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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Wendi L. Adair

This study uses Hall's (1976) theory of low/high context culture with theories of interpersonal adaptation (Gudykunst, 1985; Patterson, 1983) to test communication…

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5130

Abstract

This study uses Hall's (1976) theory of low/high context culture with theories of interpersonal adaptation (Gudykunst, 1985; Patterson, 1983) to test communication preferences, flexibility, and effectiveness in same‐ and mixed‐culture negotiation. Ninety‐three same‐culture low context (Israel, Germany, Sweden, and U.S.), 101 same‐culture high context (Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Thailand), and 48 mixed‐culture mixed context (U.S.‐Japan, U.S.‐Hong Kong) dyads negotiated a 1 ½ hour simulation. Transcripts were content coded for direct and indirect integrative sequences and analyzed with hierarchical linear regression. Supporting the theory, results revealed more indirect integrative sequences in high context dyads and more direct integrative sequences in low context and mixed context dyads. Direct integrative sequences predicted joint gains for mixed context dyads.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 14 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Nada Korac‐Kakabadse, Alexander Kouzmin, Andrew Korac‐Kakabadse and Lawson Savery

States that the major reasons for difficulties in cross‐cultural communication stem from the fact that actors from different cultures have different understandings…

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16311

Abstract

States that the major reasons for difficulties in cross‐cultural communication stem from the fact that actors from different cultures have different understandings regarding the interaction process and different styles of dialogue. Suggests that better understanding of communication within other cultures is the key to success. Uses past literature to suggest a number of cultural variability constructs concerning preferred interaction behaviours and the common themes they share. Presents three case studies to illustrate this.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Kerri Anne Crowne, Arvind V. Phatak and Uday Salunkhe

Recently scholars have been interested in examining social intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence, but none have examined all these in a…

Abstract

Recently scholars have been interested in examining social intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence, but none have examined all these in a comparative study of cultures. Here an empirical examination is conducted of a high-context culture, India, versus a low-context culture, the United States. Linear regression was conducted and findings indicate that the hypothesized relationships, that high-context cultures will have a higher social, emotional, and cultural intelligence, are not supported. In fact, social intelligence was found to be higher in the U.S. sample. Managerial implications and avenues for future research are presented.

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Emotions in Groups, Organizations and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-655-3

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Abstract

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Global Perspectives on Educational Testing: Examining Fairness, High-Stakes and Policy Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-434-1

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Kip Becker and Jung Wan Lee

The study provides explanations and empirical answers to (1) What country-level factors influence the formation of reputation as a strategic asset and (2) how can…

Abstract

The study provides explanations and empirical answers to (1) What country-level factors influence the formation of reputation as a strategic asset and (2) how can businesses better manage their reputations on a global basis? The study examines the effects of a national culture on managing global aspects of corporate reputation and brand image using social media (SM) with the use of Hall’s low versus high-context classification of culture. Using longitudinal time series approach, two surveys were conducted in 2011 and again in 2015. The study involved a total of 326 listed companies in the global stock exchange markets of: the United States – the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Japan – the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), and China – the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKSE). The study employs non-parametric inferential statistical methods. The results of the study show that the low-context culture group is more responsive and responds more quickly. It was clear that a nation’s culture directly affects SM ownership, reply time, and response styles (attitude). The findings may help multinational companies predict adoption of SM for their brand image and online reputation management and formulate more effective public relations marketing strategies by accommodating cultural influences.

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Global Aspects of Reputation and Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-314-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

John R. Darling and Victor L. Heller

This paper aims to present The Key as a very valuable interactive foundation for effective conflict management in international trade negotiations. The Key, as used in…

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1993

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present The Key as a very valuable interactive foundation for effective conflict management in international trade negotiations. The Key, as used in this analysis, is reflected in the nature of the thoughts and feelings (commensurate with attitudes) generated by a marketing manager, and influenced by that individual's sense of cultural responsibility. The authors have researched, and have used this concept of The Key and its effectiveness in conflict management in both academic and international business arenas, and in low context, as well as high‐context cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis of conflict management is presented within a case situation that involves business in the high‐context culture of China. A high‐context culture places a great deal of emphasis on a person's values and position or place in society, and interactions with others, rather than on the words and formal legalistic constructs used for negotiations in low‐context cultures. The case focuses on the relationship between the Vice President for International Marketing of Innovative Technologies, Inc. (ITI) headquartered in Chicago, IL, with offices also located in Frankfurt, Germany, and the Managing Director of the Shanghai Technology Manufacturing Center (STC) in China. The steps and skills used in providing a structure for the responsive process of managing a conflict were: the preliminary steps (involving power‐base development, relational acceptance and meaningful communication skills); the resolution steps (involving assumption analysis, objective identification and alternative selection skills); and the maintenance steps (involving action agreement, feedback review and continuing oversight skills). Each of these steps and skills were used to resolve, in a positive manner, the conflict between the ITI and STC.

Findings

Use of The Key, as reflected in a manager's positive thoughts and feelings, is of major importance for effective application of the steps and skills in the paradigm for effective conflict management introduced in this treatise.

Originality/value

The case focuses on conflict challenges that are encountered and successfully resolved, thereby facilitating the marketing of a new cell (mobile) telephone introduced into the high‐context culture of China by Innovative Technologies, Inc.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2009

Begoña Jordá‐Albiñana, Olga Ampuero‐Canellas, Natalia Vila and José Ignacio Rojas‐Sola

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key features of an identity standards manual and assess the differences in the rules used for applying the brand to both low…

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2747

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key features of an identity standards manual and assess the differences in the rules used for applying the brand to both low‐ and high‐context cultures, companies selling consumer goods and those selling services, and multinational and local companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the analysis of 341 identity standards manuals and on the analysis of three key features found in the manuals: contents, normative tone, and development.

Findings

The results divide the contents of the manual into two blocks: core and peripheral; and show that there are differences between the manuals of high‐ and low‐context cultures, companies selling consumer goods and those selling services, and multinational and local companies.

Research limitations/implications

Type I errors could have been introduced and the conclusions must be regarded as tentative.

Practical implications

The findings show that applying the brand at an international level requires a strategy of adaptation which takes into account the particular nature of each culture.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the debate on standardization/adaptation of the signs of visual identity (name, logo, and color) in global marketing, by studying the rules used in applying the brand and discussion of the documents which contain them.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Adam Nguyen, Roger M. Heeler and Zinaida Taran

Retail prices ending in 0, 5 (even ending), and 9 (odd ending) are common in western countries. The purpose of this paper is to explain variances in odd versus even ending…

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9124

Abstract

Purpose

Retail prices ending in 0, 5 (even ending), and 9 (odd ending) are common in western countries. The purpose of this paper is to explain variances in odd versus even ending practices in western versus non‐western countries, using Hall's high‐low context construct.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of web‐posted prices in ten countries is conducted.

Findings

Relative to their counterparts in low context, western cultures, consumers in high context, non‐western cultures may be less prone to the illusion of cheapness or gain created by odd endings, and more likely offended by such perceived attempts to “fool” them. Thus, odd endings are predicted to operate at a higher level of value significance to consumers, and to occur less frequently relative to even endings, in high than low, context cultures. Data support the predictions.

Research limitations/implications

Additional empirical studies are recommended to further test the proposed theory.

Practical implications

Western firms need to be cautious when replicating odd ending practices in non‐western markets. Even ending is a “safer” pricing format. Odd endings, if used, should convey cheapness or gain that is more “real”.

Originality/value

The research results indicate that the results of western‐based consumer research cannot be treated as universally applicable. The high‐low context theory supplements prior theories for price ending patterns in non‐western countries, and those based on perceptions and affect in the west. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the web method in international pricing research.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Mark J. Martinko and Scott C. Douglas

The high failure rate for expatriate leaders is well documented. One major cause of these failures has been identified as the incongruencies in the perceptions of…

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1628

Abstract

The high failure rate for expatriate leaders is well documented. One major cause of these failures has been identified as the incongruencies in the perceptions of expatriate leaders and the host members that they manage. This article describes theory and research which suggests that a potential explanation for at least some of these perceptual incongruencies is that they are a result of culturally‐based attributional biases interacting with self‐serving and actor‐observer attributional biases. Although not all of the interactions of these biases result in incongruent perceptions, some interactions appear to be particularly prone to result in incongruent perceptions such as when leaders from highly individualistic and low context cultures interact with members from highly collectivistic and high context cultures. Suggestions for research and interventions designed to reduce incongruent attributions between leaders and members are discussed.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Dinker Raval and Bala Subramanian

When multinational managers attempt to transfer best practices across cultures, the challenges inherent in cross‐cultural transfer may actually diminish competitiveness…

Abstract

When multinational managers attempt to transfer best practices across cultures, the challenges inherent in cross‐cultural transfer may actually diminish competitiveness, instead of enhancing it. Multinational managers need to understand the cultural context of best practices, both at the source and at the target, in order to overcome these challenges and facilitate the transfer process. The challenges to effective transfer of best practices between cultures may arise because of the kinds of variances between cultural environments. These variances may pertain to concepts, perceptions, standardization, gradation and validation, substitutability and decision rules. Unmediated transfer of best practices across cultures may produce distortions in perceptions, understanding, interpretation and motivation of customers, competitors, employees and market players in the global markets. These distortions may in turn lead to conflicts and resistance and adversely impact the cost structure, revenue mix and profitability options. Understanding the cultural context and adapting best practices in tune to the recipient culture can be an invaluable tool to preempt or respond effectively to competitive challenges in the global markets.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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