The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a contactless and batteryless loading sensor system that can measure the internal loading of an object…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a contactless and batteryless loading sensor system that can measure the internal loading of an object structure through several covering materials for structural health monitoring.
The paper proposed an architecture by which two radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are used in the system. It has been difficult to realize sensing by RFID because of the low power supply. To solve the power supply problem, a method using functional distribution of RFID tags of two kinds of RFID for communication and power supply was proposed. One RFID tag is specialized as a power supply for communication of strain loading information through A/D conversion. Another is specialized to supply power for driving the strain gauges bridge circuit.
By using developed system, the measurement of the structural internal loading with 20.0 mm depth was possible through covering materials such as concrete, but also plaster board, flexible boards, silicate calcium board, blockboard, and polystyrene with a resolution performance from 10 × 10−6 to 40 × 10−6.
A sensor system was developed using passive RFID, which enables measurement of load‐deformation information inside a structural object. Moreover, the inexpensive wireless, batteryless devices used in this system require little maintenance, and applications for the user interface are also included in the developed system for uniform management of structural health monitoring. The developed system was evaluated in an actual situation using not only concrete but also other materials as covering materials on a structural object.
The purpose of this chapter is to offer new justification for multiskilling practices such as job rotation and extensive training for broad skills and explain why there…
The purpose of this chapter is to offer new justification for multiskilling practices such as job rotation and extensive training for broad skills and explain why there appear to exist complementarity between multiskilling and the delegation of decision authority to workers.
By developing a new model of incomplete contracting where workers make noncontractable investments in multiple skills, we obtain the key insight that worker investments in firm-specific human capital become strategic substitutes when their skills overlap each other.
The “skill substitution effect” analyzed in this chapter induces the following three major results, unless specialization offers a substantial technological advantage: (1) workers' incentives to invest in firm-specific human capital tend to be stronger; (2) the optimal level of delegation is typically higher; and (3) firms' ex post profits tend to be higher with multiskilling than with specialization.
The novel implication of the chapter is that multiskilling may be desirable from a firm's viewpoint even if there are no technological or informational task complementarities among the combined skills, which have been believed to be primary reasons for multiskilling in prior works.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide fresh evidence and insights on a causal link from product market competition to the nature and scope of employee involvement…
The purpose of this chapter is to provide fresh evidence and insights on a causal link from product market competition to the nature and scope of employee involvement using a case study of two Japanese manufacturing firms.
The firm’s investment decision on two kinds of innovation activities, discrete innovation and continuous improvement, is likely to be a key driver for the adoption (or lack thereof) of the high-performance work system (HPWS) and employee involvement programs. As product market competitionintensifies (e.g., rising international competition and weakening exclusivesupplier–manufacturer relationships), the firm is likely to shift its innovation strategy from bottom-up continuous improvement activities, which almost always accompany employee involvement, to top-down discrete innovation activities, which downplays employee involvement. Such a shift of the firm’s innovation strategy results in declining employee involvement.
This study will inform policymakers, practitioners of management, and the public about the importance of paying particular attention to the firm’s innovation strategy in understanding the interplay between product market competition and the HPWS and employee involvement.
In spite of the rich body of evidence on the effects of HPWS, there are at least two relatively unexplored yet potentially important questions: (i) The conditions under which the HPWS is best introduced and best sustained; and (ii) in what way the HPWS will need to evolve when external environments change. Our findings fill this important gap in the literature by providing novel evidence and insight on the causal link from product market competition to employee involvement.