy of the dynamic model by approximately 20% after compensation. Compared with the traditional method, the results prove that the forcefree control algorithm can effectively reduce the drag force approximately 50% for direct teaching and realize a flexible and smooth drag.

Practical implications

The entire algorithm is verified by the laboratory-developed six degrees-of-freedom cooperative robot, and it can be applied to other robots as well.

Originality/value

A full torque compensation is performed after parameters identification, and a more accurate forcefree control is guaranteed. This allows the cooperative robot to be dragged more smoothly without external sensors.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Z.Q. Zhu and Jiabing Hu

Wind energy has matured to a level of development at which it is ready to become a generally accepted power generation technology. The aim of this paper is to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

Wind energy has matured to a level of development at which it is ready to become a generally accepted power generation technology. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief review of the state of the art in the area of electrical machines and power‐electronic systems for high‐power wind energy generation applications. As the first part of this paper, latest market penetration, current technology and advanced electrical machines are addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

After a short description of the latest market penetration of wind turbines with various topologies globally by the end of 2010 is provided, current wind power technology, including a variety of fixed‐ and variable‐speed (in particular with doubly‐fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) supplied with partial‐ and full‐power converters, respectively) wind power generation systems, and modern grid codes, is presented. Finally, four advanced electrical‐machine systems, viz., brushless DFIG, open winding PMSG, dual/multi 3‐phase stator‐winding PMSG and magnetic‐gear outer‐rotor PMSG, are identified with their respective merits and challenges for future high‐power wind energy applications.

Findings

For the time being, the gear‐drive DFIG‐based wind turbine is significantly dominating the markets despite its defect caused by mechanical gears, slip rings and brush sets. Meanwhile, direct‐drive synchronous generator, especially utilizing permanent magnets on its rotor, supplied with a full‐capacity power converter has become a more effective solution, particularly in high‐power offshore wind farm applications.

Originality/value

This first part of the paper reviews the latest market penetration of wind turbines with a variety of mature topologies, by summarizing their advantages and disadvantages. Four advanced electrical‐machine systems are selected and identified by distinguishing their respective merits and challenges for future high‐power wind energy applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Andreas Ruf, Michael Schröder, Aryanti Kusuma Putri, Roman Konrad, David Franck and Kay Hameyer

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the mechanical bearing load caused by the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP), which is studied in detail. The applied approach is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the mechanical bearing load caused by the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP), which is studied in detail. The applied approach is based on an analysis of static and dynamic eccentricities at different positions and different amplitudes. The influence of the operating points is calculated to show the effective bearing load for machines operating at different speeds. The decreasing lifetime of the applied bearings is examined and evaluated in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate the proposed methodology a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with buried magnets is used. To consider effects of slotting and saturation, a finite element (FE) model is employed. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the most likely amplitudes of the eccentricities. Calculating the UMP for all possible operating points using a control strategy for the machine and coupling this results with a drive cycle, determines the effective force acting on the bearing.

Findings

It has been shown that the position of the eccentricity has a not significant influence on the behavior of the UMP and may therefore be neglected. The amplitude of the eccentricity vector influences the amplitude of the UMP including all harmonic force components. For technical relevant eccentricities, the influence is approximately linear for the average and the dominant harmonics of the UMP. In most cases, it is sufficient to displace the rotor at an arbitrary position and amplitude. It is sufficient to simulate one type of eccentricity (static or dynamic) with an arbitrary value of displacement (rotor or stator) to evaluate all possible airgap unbalances. Using stochastic simulations of the eccentricity amplitudes enables an a priori design and lifetime estimation of bearings.

Originality/value

This paper gives a close insight on the effect of mechanical bearing load caused by rotor eccentricities. The effect of the position of the eccentricity vector, the operational range and a drive cycle are considered. A stochastic simulation and an empirical lifetime model of one bearing gives an example of using this methodological approach.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Kaiçar Ammous, Elyes Haouas and Slim Abid

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation tool which permits reducing the cost of long time‐range simulation of complex converters and running at high frequency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation tool which permits reducing the cost of long time‐range simulation of complex converters and running at high frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

A different method is used to represent a simplified converter but the adopted technique uses the average representation of the cell converter.

Findings

The paper shows that the use of averaged representation of the pulse width modulation switch in multilevel converters is staying applied. The main advantage of the proposed averaged model is its simplified representation when only electrical behaviour is considered.

Research limitations/implications

The analytical algorithm of the averaged model can be introduced in different simulator as it has a description language, enabling study of the Compatibilité Electromagnétique and electrothermal phenomena.

Originality/value

This paper presents an averaged model of the multilevel converter which can be implemented in any simulator as it has a description language.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Dan M. Ionel and Mihai V. Cistelecan

In the paper a comparison between the analytical and numerical method of no‐load computation will be made taking into account the initial hypothesis and computational…

Abstract

In the paper a comparison between the analytical and numerical method of no‐load computation will be made taking into account the initial hypothesis and computational effort face to the concrete obtainable results. It is concluded that the reduced fixed‐mesh FEM analysis of the induction motors is very suitable for no‐load computation because it relates directly to the well known equivalent circuit parameters. The symmetry of the machine allows for the computation only on a small part of the magnetic circuit so that the time of computation can be reduced even when a relatively fine mesh is used. However, for the optimal design of the motor it appears that analytical methods are very suitable owing to the simplicity and accuracy of the design.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Chafiaa Mendil, Madjid Kidouche, Mohamed Zinelabidine Doghmane, Samir Benammar and Kong Fah Tee

The drill string vibrations can create harmful effects on drilling performance because they generate the stick-slip phenomenon which reduces the quality of drilling and…

Abstract

Purpose

The drill string vibrations can create harmful effects on drilling performance because they generate the stick-slip phenomenon which reduces the quality of drilling and decreases the penetration rate and may affect the robustness of the designed controller. For this reason, it is necessary to carefully test the different rock-bit contact models and analyze their influences on system stability in order to mitigate the vibrations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rock-bit interaction on high-frequency stick-slip vibration severity in rotary drilling systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The main objective of this study is an overview of the influence of the rock-bit interaction models on the bit dynamics. A total of three models have been considered, and the drilling parameters have been varied in order to study the reliability of the models. Moreover, a comparison between these models has allowed the determination of the most reliable function for stick-slip phenomenon.

Findings

The torsional model with three degrees of freedom has been considered in order to highlight the effectiveness of the comparative study. Based on the obtained results, it has been concluded that the rock-bit interaction model has big influences on the response of the rotary drilling system. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the results of this study in order to design and implement a robust control system to mitigate harmful vibrations; the practical implementation of this model can be advantageous in designing a smart rotary drilling system.

Originality/value

Many rock-bit functions have been proposed in the literature, but no study has been dedicated to compare them; this is the main contribution of this study. Moreover, a case study of harmonic torsional vibrations analysis has been carried out in well-A, which is located in an Algerian hydrocarbons field, the indices of vibrations detection are given with their preventions.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Prathibanandhi Kanagaraj, Ramesh Ramadoss, Yaashuwanth Calpakkam and Adam Raja Basha

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation…

Abstract

Purpose

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation. Brushless direct current (BLDC) has outstanding efficiency as losses that arise out of voltage drops at brushes and friction losses are eliminated. The main factor that affects the performance is temperature introduced in the internal copper core windings. The control of motor speed generates high temperature in BLDC operation. The high temperature is due to presence of ripples in the operational current. The purpose is to present an effective controlling mechanism for speed management and to improve the performance of BLDCM to activate effective management of speed.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose is to present an optimal algorithm based on modified moth-flame optimization algorithm over recurrent neural network (MMFO-RNN) for speed management to improve the performance. The core objective of the presented work is to achieve improvement in performance without affecting the design of the system with no additional circuitry. The management of speed in BLDCM has been achieved through reduction or minimization of ripples encircled with torque of the motor. The implementation ends in two stages, namely, controlling the loop of torque and controlling the loop of speed. The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol.

Findings

The parameters are enriched with Multi Resolution Proportional Integral and Derivative (MRPID) controller operation to achieve minimal ripples for the torque of BLDC and manage the speed of the motor. The performance is increased by adopting this technique approximately 12% in comparison with the existing methodology, which is the main contributions of the presented work. The outcomes are analyzed with the existing methodologies through MATLAB Simulink tool, and the comparative analyses suggest that better performance of the proposed system produces over existing techniques, and proto type model is developed and cross verifies the proposed system.

Originality/value

The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol. The parameters are enriched with MRPID controller operation to achieve nil or minimal ripples and to encircle the torque of Brushless Direct Current and manage the speed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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