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This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/08880459710183035. When citing the article, please cite: Herbert Snyder, Elisabeth Davenport, (1997), “What does it really cost? Allocating indirect costs”, The Bottom Line, Vol. 10 Iss: 4, pp. 158 - 164.
The authors offer a brief analysis of citation practice in twenty‐five American sociological journals, in an attempt to explore claims that citation may show gender bias…
The authors offer a brief analysis of citation practice in twenty‐five American sociological journals, in an attempt to explore claims that citation may show gender bias. Their work follows previous surveys of gender and citation and publication in the social sciences which suggest that women perform less well than men in both areas. The findings of this study suggest that there is indeed gender bias in citation in sociology, and the authors offer some hypotheses to explain the phenomenon that might be tested in further research.
A recurrent criticism of commercial citation indexes is their failure to cover citations found in monographic literature. There exists the possibility that citation‐based…
A recurrent criticism of commercial citation indexes is their failure to cover citations found in monographic literature. There exists the possibility that citation‐based surveys of scholarly communication and influence which ignore references in monographs may produce partial results. The study examined the scholarly literature of sociology. Tens of thousands of references from monographs and leading academic journals were analysed. The relative rankings of authors who were highly cited in the monographic literature did not change in the journal literature of the same period. There is, however, only a small overlap between the most highly cited authors based on the journal sample and those based on the monograph sample. The lack of correlation suggests that there may be two distinct populations of highly cited authors.
The paper investigates the problems of using commercial search engines for web‐link research and attempts to clarify the nature of the problems involved in the use of…
The paper investigates the problems of using commercial search engines for web‐link research and attempts to clarify the nature of the problems involved in the use of these engines. The research finds that search engines are highly variable in the results they produce, are limited in the search functions they offer, have poorly and/or incorrectly documented functions, use search logics that are opaque, and change the search functions they offer over time. The limitations which are inherent in commercial search engines should cause researchers to have reservations about any conclusions that rely on these tools as primary data‐gathering instruments. The short‐comings are market‐driven rather than inherent properties of the web or of web‐searching technologies. Improved functionalities are within the technical capabilities of search engine programmers and could be made available to the research community. The findings also offer mild support for the validity of the connection between web links and citations as analogues of intellectual linkage.
Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the total costs of a system or service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a…
Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the total costs of a system or service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three‐step process of selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Allocation may be simple, relying on a single base, or activity‐based costing (ABC), relying on multiple bases. Contrasts the methods of allocation, and argues that ABC may be more useful for costing electronic services.
Intellectual capital's (IC's) rising value in the production of wealth has been mirrored by its increasing vulnerability to crime. Among these are the increasing frequency…
Intellectual capital's (IC's) rising value in the production of wealth has been mirrored by its increasing vulnerability to crime. Among these are the increasing frequency of cybercrime, the intangible nature of IC which facilitates theft and the lack of legal remedies for the theft of IC. Taken together, these factors have created a new environment in which IC is uniquely at risk from financial crime. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to examine the efficacy in current legal remedies and formulate suggestions for better protecting IC.
The analysis is conceptual, using frameworks drawn from legal scholarship and traditional views of law‐enforcement practice.
This paper explores the risks of crime inherent in IC and a distributed cyber environment in greater detail in order to demonstrate that traditional legal remedies are largely ineffective to protect IC property rights and that, given this policy environment and the nature of IC itself, prevention is the only reasonable means for protecting IC.
Conceptual papers offer an intrinsically different form of evidence than empirical studies. Significant public debate prior to enacting legislation and subsequent empirical testing of the paper's propositions, if enacted into legislation, are strongly encouraged.
The paper includes implications for the development of legal protections based on guarding sensitive information at its source, rather than traditional reactive policing and legal actions after a theft has been committed.
This paper fulfils an identified need to propose useful and concrete legal solutions that deal with the increasing importance of IC and the concomitant frequency of crimes that involve its theft.
The purpose of this paper is to show how an effective library manager can handle the issues of employee theft of material, time, data and money.
Reviews and summarizes some of the literature on the topic and recounts personal experiences.
There are different types of theft: of physical materials, of non‐financial data, of money, of time.
Presents a useful set of general rules for success in the management of library theft.
The definition of the collection employed in this essay accounts for it as an assemblage of information sources made accessible systematically in any format by the library or information center for the purposes of the community that is to intended to serve.
Virtually any personal computer user who uses contemporary software probably needs a huge hard disk storage drive that holds 6, or 10 or more gigabytes (remember, a gigabyte is 1000 million bytes). For example, if you store the popular Microsoft Office ‘97 software package in your computer, you'll need about 100 megabytes for that package alone. If you want a computer that uses Windows '98, you will have to provide over 500 megabytes just for the Windows software. By the time you have installed a few standard packages, plus some software for applications like library operations and database access, the first gigabyte of hard disk space has probably been filled. If the computer is used for Internet access, additional large blocks of storage will soon be filled with pages downloaded from the World Wide Web. A huge disk drive can be a wonderful asset if you use your computer to manipulate very large database files, or large graphics/picture files, or if you want to store historical files that can be expected to continue to grow in the future.