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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Yuval Arbel, Yossef Tobol and Erez Siniver

Previous studies of immigrant populations suggest that ceteris paribus an immigrant's level of income is strongly and positively correlated with his proficiency in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies of immigrant populations suggest that ceteris paribus an immigrant's level of income is strongly and positively correlated with his proficiency in the local language. The purpose of this paper is to extend this literature using data from a telephone survey carried out in 2005 among a representative sample of Former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants. Unlike previous surveys, the data includes responses to detailed subjective questions on degree of social involvement, in addition to the number of years since migration and level of proficiency in the local language. The authors are able to demonstrate that a higher degree of assimilation is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of finding full-time employment. Moreover, the estimation results for the wage equation reveal that the effect on income previously attributed solely to language proficiency is in fact also the result of more successful assimilation in the receiving culture. The findings thus stress the importance of assimilation in determining success in job search and in explaining variations in income among immigrants who are already employed in full-time jobs. Finally, the results obtained when differentiating according to gender show that male immigrants have better prospects of finding a job than female immigrants and higher incomes once they find one, which is consistent with the existing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to compare the relative importance of the language proficiency variable (LANGUAGE i ) to that of the social involvement variable (ASSIMILATION i ), The authors apply the probit model to two separate equations. The first is the prospects of finding a job and the second is the wage equation.

Findings

–The authors are able to demonstrate that a higher degree of assimilation is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of finding full-time employment. Moreover, the estimation results for the wage equation reveal that the effect on income previously attributed solely to language proficiency is in fact also the result of more successful assimilation in the receiving culture. The findings thus stress the importance of assimilation in determining success in job search and in explaining variations in income among immigrants who are already employed in full-time jobs. Finally, the results obtained when differentiating according to gender show that male immigrants have better prospects of finding a job than female immigrants and higher incomes once they find one, which is consistent with the existing literature.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation is, like all of the existing literature and in particular the few studies that deal with social networking, that the database is exclusively based on either interviews or surveys consisting of self-assessment questions (such as, Dustman, 1996; Lazear, 1999; Amuedo-Dorantes and Mundra, 2007). Consequently, the implicit assumption is that the respondent's self-perceived level of assimilation constitutes a good proxy for the true level.

Practical implications

The implications are the following: the findings are thus consistent with those of Lazear (1999), who anticipates a negative correlation between the relative size of a minority group and the level of proficiency in the local language. In the case of Israel, which received a massive wave of 1.5 million immigrants from the FSU, the findings indeed suggest that the chances of an immigrant job seeker finding a job are far more dependent on his degree of assimilation than his level of language proficiency. Moreover, the effect of the degree of assimilation, which has not previously been included in estimations, was mistakenly attributed to language proficiency. The findings of this research thus reveal the importance of the degree of assimilation in finding a job and can explain income differences among those who have already found full-time employment.

Originality/value

Previous studies of immigrant populations suggest that ceteris paribus the level of income is strongly and positively correlated with proficiency in the local language. The current study extends this literature using data from a telephone survey carried out in 2005 among a representative sample of FSU immigrants. Unlike previous surveys, the data includes responses to detailed subjective questions on degree of social involvement, in addition to the number of years since migration and level of proficiency in the local language. The authors are able to demonstrate that a higher degree of assimilation is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of finding full-time employment. Moreover, the estimation results for the wage equation reveal that the effect on income previously attributed to language proficiency is in fact the result of more successful assimilation in the receiving culture. The results are robust to gender differences. The findings thus stress the importance of assimilation in determining success in job search and in explaining variations in income among immigrants who are already employed in full-time jobs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Rajugan Rajagopalapillai, Elizabeth Chang, Tharam S. Dillon and Ling Feng

In data engineering, view formalisms are used to provide flexibility to users and user applications by allowing them to extract and elaborate data from the stored data…

Abstract

In data engineering, view formalisms are used to provide flexibility to users and user applications by allowing them to extract and elaborate data from the stored data sources. Conversely, since the introduction of EXtensible Markup Language (XML), it is fast emerging as the dominant standard for storing, describing, and interchanging data among various web and heterogeneous data sources. In combination with XML Schema, XML provides rich facilities for defining and constraining user‐defined data semantics and properties, a feature that is unique to XML. In this context, it is interesting to investigate traditional database features, such as view models and view design techniques for XML. However, traditional view formalisms are strongly coupled to the data language and its syntax, thus it proves to be a difficult task to support views in the case of semi‐structured data models. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Layered View Model (LVM) for XML with conceptual and schemata extensions. Here our work is three‐fold; first we propose an approach to separate the implementation and conceptual aspects of the views that provides a clear separation of concerns, thus, allowing analysis and design of views to be separated from their implementation. Secondly, we define representations to express and construct these views at the conceptual level. Thirdly, we define a view transformation methodology for XML views in the LVM, which carries out automated transformation to a view schema and a view query expression in an appropriate query language. Also, to validate and apply the LVM concepts, methods and transformations developed, we propose a viewdriven application development framework with the flexibility to develop web and database applications for XML, at varying levels of abstraction.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Giles Tewkesbury and David Sanders

A new type of highlevel robot command library is presented, which can be viewed as a marriage between simulation and control. The library commands contain simulations of…

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503

Abstract

A new type of highlevel robot command library is presented, which can be viewed as a marriage between simulation and control. The library commands contain simulations of the physical abilities of the robots as well as having the ability to control the physical machinery. The control of the machinery is performed by translating parameter information and then mapping the library commands to the robot controller commands. To demonstrate the use of the libraries, two robot programming languages have been analysed and new robot command libraries created for two types of machine. The robots selected were a Fanuc A600 and a Unimation PUMA robot. The paper also presents criteria that were used for assessing programming languages for use in programming and controlling robots. The paper shows how simulation can be incorporated into a highlevel robot command library (or object library) and how the command library can be used for the programming of industrial robots. The work has demonstated the advantages of including simulation within robot command libraries. The purpose of the research has not been to define another new robot command library, and the techniques presented here can be applied to other robot languages and high level robot command libraries.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1971

JAMES L. DOLBY

There are two fundamental facts about programming languages: there are lots of them; all but a handful are never used beyond the immediate circle of friends of the…

Abstract

There are two fundamental facts about programming languages: there are lots of them; all but a handful are never used beyond the immediate circle of friends of the inventor. An exhaustive survey of all languages used over the past twenty years in Western Europe and the US would be time‐consuming and of questionable utility; however, it seems safe to suggest that the number is considerably in excess of 1,000. Sammet's latest annual survey lists 132 languages currently in use in the United States, and this can only be a minor fraction of those that have been constructed at one time or another.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Ryan K.L. Ko, Stephen S.G. Lee and Eng Wah Lee

In the last two decades, a proliferation of business process management (BPM) modeling languages, standards and software systems has given rise to much confusion and…

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13481

Abstract

Purpose

In the last two decades, a proliferation of business process management (BPM) modeling languages, standards and software systems has given rise to much confusion and obstacles to adoption. Since new BPM languages and notation terminologies were not well defined, duplicate features are common. This paper seeks to make sense of the myriad BPM standards, organising them in a classification framework, and to identify key industry trends.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review is conducted and relevant BPM notations, languages and standards are referenced against the proposed BPM Standards Classification Framework, which lists each standard's distinct features, strengths and weaknesses.

Findings

The paper is unaware of any classification of BPM languages. An attempt is made to classify BPM languages, standards and notations into four main groups: execution, interchange, graphical, and diagnosis standards. At the present time, there is a lack of established diagnosis standards. It is hoped that such a classification facilitates the meaningful adoption of BPM languages, standards and notations.

Practical implications

The paper differentiates BPM standards, thereby resolving common misconceptions; establishes the need for diagnosis standards; identifies the strengths and limitations of current standards; and highlights current knowledge gaps and future trends. Researchers and practitioners may wish to position their work around this review.

Originality/value

Currently, to the best of one's knowledge, such an overview and such an analysis of BPM standards have not so far been undertaken.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Jonathan S. Swift

Reports exploratory research which examines the relationship between the extent to which executives have a positive attitude towards a foreign culture and the level of…

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2272

Abstract

Reports exploratory research which examines the relationship between the extent to which executives have a positive attitude towards a foreign culture and the level of competence they have achieved in that language. Suggests that this was a weak correlation but a much stronger one existed between these two factors within the Spanish market. Cites that cultural liking may be a positive factor in foreign language acquisition but only in some circumstances or cultures and ecnourages further research in this area.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Abstract

Details

Information Services for Innovative Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12465-030-5

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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Laura Gomez

In this chapter, the author provides empirical research that supports the implementation of DLPs as programs that provide cogitative learning, high academic achievement…

Abstract

In this chapter, the author provides empirical research that supports the implementation of DLPs as programs that provide cogitative learning, high academic achievement, and the opportunity to be competitive in a global economy for all students – including culturally and linguistically diverse students – in order to achieve education equity. The author utilizes Arizona as an example of education policy that excludes and further marginalizes language minority students by requiring English proficiency as a requirement to be part of Dual Language Programs (DLPs). Furthermore, the author frames the current education climate and language policy affecting DLPs through an Interest Convergence theoretical lens.

Details

Culturally Sustaining and Revitalizing Pedagogies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-261-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Brian Bloch

Illustrates the rising significance of foreign‐language trainingwith respect to employment opportunities in commerce and industry. Drawson a wide‐ranging and diverse base…

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4369

Abstract

Illustrates the rising significance of foreign‐language training with respect to employment opportunities in commerce and industry. Draws on a wide‐ranging and diverse base of literature in order to indicate the value of learning a foreign language, the manner in which such training can be utilized and several other fundamental considerations relating to language and employment. Issues analysed include: the linkage of linguistic with other skills, which students are likely to benefit the most from language training, the impact of various levels of proficiency, language for business as opposed to general language training and the cultural element in terms of career prospects. Makes objective and subjective evaluations as to the significance of these various issues with the aim of assisting students, employees and educational institutions in assessing the benefits and costs, advantages and shortcomings of different types and levels of language education.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

W.M. Clarke

Reports on a study of Irish exporting companies aimed at discovering the extent to which they use foreign languages in conducting their export business and discusses the…

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2010

Abstract

Reports on a study of Irish exporting companies aimed at discovering the extent to which they use foreign languages in conducting their export business and discusses the implications of its findings for export‐oriented foreign language training. Concludes that a high level of foreign language skill is not essential for success in exporting to non‐English‐speaking markets, but that some competence in the language of the foreign target market can be immensely valuable in gaining the confidence of prospective customers and in understanding their needs. Training aimed at improving the foreign language skills of exporters should also cover the culture and business practices of the foreign market, and the technical terms used in a particular industrial sector. However the real need is for competence at a relatively low level within exporting companies to enable junior staff to deal effectively with incoming messages. Language training should focus initially on developing reading and basic writing skills rather than seeking to achieve fluency in speaking the foreign language.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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