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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

K. Arunkumar, Muthukannan Muthiah, Suresh Kumar A., Chithambar Ganesh A. and Kanniga Devi R.

Inefficient waste disposal technique and cement production methodology caused significant environmental impacts, leading to global warming. The purpose of the research was…

Abstract

Purpose

Inefficient waste disposal technique and cement production methodology caused significant environmental impacts, leading to global warming. The purpose of the research was to invent an effective, sustainable technology to use the wastes and alternate for cement in concrete. Geopolymer technology could be the most desirable solution to use the wastes into an effective product.

Design/methodology/approach

The wood waste ash derived from nearby tea shops was used as an alternate binder for fly ash. The replacement of WWA with FA was varied from 0 to 100% at 10% intervals. In this research, setting and mechanical features of Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) along with Waste wood ash (WWA) was carried out. The influence of wood waste ash in the microstructure of the GPC was also assessed using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Findings

The findings revealed that 30% replacement of wood waste ash was performed higher in all measured features. Besides, the formation of different phases was also observed with the inclusion of wood waste ash.

Research limitations/implications

The demand for fly ash was increased in recent years, and the fly-based GPC has required more alkaline solution and temperature curing. Hence, there was a research gap on finding an alternative binder for fly ash.

Originality/value

The research novelty was to use the wood waste ash, which has inbuilt alkaline compounds on the production of sustainable geopolymer. The finding showed that the wood waste ash could be alternate fly ash that eliminates the environmental impacts and economic thrust.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Eric Asa, Monisha Shrestha, Edmund Baffoe-Twum and Bright Awuku

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for the environment. Also, fly ash is a material with sustainable properties. Therefore, this paper aims to focus on the development of sustainable construction materials using 100% high-calcium fly ash and potassium hydroxide (KOH)-based alkaline solution and study the engineering properties of the resulting fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In phase I of the study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar. The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce similar (comparable) strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates a considerable amount of heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond was unable to form a stronger bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the geopolymer concrete tougher than the traditional concrete without CNT.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests were conducted to determine properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In Phase I of the study, CNTs were studied to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar.

Findings

The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce the same strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates too much heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the concrete tougher than concrete without CNT.

Originality/value

This study was conducted at the construction engineering and management concrete laboratory at North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota. All the experiments were conducted and analyzed by the authors.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Gopalakrishnan Rajagopalan

The durability of concrete structures, especially built-in corrosive environments, starts to deteriorate after 20–30 years, even though they have been designed for more…

Abstract

Purpose

The durability of concrete structures, especially built-in corrosive environments, starts to deteriorate after 20–30 years, even though they have been designed for more than 60 years of service life. The durability of concrete depends on its resistance against a corrosive environment. Inorganic Polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, has been emerging as a new engineering material with the potential to form an alternative to conventional concrete for the construction industry. The purpose of this paper is to conduct the investigation on corrosion of the geopolymer materials prepared using GGBS blended with low calcium fly ash in different percentages and sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate as activators and cured in ambient conditions (25±5°C).

Design/methodology/approach

GGBS was replaced by fly ash at different levels from 0 to 50 percent in a constant concentration of 12M. The main parameters of this study are the evaluation of strength characteristics of geopolymer concrete and resistance against corrosion by conducting accelerated corrosion test (Florida method).

Findings

From the test results it is observed that the strength of the geopolymer concrete with GGBS in ambient curing performs well compared to geopolymer concrete with GGBS blended with fly ash. The GPCE sample (40 percent replacement of fly ash to GGBS) shows better results and the resistance against corrosion was good, compared to all other mixes.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes of this investigation will be useful for the researchers and the construction industry.

Practical implications

This paper results that optimum percentage of fly ash should be blended with GGBS against the corrosion attack. This investigation indicates that GGBS without the combination of fly ash can be utilized in a normal environment. These findings will definitely be useful for the ready-mix concrete manufacturers and the construction Industry.

Social implications

Disposal of industrial wastes causes pollution to the environment. Industrial wastes are utilized for the production of geopolymer concrete, which is the alternative material for the construction industry.

Originality/value

From the observation of the previous literature, till now there was no investigation on geopolymer concrete for corrosion under ambient curing conditions, as such this investigation could be considered as the new investigation.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Vijaya Prasad B., Arumairaj Paul Daniel, Anand N. and Siva Kumar Yadav

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary…

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Abstract

Purpose

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary cause of CO2 emission globally. The purpose of this study is to develop sustainable concrete material to satisfy the present need of construction sector. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a sustainable concrete developed without the use of cement. Therefore, investigations are being conducted to replace the cement by 100% with high calcium fly ash (FA) as binding material.

Design/methodology/approach

High calcium FA is used as cementitious binder, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicates (Na2SiO3) are used as alkaline liquids for developing the GPC. Mix proportions with different NaOH molarities of 4, 6, 8 and 10 M are considered to attain the appropriate mix. The method of curing adopted is ambient and oven curing. Workability, compressive strength and microstructure characteristics of GPC are analysed and presented.

Findings

An increase of NaOH in the mix decreases the workability. Compressive strength of 29 MPa is obtained for Mix-I with 8 M under ambient curing. A polynomial relationship is obtained to predict the compressive strength of GPC. Scanning electron microscope analysis is used to confirm the geo-polymerisation process in the microstructure of concrete.

Originality/value

This research work focuses on finding some alternative cementitious material for concrete that can replace ordinary portland cement (OPC) to overcome the CO2 emission owing to the utilisation of cement in the construction industry. An attempt has been made to use the waste material (high calcium FA) from thermal power plant for the production of GPC. GPC concrete is the novel building material and alternative to conventional concrete. It is the ecofriendly product contributing towards the improvement of the circular economy in the construction industry. There are several factors that affect the property of GPC such as type of binder material, molarity of activator solution and curing condition. The novelty of this work lies in the approach of using locally available high calcium FA along with manufactured sand for the development of GPC. As this approach is rarely investigated, to prove the attainment of compressive strength of GPC with high calcium FA, an attempt has been made during the present investigation. Other influencing parameter which affects the strength gain has also been analysed in this paper.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Huijun Wu

The purpose of this paper is to research the hardened properties of non-dispersible concrete in seawater environment, especially in seawater environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to research the hardened properties of non-dispersible concrete in seawater environment, especially in seawater environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The main approach is according to the experiment.

Findings

The findings of this paper are: first, because of the washing effect of water, the strength of underwater non-dispersible concrete is lower than that of terrestrial concrete. Second, the strength of non-dispersible underwater concrete with silica fume increases remarkably at different ages. Third, underwater non-dispersible concrete does not produce new products when it is formed and cured in seawater.

Originality/value

In this paper, underwater non-dispersible concrete is formed and maintained on land, freshwater and seawater by underwater pouring method. The working performance, mechanical properties and durability of underwater non-dispersible concrete mixtures after hardening are tested.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Somia Bechar and Djamal Zerrouki

Wells’ cementing is an important and costly step in the engineering sector for oil and gas well. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Algerian natural…

Abstract

Purpose

Wells’ cementing is an important and costly step in the engineering sector for oil and gas well. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Algerian natural pozzolan (NP) in order to evaluate the influence of partial substitution of class G cement on slurry properties.

Design/methodology/approach

NP was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). Their pozzolanic activity was evaluated by measuring the electrical conductivity in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan/calcium hydroxide. The replacement ration cement/NP was 10, 20 and 30 per cent, and the rheological behaviour, compressive strength properties at different ages, elastic properties, X-ray diffraction analysis, rapid chloride penetration, porosity and permeability of all slurries were investigated and compared with a standard sample.

Findings

The obtained results indicated that the replacement with 20 per cent by weight of cement at 21 and 28 days had a higher compressive strength (+30.62 per cent) and lower chloride penetration.

Originality/value

The results show the potential of the use of locally available NP in well cementing.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Poonam Shekhawat, Gunwant Sharma and Rao Martand Singh

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of various heat conditions on the durability of eggshell powder (ESP)–flyash (FA) geopolymer subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of various heat conditions on the durability of eggshell powder (ESP)–flyash (FA) geopolymer subjected to wetting–drying cycles.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, two waste materials, ESP and FA, which are destined for landfills, were used as precursors to produce geopolymers in a sustainable manner. The mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaOH was used as a liquid alkaline activator in geopolymerization. The ESP and FA content were varied as 30, 50 and 70% and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratios were varied as 0.5, 1 and 2. Geopolymer samples were cured at three heat conditions: 25°C (ambient temperature), 50°C and 80°C for seven days prior to durability tests.

Findings

The results of this study revealed that the strength loss of the geopolymer decreases with an increase in curing temperature up to 50°C and then increases for higher temperature up to 80°C. Further, the strength loss of the geopolymer decreases with an increase in FA replacement and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio. Geopolymer composites exhibited early strength development because of the inclusion of calcium-rich ESP. The weight loss of the ESP–FA geopolymer follows a similar pattern of strength loss. Geopolymer samples previously cured at optimum heat condition of 50°C for seven days exhibited higher durability.

Originality/value

The inclusion of calcium-rich ESP in FA-based geopolymer is novel research. As ESP–FA geopolymer composites show higher mechanical strength and higher durability compared to Indian standards, the potential use of this geopolymer can be in road subbases/subgrades.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Abdulla A. Sharo, Ahmed Mohammed Ashteyat, Ahmed S. Alawneh and Bashar Ali Bany Khaled

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possible use of oil shale as a soil stabilizing agent for expansive soils.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possible use of oil shale as a soil stabilizing agent for expansive soils.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental work has been fulfilled to investigate the influence of oil shale ash (OSA) on the geotechnical behavior of the expansive soil of Irbid, Jordan. Three swelling-shrinkage soils were considered in this study along with various percentages of OSA varying at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per cent by dry weight of the soil. A series of laboratory tests were conducted on the soil samples before and after mixing it with OSA. These tests were soil classification, Atterberg limits, compaction test, falling head permeability test, unconfined compression test, free swelling, swelling pressure and California bearing ratio (CBR) test.

Findings

Laboratory tests results indicated that OSA is effective in improving the texture and strength of the treated soil by reducing plasticity index, swelling potential and swelling pressure and moderately enhancing soil strength properties including the unconfined compressive strength (qu), maximum dry unit weight (γd-max.) and CBR test.

Originality/value

OSA showed potential as a low-cost soil stabilizing agent for swell-shrink soils.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Moayad M. Kassim

The purpose of this study was to reuse cement kiln dust (CKD) in cement products and report the results of determining the long-term compression and flexural tensile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to reuse cement kiln dust (CKD) in cement products and report the results of determining the long-term compression and flexural tensile strengths of mortars containing CKD as a partial replacement of sulfate-resistant cement (SRC). During the manufacturing of Portland cement, voluminous quantities of the byproduct dust are produced, which is commonly known as CKD. In the past decade, according to environmental requirements, many researchers have attempted to reuse CKD in cement products.

Design/methodology/approach

The long-term compression and flexural tensile strengths of mortars containing CKD as a partial replacement of SRC were tested. The replacement ratios in this study were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent. The specimens were exposed to a highly saline environment after normal curing in water for a 28-day period.

Findings

The results indicated a slight increase in the strength of CKD–SRC mortar containing 10 per cent CKD and moderate sulfate resistance when the CKD ratio reached 20 per cent, as compared to the reference mortar. In addition, CKD did not adversely affect the properties of SRC mortar subjected to sulfate exposure, even after one year.

Originality/value

The tests were inducted for the first time on SRC, and the new results can be used to produce an environmental-friendly concrete.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Ahmad Mashal, Jehad Abu-Dahrieh, Ashraf A. Ahmed, Lukumon Oyedele, No’man Haimour, Ahmad Al-Haj-Ali and David Rooney

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of natural Jordanian zeolite tuff to remove ammonia from aqueous solutions using a laboratory batch method and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of natural Jordanian zeolite tuff to remove ammonia from aqueous solutions using a laboratory batch method and fixed-bed column apparatus. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models.

Design/methodology/approach

Column experiments were conducted in packed bed column. The used apparatus consisted of a bench-mounted glass column of 2.5 cm inside diameter and 100 cm height (column volume = 490 cm3). The column was packed with a certain amount of zeolite to give the desired bed height. The feeding solution was supplied from a 30 liter plastic container at the beginning of each experiment and fed to the column down-flow through a glass flow meter having a working range of 10-280ml/min.

Findings

Ammonium ion exchange by natural Jordanian zeolite data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Continuous sorption of ammonium ions by natural Jordanian zeolite tuff has proven to be effective in decreasing concentrations ranging from 15-50 mg NH4-N/L down to levels below 1 mg/l. Breakthrough time increased by increasing the bed depth as well as decreasing zeolite particle size, solution flow-rate, initial NH4+ concentration and pH. Sorption of ammonium by the zeolite under the tested conditions gave the sorption capacity of 28 mg NH4-N/L at 20°C, and 32 mg NH4-N/L at 30°C.

Originality/value

This research investigates the performance of natural Jordanian zeolite tuff to remove ammonia from aqueous solutions using a laboratory batch method and fixed-bed column apparatus. The equilibrium data of the sorption of Ammonia were plotted by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, then the experimental data were compared to the predictions of the above equilibrium isotherm models. It is clear that the NH4+ ion exchange data fitted better with Langmuir isotherm than with Freundlich model and gave an adequate correlation coefficient value.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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