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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Muhammad Asim, Zhiying Liu, Usman Ghani, Muhammad Athar Nadeem, Umme Farva Hashmi and Yi Xu

This study, based on social exchange theory, aims to explore the association between appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors by investigating the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, based on social exchange theory, aims to explore the association between appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors by investigating the mediation role of emotional reactions (pride, anxiety), and choosing organizational trust as a boundary condition between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A total sample of 285 reliable questionnaires were collected in three time lags from employees working in the Pakistani education and banking sectors. PROCESS macro using SPSS and AMOS are employed for data analyses of the proposed model.

Findings

The findings reveal that appreciative leadership has positive impacts on employees' helping behaviors and emotional reactions (pride, anxiety) mediate the relationship of appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors. In addition, the results show that high organizational trust strengthens the positive relationship between appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors.

Practical implications

This research has provided empirical proof between the relationship of appreciative leadership and helping behaviors and the findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations. The study proposes that leaders should have appreciative behavior while treating their subordinates. Moreover, it is revealed that the role of organizational trust should be given more attention and importance because it is a factor moderating the employees' helping behaviors.

Originality/value

The present study, among the first empirical efforts investigating the relationship between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors, organizational trust as a moderator, enriches the existing academic literature of and provides worthy insight into the research on appreciative leadership and helping behaviors.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Shih Yung Chou, Katelin Barron and Charles Ramser

Since its inception, helping behavior has been viewed as a cooperative and affiliative behavior with prudent employee involvement. The paradox of employee involvement…

Abstract

Purpose

Since its inception, helping behavior has been viewed as a cooperative and affiliative behavior with prudent employee involvement. The paradox of employee involvement, however, implies that helping behavior can be intrusive and obstructive. The primary purpose of this article is to conceptualize helicopter helping as an intrusive and obstructive type of discretionary workplace behavior. In addition, the authors discuss possible antecedents and consequences of helicopter helping.

Design/methodology/approach

To conceptualize helicopter helping, the authors utilized the ABI/INFORM Global, Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete, PsycARTICLES and JSTOR Archive Collection databases focusing on the helping behavior and helicopter parenting research. In particular, the authors applied the hovering nature of helicopter parenting to the conceptualization of helicopter helping exhibited by an employee in the organization. Additionally, the authors discuss antecedents and consequences of helicopter helping by integrating the bright and dark side of helping behavior research.

Findings

The authors conceptualize helicopter helping as an employee's excessive involvement in and interference with coworkers' task environment. Based upon the conceptualization of helicopter helping, the authors further propose that the need for achievement, Type-A personality, group rewards, high-performance group norms, a hierarchy organizational culture and strong social ties are possible antecedents of helicopter helping. Furthermore, the authors suggest that helicopter helping can result in reduced organization-based self-esteem, general self-efficacy, group creativity and innovation, quality of social-exchange relationships, learning and development and increased organizational vulnerability.

Originality/value

This article is one of the few studies exploring helping behavior from an intrusive and invasive perspective. Theoretically, the authors advance the dark side of helping behavior literature. Drawing upon the propositions, the authors offer some managerial recommendations that help managers mitigate the intrusive and obstructive type of helping in the organization.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 25 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Shih Yung Chou, Thuy Nguyen, Charles Ramser and Tree Chang

Integrating the social exchange perspective of helping behavior with self-determination theory (SDT), this study seeks to examine the impact of employees' psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

Integrating the social exchange perspective of helping behavior with self-determination theory (SDT), this study seeks to examine the impact of employees' psychological needs on perceived organizational justice and the impact of perceived organizational justice on employees' helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional and cross-organizational data were obtained from 177 full-time employees employed in 12 small- and medium-sized oil and gas service companies. A partial least squares approach using SmartPLS was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results illustrate that the psychological need for competence and need for autonomy are positively related to perceived distributive and procedural justice, respectively. Moreover, perceived distributive and procedural justice are related to helping behavior. Furthermore, perceived distributive justice fully mediates the relationship between the psychological need for competence and helping behavior, whereas perceived procedural justice partially mediates the relationship between the psychological need for autonomy and helping behavior.

Originality/value

From a theoretical standpoint, this study offers some theoretical explanations for how the basic psychological needs identified by SDT activate employees' perceived organizational justice. Practically, this study offers several managerial recommendations that help managers manage helping behavior in the organization effectively.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 71 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Byoung Kwon Choi and Hyoung Koo Moon

Building on trait activation theory, theory of other orientation, and self-perception theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine how employees’ perceptions of helping

2005

Abstract

Purpose

Building on trait activation theory, theory of other orientation, and self-perception theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine how employees’ perceptions of helping efficacy and instrumentality influence the relationship between their prosocial motive and helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 304 supervisor-subordinate dyads in South Korea were analyzed. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression.

Findings

The results show that prosocial motive had a stronger positive influence on helping behavior among employees with high levels of helping efficacy. However, contrary to our expectation, prosocial motive was more positively related to helping behavior when employees had high levels of helping instrumentality.

Practical implications

Organizations need to present employees with effective, standardized work procedures to make them feel efficacy in helping others. It is also necessary for organizations to consider helping behavior an important factor in performance evaluation and to signify to employees that helping behavior will be rewarded.

Social implications

Helping behavior is critical for the effectiveness of both organizations and society at large; voluntarily helping people can enhance various kinds of performance at the societal level and can contribute to people’s welfare. Thus, it is necessary to teach people how to help others and to recognize helping behavior.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of when the influence of prosocial motive on helping is more strongly activated by incorporating employees’ perceptions of the contexts in which helping behavior operates – efficacy and instrumentality.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Zhenduo Zhang, Li Zhang, Jing Xiu and Junwei Zheng

Based on the social cognitive theory, this research analyzed the helping behavior of leaders and its trickle-down effect on an employee's helping behavior. Additionally…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the social cognitive theory, this research analyzed the helping behavior of leaders and its trickle-down effect on an employee's helping behavior. Additionally, this study analyzed the relationship between an employee's helping behavior and thriving at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Cellphones were used to collect data using the experience sampling method from 74 participants over five consecutive days (N = 370), and the conceptual model was analyzed at the episode level.

Findings

This research examined the helping behavior of employees and its role in mediating the relationship between a leader's helping behavior and an employee's thriving at work. Psychological availability moderates this indirect relationship; and high psychological availability increases the indirect influence of a leader's helping behavior on an employee's helping behavior, which in turn increases employee's thriving at work.

Originality/value

The findings of this research shed light on a new social cognitive mechanism through which the helping behavior of leaders enhances an employee's thriving at work.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Hongdan Zhao and Limin Guo

Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to examine the influence of abusive supervision on hospitality employees’ helping behaviors

1486

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to examine the influence of abusive supervision on hospitality employees’ helping behaviors, especially, the joint moderating effects of proactive personality and ability to manage resources (i.e. RMA) in the hypothesized relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a two-phase design, this study gathered data from 353 employees of ten hotels located in China. To test the hypotheses, the study conducted a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses.

Findings

Findings demonstrated that abusive supervision was negatively related to hotel employees’ helping behaviors. Moreover, both proactive personality and RMA jointly moderated the abusive supervision–helping behavior relationship. Specifically, when both proactive personality and RMA had high degrees, the abusive supervision–employees’ helping behaviors linkage was weakest. Conversely, the strongest impact of abusive supervision on employees’ helping behaviors occurred when both proactive personality and RMA were low.

Practical implications

Hotel managers should reduce mistreatment and cultivate employees’ both proactive personality and RMA, to inhibit the decline of helping behavior resulting from abusive supervision.

Originality/value

First, the current study provides a novel theoretical underpinning of the COR theory to explain the abusive supervision–helping behavior association, particularly in the hospitality context. Second, this study contributes to the boundary effects of abusive supervision on helping behavior by investigating the moderating roles of individual differences (i.e. proactive personality and RMA).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Colette Hoption

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential consequences of helping behaviors on leader and follower relationship satisfaction and transformational leadership (TFL…

1722

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential consequences of helping behaviors on leader and follower relationship satisfaction and transformational leadership (TFL) ratings. It is argued that follower helping behaviors can violate leaders’ and followers’ expectations of each other, and especially disadvantage male leaders because of gender-role stereotypes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, data were collected from 61 dyads (25 male and 34 female supervisors, 23 male and 38 female subordinates, two participants did not disclose their gender; M age=35.56 years, SD=10.41). In Study 2, data were collected from 125 participants (66 female and 58 male subordinates, 22 female and 25 male supervisors; 79 respondents did not disclose their gender; M age=39.21 years, SD=11.25).

Findings

Helping behaviors were positively associated with relationship satisfaction suggesting that leaders were amenable to receiving help from followers (Study 1). However, follower helping behaviors were negatively related to TFL ratings for male but not female leaders (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

While leaders may be amenable to increased follower involvement in leadership, future research is needed to investigate followers’ openness to, and intentions behind increasing their involvement in leadership, as well as strategies for leaders to mitigate unintended consequences.

Practical implications

For the sake of their TFL ratings, leaders should minimize any direct benefit from follower helping behaviors, and emphasize how follower helping behaviors aid follower development and/or benefit the organization.

Originality/value

The findings illustrate the dual-nature of follower helping behaviors: they have the potential to enhance leader relationship satisfaction, and also compromise perceptions of TFL.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Dirk De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq, Usman Raja, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Norashikin Mahmud

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how employees’ Islamic work ethic might enhance their propensity to help their coworkers on a voluntary basis, as well as how…

1409

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how employees’ Islamic work ethic might enhance their propensity to help their coworkers on a voluntary basis, as well as how this relationship might be invigorated by despotic leadership. It also considers how the invigorating role of despotic leadership might depend on employees’ gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

Islamic work values relate positively to helping behaviors, and this relationship is stronger when employees experience despotic leadership, because their values motivate them to protect their colleagues against the hardships created by such leadership. This triggering role of despotic leadership is particularly strong among female employees.

Practical implications

For organizations, the results demonstrate that Islamic work values may be important for creating a culture that promotes collegiality, to a greater extent when employees believe that their leaders act as despots who exploit their followers for personal gain.

Originality/value

This study elaborates how employees’ Islamic work ethic influences the likelihood that they help their coworkers, particularly in work contexts marked by stress-inducing leadership.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Ubedullah Memon, Anees Janee Ali, Zaib Un Nisa and Zahid Hussain Pathan

The purpose of this paper is to curtail the negative effect of job stress on the female teachers’ helping behavior amidst terrorism threat through their dispositional mindfulness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to curtail the negative effect of job stress on the female teachers’ helping behavior amidst terrorism threat through their dispositional mindfulness.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research design surveyed a self-administered questionnaire from the female teachers serving in the hard areas of Pakistan. To analyze the data, descriptive and interferential statistics were performed in SPSS (version 23) and SmartPLS3.

Findings

The results revealed the significant positive relationship between teachers’ perceived threats of terrorism and their job stress. The findings also confirmed the significant negative relationship between teachers’ job stress and their helping behavior, and vice-versa. Further, the indirect effect of teachers’ perceived threats of terrorism on helping behavior through their job stress was confirmed. Finally, the moderating effect of dispositional mindfulness to weaken the negative relationship between teachers’ job stress and their helping behavior was also found significant. The results also showed that the job stress of female teachers accounted for 12.9% of variance in their helping behavior.

Research limitations/implications

To address complex ethical issues, relying solely on a research method cannot provide deep insights. Hence, future scholars are directed to combine elements of quantitative and qualitative research methods to investigate female teachers’ helping behavior in grievous conditions. Notwithstanding, the present study revitalizes educational institutions through teachers’ helping behavior in the risky work environment.

Originality/value

Since the past two decades, female education has witnessed exponential growth in terrorist attacks, but there is a scanty research on the vulnerability of female teachers in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the present study is limited yet of the highest importance to foster teachers’ helping behavior in the risky work environment.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Jinyun Duan, Macy Wong and Yumeng Yue

Research examining the effect of helping on outcomes related to helpers has gained some mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile such inconsistency by…

1640

Abstract

Purpose

Research examining the effect of helping on outcomes related to helpers has gained some mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile such inconsistency by understanding the multi-dimensional nature of helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first develop a helping behavior scale that differentiates between the proactive and reactive form of helping. Furthermore, the authors also examined whether these two forms of helping are differently related to employees’ well-being. Data were collected from 448 employees and their immediate supervisors working in different organizations in the South Jiangsu province, in which the authors examined the main relationship and also explored the mediating effect of meaningfulness.

Findings

Results provided corroborating evidence that helping behavior was a multi-dimensional construct, consisting of proactive and reactive dimensions. Furthermore, the authors are also able to support discriminatory validity between these two dimensions by showing that they are differently related to employees’ well-being.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to management practice by specifying the benefits and detriments of different kinds of helping behaviors.

Originality/value

The findings of this study do not only provide ideas to explain contradictions in the effect of helping behaviors on helpers themselves, but also deepens scholars’ knowledge and understanding toward helping behavior.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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