Search results

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Cameron Anderson and Jessica A. Kennedy

Purpose – In this chapter, we review the research on status hierarchies in groups and teams to assess the relative validity of two major models – the dominance and…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, we review the research on status hierarchies in groups and teams to assess the relative validity of two major models – the dominance and functionalist theories of status hierarchies. We find that these models cannot fully account for empirical evidence in the literature, and thus propose a new model of status hierarchies, Micropolitics.

Methodology/approach – We examine the relative validity of current major theories by reviewing the literature on status hierarchies in groups.

Findings – We find that, although most of the literature supports the functionalist theory of status hierarchies, this theory cannot explain some of the existing empirical evidence. Drawing on both functionalist and dominance perspectives, we propose a new theory of status, the Micropolitics model, to account for this evidence. Specifically, we propose that in the “micro” context of groups and teams, individuals attain status by convincing their group that they possess the skills and abilities needed to take charge – just as political candidates must convince voters they are the right people for the job.

Originality/value of paper – This paper proposes a new theory of status hierarchies in groups that may provide additional explanatory power for status researchers. It suggests that groups strive to attain meritocracy, but may put the wrong people in charge.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Bonna Jones

The purpose of this paper is to bring the concept of a “hierarchy of action”, as it is currently being used in other fields, into library and information science (LIS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring the concept of a “hierarchy of action”, as it is currently being used in other fields, into library and information science (LIS).

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchy theory is adopted to describe three hierarchies of action, which include the human processes of semantic and social innovation, as well as a system of biological interpretence, from which human processes are thought to have evolved as a development of biosemiosis in nature. By way of example, it is argued that a text is a complex achievement, and hierarchy theory shows how to account for this complexity; the everyday definition of “text” is augmented with accounts from different levels of observation.

Findings

The concept of a hierarchy of action enables a person to account for a text as a meaning/symbolic product; include in that account the processes whereby texts are produced and used; and say why these processes are important to the health of the biosphere that is called home.

Originality/value

Hierarchy of action” has been developed as a concept in biology and ecology; it belongs to a way of thinking whereby human reality, like nature, is construed as dynamical processes operating in symbiotic relationship with each other; it has not yet been adopted in LIS with reference to hierarchy theory and its potential is yet to be explored.

Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2016

June Carbone and Naomi Cahn

This paper explores the relationship between feminist theory and rising economic inequality. It shows how greater inequality reflects the valorization of the…

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between feminist theory and rising economic inequality. It shows how greater inequality reflects the valorization of the stereotypically male qualities of competition and hierarchy, producing a greater concentration of wealth among a small number of men at the top, shortchanging men more than women through the rest of the economy, and altering the way that men and women match up to each other in the creation of families. By creating a framework for further research on the relationship between the norms of the top and the disadvantages of everyone else in more unequal societies, the paper provides a basis for feminists to develop a new theory of social power.

The paper demonstrates how the development of winner-take-all income hierarchies, the political devaluation of families and communities, and the terms of the family values debate diminish equality and community. The paper addresses how to understand these developments as they affect both the structure of society and the allocation of power within our families in ways that link to the historic concerns of feminist theory. It accordingly ends by asking the “woman question” in a new way: one that revisits the stereotypically masculine and feminine and asks how they connect to hierarchy, one that considers whether the inclusion of women changes institutional cultures in predictable ways, and one that wonders whether the values that today are associated with more women than men offer a basis for the reconstruction of society more generally.

Details

Special Issue: Feminist Legal Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-782-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Dmitriy Chulkov

– This study aims to examine the economic factors that determine innovation pattern in centralized and decentralized economies and organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the economic factors that determine innovation pattern in centralized and decentralized economies and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence on innovation in the centralized economy of the Soviet Union is reviewed. Existing theoretical literature in this area relies on the incentives of decision-makers in centralized organizations and on the concept of soft budget constraint in centralized command economies and hard budget constraint in market economies. This study advocates applying the hierarchy/polyarchy model of innovation screening to explain the pattern of innovation in centralized economic systems.

Findings

Screening and development of innovation projects can be organized in a centralized or decentralized fashion. The differences in innovation between centralized and decentralized economic systems may be explained by elements of the principal-agent theory, the soft budget constraint model, and the theory of decision-making in hierarchies and polyarchies. Empirical evidence shows a sharp slowdown in both innovation and economic growth in the Soviet economy following the economic decision-making reform of 1965. The theoretical explanation most consistent with this evidence is the hierarchy decision-making model.

Originality/value

Comparisons of innovation in centralized and decentralized economies traditionally relied on decision-makers' incentives and the concept of soft budget constraint. Upon analysis of empirical evidence from the centralized Soviet economy, this study advocates explaining innovation patterns based on decision-making theory of hierarchy.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2014

Myrtle P. Bell, Dennis Marquardt and Daphne P. Berry

This paper aims to analyze the new multi-racial hierarchy in the USA. The authors propose that despite increasing diversity, a multi-racial hierarchy of privilege and…

1977

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the new multi-racial hierarchy in the USA. The authors propose that despite increasing diversity, a multi-racial hierarchy of privilege and disadvantage continues to exist. Due to the history of anti-Black discrimination and stereotyping in the USA, employers prefer native and immigrant non-Blacks to native and immigrant Blacks, and use non-Blacks to claim organizational diversity success.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose that a multi-racial hierarchy, ordered as Whites, Non-White Non-Blacks, and Collective Blacks now exists, and use history, relevant theory, existing research, and government data to support their ideas.

Findings

Evidence suggests that despite increased diversity, Whites remain most privileged, Blacks least privileged, and Asians and Hispanics tend to comprise the middle of the hierarchy. Even in organizations that are “diverse,” a multi-racial hierarchy results in different compensation, promotion, and layoff rates and differential treatment across groups.

Research limitations/implications

Diversity within and across different racial and ethnic groups should be investigated. Employers' apparent diversity success may obscure the continued dominance of Whites, disadvantage of Blacks, and a color-based multi-racial hierarchy.

Practical implications

Analyses of human resources data could help organizations identify and avoid discrimination and inequality even in “diverse” organizations.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the meaning of a new multi-racial hierarchy in ways that have not been previously considered.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Susan P. Gantt and Yvonne M. Agazarian

This article introduces a systems‐centered model for emotional intelligence (EI). This makes it possible to consider not only the emotional intelligence of individuals…

Abstract

This article introduces a systems‐centered model for emotional intelligence (EI). This makes it possible to consider not only the emotional intelligence of individuals, but the emotional intelligence of work groups and organizations themselves. Agazarian's theory of living humans systems (TLHS) (and its constructs) applies to all levels of living human systems. Using these constructs, we operationally define emotional intelligence from a systems‐centered framework (Agazarian & Peters, 1981, 1997). From the systems‐centered perspective, individuals contribute energy that is necessary for organizational emotional intelligence. Yet equally important, emotional intelligence in organizations is a dynamic output of the function and structure and energy of the organizational system itself, rather than a property of individuals. This conceptualization extends the focus in the field of emotional intelligence from individuals with a selection and personnel development emphasis and instead to building work groups and organizations that function with greater emotional intelligence. Introducing a systems‐centered perspective on emotional intelligence enables emotional intelligence to be viewed at all system levels in the organization, including individuals, work teams and the organization itself.

Details

Organizational Analysis, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1551-7470

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Dhara Shah, Narendra M. Agrawal and Miriam Moeller

Despite more than 50 years of research into gender and work, the impact of female expatriates persists to be underrepresented in mainstream international human resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite more than 50 years of research into gender and work, the impact of female expatriates persists to be underrepresented in mainstream international human resource management (IHRM) literature. The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the perceptions of married Indian information technology (IT) women regarding career and expatriating discussions they have with their husbands and its impact on their decision making to undertake international assignments.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 married Indian IT women who had undertaken international assignments after marriage. The study includes two data sets, 1: women on less than one-year assignment; 2: women on greater than one-year assignments.

Findings

The study found that women who went on short-term assignments of less than one year travelled alone and found it fortunate and convenient to leave their children in the care of their husbands, in-laws, parents and maids. While in the cases of women travelling for longer-term assignments, most husbands accompanied them. The study suggests that while spousal support was the key, having a shared purpose with husbands along with extended family support was equally significant to facilitate women undertaking an international assignment. As an impetus, the authors note a change within the Indian society where both partners come together to make decisions about expatriating.

Research limitations/implications

The authors discuss the implications for IHRM as they relate to gender diversity within organisations.

Originality/value

The research, underpinned by the early workings of a theory of career hierarchy, explores the complexities in expatriation decision-making processes of married women from the emerging economy of India with traditional family values, who are working within a modern and liberal IT industry.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Jun-Phil Uhm, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jin-Wook Han and Dong-Kyu Kim

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We investigated how consumers' exposure to background music affects emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intentions; and further tested consumers' information processing by using the same measures. Effects of music on viewer responses were hypothesized using arousal theory while the information processing was hypothesized using hierarchy-of-effects model.

Design/methodology/approach

We employed a between-subjects experimental design with random assignment. Fifty-four participants were recruited with 27 in an experimental group and 27 in a control group. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and self-report measures were used to assess information processing. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the mean differences of variables between the groups. Partial least squares algorithm and bootstrapping were performed to further explore the relationships among the measures.

Findings

Mean differences indicated that the background music exposed group's emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intention were significantly higher than those of the non-exposure group. Path analysis showed that the level of arousal induced by watching sports advertisements affected attention, attention affected brand attitude and brand attitude affected purchase intention. Indirect paths from arousal to brand attitude and attention to purchase intention were significant.

Originality/value

This study provides practical implications for sports marketers regarding methods to increase the effectiveness of sport advertisement. Results might contribute theoretically to the sports advertisement field by demonstrating the relationship between physiological and marketing-effect factors. Our method of measuring physiological response using qEEG is also expected to influence physiological measurement in sports marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Lars Skyttner

General systems theory is sometimes considered to be extremely “general” and thus a theory embracing everything and nothing. In order to rehabilitate the theory, an…

2619

Abstract

General systems theory is sometimes considered to be extremely “general” and thus a theory embracing everything and nothing. In order to rehabilitate the theory, an attempt is made to trace its origin and define its hallmarks. Begins with an examination of the system concept and closes with the presentation of two paradigms, the systems paradigm and the evolutionary paradigm, today intimately related to general systems theory. Indicates that the theory rests on thoughts as old as humanity itself. Its most significant quality was found to be an order implicit into both cosmos and human existence based on a hierarchy of hierarchies as organizing elements.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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