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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Hao Shen, Yu Gao and Xiuyun Yang

The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational climate impacts the speed of strategic change (SSC) for firms in transitional economies and whether if the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational climate impacts the speed of strategic change (SSC) for firms in transitional economies and whether if the effects were contingent on internal control mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model including five constructs is developed. The questionnaire survey is deployed to scale main constructs, including organizational climate, such as open communication and hierarchical bureaucracy, internal controls such as strategic and financial control, and SSC. The moderation regression method in five steps is employed to test all hypotheses using the survey data from the 120 sampled Chinese firms.

Findings

The findings show that open communication has a positive effect on SCC, whereas hierarchical bureaucracy has a negative effect on SSC. Furthermore, strategic control positively moderates the relationship between open communication and SSC but negatively moderates the relationship between hierarchical bureaucracy and SSC; meanwhile, financial control negatively moderates the relationship between open communication and SSC but positively moderates the relationship between hierarchical bureaucracy and SSC.

Originality/value

This research integrates organizational climate and internal control mechanisms into the framework of strategic change to investigate how firms achieve fast strategic change through aligning organizational climate with proper organizational control mechanisms. The findings advance the authors’ understanding of the organizational climate, internal controls, and strategic change literature, and offer valuable managerial insights for managers in situations when strategic change is of central importance in the transitional economies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Organizational Culture and Its Impact on Continuous Improvement in Manufacturing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-404-5

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Thomas J. Crowe and Edward J. Stahlman

Discusses the movement away from hierarchical organizationalstructures towards flatter, heterarchical, structures which is reflectedin the growing interest in distributed…

821

Abstract

Discusses the movement away from hierarchical organizational structures towards flatter, heterarchical, structures which is reflected in the growing interest in distributed manufacturing control systems. Traditional hierarchical control systems are limited by the breadth, quantity and timeliness of information needed for their operation. Distributed, heterarchical, control systems overcome these hierarchical limitations but, concurrently, forfeit advantages of the hierarchy including analytically optimal loading patterns and centralized pristine data tracking. Classifies existing research into four categories and documents a progression of heterarchical control approaches to inject some of the advantages of the traditional hierarchy into new heterarchical frameworks. Concludes that neither hierarchical nor heterarchical control structures are ideal in their pure form and, hence, proposes a modified structure, called the quasi‐heterarchical control system, which is a combination of, and a compromise between, pure hierarchy and pure heterarchy.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Emily Myers and Joseph Murphy

Examines the control mechanisms which superintendents used to shapeand direct the work of suburban high school principals. Includes fourhierarchical controls (supervision…

751

Abstract

Examines the control mechanisms which superintendents used to shape and direct the work of suburban high school principals. Includes four hierarchical controls (supervision, input, behaviour and output) and two non‐hierarchical controls (section/socialization and environmental). Examines two additional areas, the social status of the school and the size of the district, for their effects on the application of the six control mechanisms. Finds the control mechanisms were used in all of the schools in varying degrees, but the extent of use across areas conveys how controls were “zoned” with tight controls (constraints) over some areas or loose controls (autonomy) over other areas. Concludes that district size does affect the variability of control and autonomy.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Swamy Kutti, Brian Garner and Amitava Ghosal

The data structuring mechanisms provided by the current problem solving environment have been found to satisfy modeling the problem solutions for common decision making…

2389

Abstract

The data structuring mechanisms provided by the current problem solving environment have been found to satisfy modeling the problem solutions for common decision making processes of a static nature, whereas problems of a complex nature (e.g. resource management and optimization) need an abstract data structuring mechanism capable of emulating real‐life objects (e.g. human managers). This paper explains the concept of developing a new data structure based on a semantic network called SYSTEM MAP and shows how this novel data structure can be used to model expert resource management systems of a particularly hierarchical type.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Alex Gorod, Leonie Hallo, Larissa Statsenko, Tiep Nguyen and Nicholas Chileshe

Traditional “hierarchical” and “network-centric management” approaches often associated with the management of well-defined construction projects lack the adaptability to…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional “hierarchical” and “network-centric management” approaches often associated with the management of well-defined construction projects lack the adaptability to cope with uncertainty, standardised practices and the required conformance to industry standards. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrative “holonic” methodology for the management of megaprojects in the construction industry, which incorporates both adaptability and conformance to standards, and to illustrate the associated benefits of such a methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-case study comprising three cases delivered in the USA and Australia, namely the Adelaide Desalination Plant (ADP), the Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, and the Olmsted Locks and Dam Replacement project were utilized to demonstrate the key features of the hierarchical, network-centric and holonic approaches to managing megaprojects.

Findings

The case studies demonstrate incorporating the holonic approach into the management of complex construction projects results in increased management effectiveness and project success. The proposed “holonic” methodology provides the potential to efficiently manage megaprojects navigating through high degrees of uncertainty.

Practical implications

The adoption of the holonic view by project management (PM) practitioners will help them manage megaprojects that are characterised by greater complexity. Second, the proposed methodology enables the discipline of PM to evolve in alignment with rapidly unfolding global transformation trends.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the application of the “holonic” methodology to the domain of the management of construction megaprojects. Such an approach is needed as construction projects become increasingly more complex across the world due to technological, political and social uncertainties, larger scale, changing environmental and safety regulations, and the growing involvement of human factors germane to this research.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Noushi Rahman and Helaine J. Korn

Further understanding of structural hierarchy is critically needed to assess the usefulness of different alliance structures. This study goes beyond transaction cost…

2320

Abstract

Purpose

Further understanding of structural hierarchy is critically needed to assess the usefulness of different alliance structures. This study goes beyond transaction cost reasoning and incorporates social exchange theoretic perspective with the aim of capturing the concurrent relationships of alliance type and specific alliance experience with hierarchy of alliance structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Logistic regression analysis of data on 402 strategic alliances is used to test the two hypotheses advanced in the paper.

Findings

The social‐exchange‐based hypothesis is supported – specific alliance experience is negatively related to hierarchy of alliance structure. The transaction‐cost‐based hypothesis is not supported – hierarchy of alliance structure is not greater in horizontal alliances than in vertical alliances.

Research limitations/implications

Strategic alliances with different purposes, such as R&D, supply procurement, marketing, co‐production, and co‐development, may have different industry norms of structuring alliances. This study does not account for these underlying differences within strategic alliances.

Practical implications

The social exchange theory‐based variable (i.e. specific alliance experience) has a more salient influence on alliance structure than does the transaction cost‐based variable (i.e. alliance type). The findings signal the relative importance of communal harmony compared to competitive rivalry.

Originality/value

The paper shows that results suggest that high bureaucratic costs of more hierarchical structures diminish the transaction cost economizing benefits of such structures. This is especially the case when alliances are not expected to experience very high levels of relational hazards (usually in vertical alliances). It appears that partnering firms' concerns with high bureaucratic costs may at times exceed the marginal benefits of control and coordination of exceedingly hierarchical alliance structures.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Carolyn Cordery, Rachel Baskerville and Brenda Porter

This paper seeks to analyse accountability relationships developed since the introduction of reforms requiring nonprofit primary health organisations (PHOs) to discharge…

2962

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse accountability relationships developed since the introduction of reforms requiring nonprofit primary health organisations (PHOs) to discharge holistic accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Case study data were obtained principally through semi‐structured interviews with PHOs and their key stakeholders, observation of formal and informal meetings, and primary and secondary documents.

Findings

While government strategy requires these PHOs to discharge holistic accountability, prior hierarchical‐based practices linger. A major impediment to securing holistic accountability is the failure of the new strategy to define clearly how the funder and provider should share accountability for improving their community's health. The implementation of holistic accountability was retarded when funders' propensity to control outcomes coincided with providers' lack of enthusiasm for embracing a greater range of stakeholders. The history and structure of individual PHOs was a key indicator of whether they discharged hierarchical or holistic accountability.

Research limitations/implications

This case study research is context‐specific and may have limited applicability to other PHOs or jurisdictions. However, the study shows that when funders and providers build trust rather than depending on control, holistic accountability relationships can be developed.

Practical implications

Despite government intention that primary health care relationships will lead to holistic accountability, this will not occur until funders clearly define responsibilities and trust their service providers.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of research into government‐sponsored holistic accountability relationships with local nonprofit service providers. This research provides a unique contextual analysis of the perspectives of funders, providers and a wide group of stakeholders and the operationalisation of two different styles of accountability.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Xueli Wu, Xianghui Lu, Hua Meng, Ran Zhen and Fanhua Meng

The purpose of this paper is to propose a kind of fuzzy adaptive control method to control non‐linear system that has the characteristic of small time delay and fast respond speed.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a kind of fuzzy adaptive control method to control non‐linear system that has the characteristic of small time delay and fast respond speed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes the production process and the actual condition of the preheat process of the plating zinc and painting plastic scribbled of double layer welded pipe that has the small time delay and fast respond speed, and also gives the preheat process mathematical model. Fuzzy adaptive control method with hierarchical structure is used which aims at one non‐linear system that has the characteristic of small time delay and fast responds speed. Through the simulation, it proves the mentioned method is effective to control the temperature system for double layers welded pipe in welding process.

Findings

Based on the mathematical model proposed about the production process and the actual condition of the preheat process, the fuzzy adaptive control method is effective to control the temperature system for double layers welded pipe in welding process.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes fuzzy adaptive control method with hierarchical structure which has the basic fuzzy control grade, adaptive adjust grade, and process state judgment grade.

Practical implications

A very useful method in welding process for double layers welded pipe.

Originality/value

The new mathematical model is proposed about the production process, and the new control method is used in the temperature system for double layers welded pipe in welding process.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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