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Article

Jonathan Elliott and Angela Guggemos

In the Poudre School District of Northern Colorado, USA, Fort Collins High School (FCHS) and Fossil Ridge High School (FRHS) have similar square footages, mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

In the Poudre School District of Northern Colorado, USA, Fort Collins High School (FCHS) and Fossil Ridge High School (FRHS) have similar square footages, mechanical systems, and architectural capacities. While FRHS (built 2005) is leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED)‐Silver and Energy Star (2009) certified, FCHS (built 1995) is not. Despite the sustainable features of FRHS, the whole‐building electric use intensities (EUIs) were comparable for the schools. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate electricity consumption and use patterns at these schools.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate whole‐building EUI and identify areas of high consumption, the buildings were divided into workspaces for which workspace‐specific EUIs were calculated and compared. Further, workspace EUIs were partitioned into their heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, plug load, food service and residual components for analysis.

Findings

Significantly, more electricity is used for lighting and HVAC at FCHS (44.04 and 33.16 per cent of total, respectively) compared to FRHS (36.90 and 29.17 per cent of total, respectively). However, plug load consumption accounted for 24.99 per cent of electric use at FRHS but only 16.35 per cent at FCHS. Component EUI analysis identified high‐wattage lighting at FCHS and high computer density at FRHS as areas for possible efficiency improvements.

Practical implications

Whole‐building EUI values are most useful for comparing energy performance of buildings dedicated to a single use. Workspace‐to‐workspace EUI comparisons offer improved energy performance indicators for facility managers. Component EUI analysis identifies specific consumptive activities which should be targeted for potential reduction in electricity use and expenditure.

Originality/value

Workspace and component EUIs provide for more insight than whole‐building EUI when comparing electric consumption of multi‐use facilities.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

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Article

Nandarani Maistry and Harold Annegarn

The purpose of this paper is to outline efforts at the University of Johannesburg, a large metropolitan university in Gauteng province, to examine energy efficiency within…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline efforts at the University of Johannesburg, a large metropolitan university in Gauteng province, to examine energy efficiency within the context of the green campus movement, through the analysis of electricity consumption patterns. The study is particularly relevant in light of the cumulative 230 per cent increase in electricity costs between 2008 and 2014 in South Africa that has forced institutions of higher education to seek ways to reduce energy consumption.

Design/Methodology/Approach

A quantitative research design was adopted for the analysis of municipal electricity consumption records using a case study approach to identify trends and patterns in consumption. The largest campus of the University of Johannesburg, which is currently one of the largest residential universities in South Africa, was selected as a case study. Average diurnal consumption profiles were plotted according to phases of the academic calendar, distinguished by specific periods of active teaching and research (in-session); study breaks, examinations and administration (out-of-session); and recesses. Average profiles per phase of the academic calendar were constructed from the hourly electricity consumption and power records using ExcelTM pivot tables and charts.

Findings

It was found that the academic calendar has profound effects on energy consumption by controlling the level of activity. Diurnal maximum consumption corresponds to core working hours, peaking at an average of 2,500 kWh during “in-session” periods, 2,250 kWh during “out-of-session” periods and 2,100 kWh during recess. A high base load was evident throughout the year (between 1,300 and 1,650 kWh), mainly attributed to heating and cooling. By switching off the 350 kW chiller plant on weekdays, a 9 per cent electricity reduction could be achieved during out-of-session and recess periods. Similarly, during in-session periods, a 6 per cent reduction could be achieved.

Practical implications

Key strategies and recommendations are presented to stimulate energy efficiency implementation within the institution.

Originality Value

Coding of consumption profiles against the academic calendar has not been previously done in relation to an academic institution. The profiles were used to establish the influence of the academic calendar on electricity consumption, which along with our own observation were used to identify specific consumption reduction opportunities worth pursuing.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article

Junhua Zhang, Jianping Yuan, Wei Wang and Jiao Wang

The purpose of this paper is to obtain the reachable domain (RD) for spacecraft with a single normal impulse while considering both time and impulse constraints.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain the reachable domain (RD) for spacecraft with a single normal impulse while considering both time and impulse constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of RD is addressed in an analytical approach by analyzing for either the initial maneuver point or the impulse magnitude being arbitrary. The trajectories are considered lying in the intersection of a plane and an ellipsoid of revolution, whose family can be determined analytically. Moreover, the impulse and time constraints are considered while formulating the problem. The upper bound of impulse magnitude, “high consumption areas” and the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity are discussed.

Findings

The equations of RD with a single normal impulse are analytically obtained. The equations of three scenarios are obtained. If normal impulse is too large, the RD cannot be obtained. The change of the semi-major axis and eccentricity with large normal impulse is more obvious. For long-term missions, the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity leaded by multiple normal impulses should be considered.

Practical implications

The RD gives the pre-defined region (all positions accessible) for a spacecraft under a given initial orbit and a normal impulse with certain magnitude.

Originality/value

The RD for spacecraft with normal impulse can be used for non-coplanar orbital transfers, emergency evacuation after failure of rendezvous and docking and collision avoidance.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Caroline Ritchie

This paper aims to investigate how the 18‐ to 30‐age group currently interacts with wine in a variety of settings. It seeks to establish how young adults in the UK…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the 18‐ to 30‐age group currently interacts with wine in a variety of settings. It seeks to establish how young adults in the UK currently perceive, use, purchase and consume wine. This is the next generation of UK wine consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of seven focus groups were held throughout England and Wales. Participants were between the ages of 18‐30 and consumed wine. A gender balance reflecting UK wine consumption patterns was maintained. One focus group was run to incorporate atypical young wine consumers.

Findings

Wine is for sharing but a bottle is too big for one person. This key result influences behaviours; younger adults may not buy wine, especially in the on‐trade, but with age this inclusivity increased consumption with partners and friends. Paradoxically, whilst the public image of wine remains as a civilised cultured beverage, it is often consumed during heavy drinking sessions in private situations. In addition, young adult consumers may not actually know how much they spend on wine, but use media to suggest suitable prices in public forums.

Research limitations/implications

The sample population used was small and may not be representative quantitatively. However, the use of focus groups enabled the gathering of significant qualitative data.

Practical implications

The 18‐ to 30‐age cohort is smaller than the 45 to 64s, who currently consume the most wine. Understanding how this population interacts with wine, identifying potential new markets, may enable the wine and hospitality industries to react effectively to their needs.

Originality/value

Understanding how young adults interact with wine rather than their parents will increase understanding of changing behaviours in relation to the social usage of wine.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Book part

Aura Salmivaara

A variety of stressors have been identified that threaten the sustainability of water resources. The availability and predictability of water resources are at the core of…

Abstract

A variety of stressors have been identified that threaten the sustainability of water resources. The availability and predictability of water resources are at the core of considering the role of climate for humans and natural ecosystems. The hydrological cycle defines available water resources in a river basin, but to ensure sustainability, it is important to examine other factors within river basin borders influencing the quality and quantity of water. Preparing for pressures and building adaptive capacity require a holistic assessment of the current status and possible future impacts on the freshwater resources.

This chapter describes a case study focusing on the Irrawaddy and Salween Rivers that form a major part of Myanmar's water resources. Despite their importance, these basins have been little studied. The basins were divided according to ecological zones and terrain slope into subareas, and a vulnerability assessment based on 22 indicators was conducted. Indicators represent publicly available global spatial data on temperature, precipitation, hydrology, glaciers, state of wetlands, population distribution, land cover, nitrogen load, and water use. Indicators were based either on model outputs or on land cover and land-use information, representing variably current situations or future projections.

Besides describing the case study, this chapter discusses the challenges and opportunities of linking large-scale spatial modeling results to local-level management and adaptation planning. Challenges arise first from the process of modeling and input data characteristics that manifest as questions of scale and uncertainty. Secondly, the process of distributing the results for the relevant stakeholders (if identified and reached) can turn out to be tricky. Opportunities exist if attention is given to impact of scale and unit of analysis in (especially spatial) data ensuring best applicability in local-scale management. Also improving information management with a systematic approach in identifying knowledge gaps and synthesizing existing information is crucial for improving linkages between researchers, policy-makers, and local decision-makers. Finally, modeling should be developed toward acknowledging the value of the process of modeling rather than the actual results. This would provide possibilities for translating the increasing amounts of information into understanding among the relevant stakeholders.

Details

Climate Change Modeling For Local Adaptation In The Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-487-0

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Book part

Andreas Folkers

The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies…

Abstract

The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies (wind and solar power) into the grid. Yet, the promise of intelligent infrastructures does not only extend to technological infrastructures, but also to market infrastructures. Smart grid technologies underpin and foster the design of a “smart” electricity market, where dispersed energy prosumers can adapt, in real time, to fluctuating price signals that register changes in electricity generation. This could neutralize fluctuations resulting from the increased share of renewables. To critically “think” the promise of smart infrastructure, it is not enough to just focus on digital devices. Rather, it becomes necessary to scrutinize economic assumptions about the “intelligence” of markets and the technopolitics of electricity market design. This chapter will first show the historical trajectory of the technopolitical promise of renewable energy as not only a more sustainable, but also a more democratic alternative to fossil and nuclear power, by looking at the affinities between market liberal and ecological critiques of centralized fossil and nuclear based energy systems. It will then elucidate the co-construction of smart grids and smart markets in the governmental plans for an “electricity market 2.0.” Finally, the chapter will show how smart grid and smart metering technology fosters new forms of economic agency like the domo oeconomicus. Such an economic formatting of smart grid technology, however, forecloses other ecologically prudent and politically progressive ways of constructing and engaging with intelligent infrastructures.

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Article

Yuhong Cao and Jianxin You

This paper aims to explore the relationship between environmental regulation, technological innovation and manufacturing quality competitiveness to provide some references…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the relationship between environmental regulation, technological innovation and manufacturing quality competitiveness to provide some references for emission reduction activities and improvements in manufacturing quality competitiveness to achieve environmental protection targets and economic development as part of a win–win situation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the structure-behavior-performance paradigm and Grabowski’s research, a new empirical model was provided. The software, EViews 6.0, was used for econometric analysis. Regression analysis was adopted to explore the three indicators’ relationships.

Findings

First, environmental regulation can promote technological innovation effectively. Second, compared with wasted gas and wasted solids, investment in wasted water control promotes Chinese technological innovation most. Third, the impact of research and development investment, induced by environmental regulation, on manufacturing quality competitiveness is greater than that induced by non-environmental regulation. Fourth, the impact of lagged two-phase environmental regulation on manufacturing quality competitiveness is similar to that of lagged one-phase regulation.

Practical implications

The issue that Chinese manufacturing is facing is how to manage the trade-off between pollution control investment and improved quality competitiveness. This study enables managers to understand how to better implement environmental regulation initiatives while achieving environmental protection and quality competitiveness as part of a win–win situation.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes the relationships between environmental regulation, technological innovation and manufacturing quality competitiveness for the first time and provides the basic argument for integrating Chinese environmental regulation with quality competitiveness to reveal the uniqueness of the circumstances determining China’s economic development.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Book part

Ciaran Heavey, Richard T. Mowday, Aidan Kelly and Frank Roche

This chapter attempts to reinvigorate scholarly interest in executive scanning by outlining a model to guide future research on executive search within the context of…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to reinvigorate scholarly interest in executive scanning by outlining a model to guide future research on executive search within the context of international strategy. Executive scanning has received considerable empirical attention but only limited theoretical attention. Most of this research has studied scanning as the receipt rather than the search for information. Based on the application of learning theory, we outline a model advancing two broad categories of executive search exploitative and explorative, consisting of six specific search behaviors. We advance search as integral to managerial decisions relating to the various aspects of internationalization, notably choice of location, corporate strategy, and mode of entry. The implications for future research are presented.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-256-2

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Article

Abstract

Details

Work Study, vol. 52 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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