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Article

Pirjo Ståhle, Sten Ståhle and Carol Y.Y. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different countries. The paper brings a new perspective to explaining hidden economic drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces a new theoretically and computationally justified method, so-called ELSS model that is based on expansion and augmentation of the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators. The method is applied by using the database that contains NIC indices for 48 countries covering the period from 2001 to 2011.

Findings

The results show that intangible capital accounts for 45 per cent of world GDP. The figure for the USA is 70.3 per cent and for the European Union 51.6 per cent. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7 per cent, with NIC contributing to 72.5 per cent of GDP in Sweden, 69.7 per cent in Finland and 67.6 per cent in Denmark.

Research limitations/implications

The expanded Cobb-Douglas production function is sensitive to valuations of capital inputs and sensitive to estimates of production shares for various augmenting and expanding inputs. Therefore further work is needed to develop and test methodologies for the assessment of all of these.

Practical implications

ELSS production function helps to give a realistic picture of the value and impact of NIC and accordingly gives evidence for accurate investment decisions for the future.

Social implications

The method will help policy makers figure out what steps are needed to reduce the cross-country NIC differences.

Originality/value

The authors have uncovered the value of NIC beyond monetary inputs, and at the same time taken account of country specifics. The ELSS formula is comprehensive yet not too complicated to replicate. The approach significantly contributes to the development of the current research tradition into intangibles.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article

Olivier Voyant, Marc Bonnet, Patrick Tabchoury and Frantz Datry

The purpose of this paper is to show that steering overall performance requires not only juxtaposing indicators focused on economic, social and environmental performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that steering overall performance requires not only juxtaposing indicators focused on economic, social and environmental performance but also negotiating the measurement of performance metrics with all the stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an action-research and intervention-research project aimed at experimenting an integrated and negotiated management control system for overall performance. The choice for the case study is a hospital in the Middle East that practices green management and that has to be self-financed while accepting all patients, even those who cannot pay.

Findings

The integration of the three dimensions of overall performance requires involving all stakeholders in the implementation of innovative management control.

Research limitations/implications

The case is a pilot experiment and shows the conditions for an appropriate design of an overall performance management control methodology. However, further experiments should be carried out to shed light on the factors that form invariants regarding integrated performance log-books.

Practical implications

The study design is that of a management control methodology that enables the short- and long-run economic impacts of social and environmental performance.

Social implications

The action-research process has proved to be a learning experience for the hospital and both internal and external stakeholders. However, replicability remains to be proven through experimenting the method in various settings.

Originality/value

This paper shows the need for negotiation of overall performance with all stakeholders to design and implement an appropriate participative approach to management control.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article

Martin B. Trundle

Until recently, occupiers have ignored the financial benefits real estate can add to the value of their firms. Corporate real estate (CRE) is now on the corporate agenda…

Abstract

Until recently, occupiers have ignored the financial benefits real estate can add to the value of their firms. Corporate real estate (CRE) is now on the corporate agenda and CRE executives are being challenged by shareholders and senior management to employ best practice techniques to unlock the hidden value in the firm’s real estate portfolio. This paper offers a practical decision framework to allow this to happen and explores the potential for them and for real estate investors to capture this value. The paper is based on the author’s experience of advising occupiers and investors and his increasing knowledge of corporate finance principles.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article

David Ray, John Gattorna and Mike Allen

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of…

Abstract

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of these—DISTRIBUTION. The particular focus is on reviewing current practice in distribution costing and on attempting to push the frontiers back a little by suggesting some new approaches to overcome previously defined shortcomings.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 10 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

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Article

Jan Niklas Rotzek, Christoph Scope and Edeltraud Günther

This investigation aims to reframe the sizeable literature on barriers and drivers for energy efficiency measures (EEMs) and the phenomenon of the energy efficiency gap…

Abstract

Purpose

This investigation aims to reframe the sizeable literature on barriers and drivers for energy efficiency measures (EEMs) and the phenomenon of the energy efficiency gap. The authors identify a gap between academic methods and industrial needs, as well as a neglect of the cultural dimension, despite its considerable impact. On the basis of this insight, the purpose of this paper is to integrate all of the various influences on industrial energy behavior previously identified in the literature in a refined energy cultures framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper includes a systematic literature review of research in the field of energy management, energy efficiency and cultural aspects within barriers and drivers of energy behavior. The authors select and refine an existing energy cultures framework for the industrial context. To meet industrial needs, the authors applied an ontology mapping of its core elements onto an international standard common for industrial energy management practice.

Findings

First, the authors present a refined framework for industrial energy cultures incorporating past barriers and drivers as factors. The framework enables an evaluation of attitude and behavioral aspects, underlying technologies, organizational culture and actions related to energy as a system of interdependencies. Second, the factors are ranked on the basis of the number of appearances and empirical metadata. Economic aspects such as “purchase, installment and hidden costs”, “general investment and risk behavior” and “regulatory conditions” are the highest ranked factors, but “existing knowledge about EEM”, “hierarchy approach: top down” and “environmental concerns” follow closely and represent cultural aspects, which are still underrated. Third, while illustrating a successful mapping onto a standardized process of continuous improvement, the authors also argue for heightened academia–practice efforts.

Practical implications

Reframing the energy efficiency gap as a problem of what aspirations play a role, what technology is chosen and how technologies are used should increase the level of implementation of EEMs in the real business world. Introducing the refined energy cultures framework serves as a starting point for future transdisciplinary collaboration between academia and practice.

Social implications

Targeting the energy efficiency gap is an essential part of the sustainable development goals. The refined energy cultures framework allows for a better understanding of the industrial energy behaviors that are responsible for a significant share of a company’s success. The introduction of energy cultures serves as a starting point for future scholarly research within sustainability management accounting.

Originality/value

The investigation combines existing research streams, their concepts and their results about cultural aspects related to energy efficiency for both academics and practitioners. This review is the first to capture all of the various factors analyzed in academic literature using the energy cultures framework as a basis. The authors add to the theoretical development of that framework with its application to the industrial context. This is identified as a gap. Its refinement helps to holistically understand barriers and drivers of industrial EEMs to support its practical implementation.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article

David B. Audretsch, Erik E. Lehmann and Julian Schenkenhofer

In contrast to the predictions from the family business and the small- and medium-sized enterprise internationalization literatures, Hidden Champions are world-market…

Abstract

Purpose

In contrast to the predictions from the family business and the small- and medium-sized enterprise internationalization literatures, Hidden Champions are world-market leaders exhibiting a high share of exports. The purpose of this study is to analyze their strategy of internationalization of Hidden Champions in Germany and find that the international success and strong, sustained performance emanates from their product type, enabling to successfully pursue a niche strategy for differentiated premium products.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first conceptually explore how Hidden Champions pursue strategic internationalization, and then analyze a sample of N = 2,690 Hidden Champions to examine why Germany has been able to generate the highest per capita share of Hidden Champions in the world.

Findings

The study finds that on both a micro and macro level, the strong and sustained performance of Hidden Champions is driven by product type and quality strategies. Niche strategies for a knowledge-intensive, technological product enable the firm to lock-in customers. However, to safeguard the internalization of highly specific quasi-rents, Hidden Champions enter foreign markets through fully owned subsidiaries, retaining control and residual property rights. The second finding of this paper is that Germany has succeeded in deploying its high level of human capital into the Mittelstand through highly skilled workers.

Research limitations/implications

Unfortunately, no micro-level panel data are available. Still macro-level data beginning in the nineteenth century provide strong empirical support for the hypothesized causality.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to link the strong and sustained export performance of Germany to the Hidden Champions by examining the origins of the German Mittelstand model, dating back to the social, political and economic developments of nineteenth century.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article

Fred Mear and Richard A. Werner

This paper contributes to the theory of the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and innovation at small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by conducting…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper contributes to the theory of the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and innovation at small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by conducting a conceptual analysis of the question why Germany boasts by far the highest number of “Hidden Champion” SMEs. This is done by case studies from the army and public financial management of aid disbursal in developing countries. Implications for HRM at SMEs are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual analysis using case studies.

Findings

Contributing towards filling the gap concerning theoretical underpinnings of the link between HRM and innovation, we suggest that interdisciplinary work from relevant organisational case studies indicates that the concept of institutional design to provide motivational incentives may be relevant, especially concerning high performance systems with bundles of HRM practices. Specifically, the fundamental principle of subsidiarity is found to be important.

Research limitations/implications

The research is broadly applicable to organisations of all kinds, as the diverse case studies indicate. We point towards tentative implications for the firms that account for the majority of the work force, namely SMEs, and among them the most successful ones, the so-called “Hidden Champions”.

Practical implications

HR managers can improve motivation, performance and innovation by decentralising decision-making as far as possible, while ensuring the overall organisational goals are well understood and shared, and resources are dedicated to train and educate staff. Additionally, the conception of rank-order competitions complements the institutional design.

Social implications

Greater productivity and material performance as well as greater job satisfaction via larger autonomy and decision-making power on the local level can be achieved by the application of subsidiarity as key HRM configuration. This can be employed at SMEs, as discussed, but also other organisations. Further, the principle of subsidiarity and the greater emphasis on staff training and education may help reduce inequality.

Originality/value

Our paper contributes towards filling the gap in the literature on the link between HRM and innovation, by identifying the role of subsidiarity. We introduce an interdisciplinary perspective, with contributions from economics and psychology, among others. We also contribute to the history of HRM.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Book part

Mariana Manriquez

Uber, the virtual service that connects drivers to passenger, presents a novel form of work-organization in which managerial functions are transposed into a virtual…

Abstract

Uber, the virtual service that connects drivers to passenger, presents a novel form of work-organization in which managerial functions are transposed into a virtual platform. This ethnographic study documents how Uber drivers in the city of Monterrey, Mexico navigate and come to make sense of the Uber model of work. Employing the conceptual device of the work-game, this study argues that engagement in the game of “earning coins” coupled the interest of drivers in generating the most-possible income with the interest of management in maintaining a readily available labor pool. Reinforcing this coupling was Uber’s deployment of an entrepreneurial ideology of “being your own boss,” which was especially important given the company’s lack of a physical management structure. However, as Uber takes advantage of the deindustrialization that has gripped Monterey, it attracts drivers exhibiting varied employment trajectories. This in turn creates different modes of playing the work-game and thus generates sharply divergent subjective understandings of the work, whose nature this chapter explores.

Details

Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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