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This study aims analyzing facilitators/constraints Portuguese women golfers face. The research presents 33 intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural factors, being…
This study aims analyzing facilitators/constraints Portuguese women golfers face. The research presents 33 intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural factors, being supported by a theoretical sampling and data triangulation. The 39 interviews were interpreted by content analysis. Results suggest all participants perceive factors that moderate their participation and highlight dissimilar perceptions by professional and amateur players. Contributions address a manifest heterogeneity: social values prevail even when women are encouraged to join leisure activities. Study limitations derive from the geographical scope restricted to Portugal, yet raising awareness to gender in golf. Stakeholders acknowledge women’s low participation; however, this study appears to be the first paper about the subject.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK).
Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurostat – statistical office of the European communities.
The results obtained show that France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain present distinct levels of competitiveness for the various generating countries, with changes having occurred in the period between 1999 and 2007.
The paper offers refreshment of Faulkner's tool and an insight into tourist flows in Europe as a tool for tourism and hospitality managers.
Luxury tourism is the behaviour of a minority of travellers. Our objective is to assess how Celebrities perceive and experience tourism luxuries. Furthermore, their inner…
Luxury tourism is the behaviour of a minority of travellers. Our objective is to assess how Celebrities perceive and experience tourism luxuries. Furthermore, their inner concept of luxury tourism is analysed by comparison with their everyday perception of luxury, and, finally, to understand to what extent luxury relates to outrageous spending. We interviewed 36 Portuguese Celebrities and a group comprising ordinary individuals in order to account for heterogeneity control. A mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative methods was applied in the interpretation of the interviews. The findings reveal diverse perceptions of luxury tourism by the different groups.
In the late eighteenth century, golf emerged as a men's game. Since then, women have striven to play, yet without success. A ratio of around 80 percent of male players…
In the late eighteenth century, golf emerged as a men's game. Since then, women have striven to play, yet without success. A ratio of around 80 percent of male players against 20 percent female proves that women are far from being accepted in golf. This study, supported by qualitative analyses of women golfers' life stories, attempts to evaluate to what extent this prejudice exists.
The ecological system theory, the causal historical wave model, the intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors, and the constraints/facilitators paradigm were first used to support the theoretical model that was defined based on the literature. Second, the model was revisited according to textual data collected from 25 narratives of women in the nineteenth century. The present research applies this model throughout a set of six life stories of contemporary Portuguese women who excelled in golf, attempting to test the persistence of this discrimination.
The results highlight that structural and interpersonal factors persist across time. Some aspects of women's lifestyle did not change much since some cultural values are difficult to overcome. The research highlights that the exclusion of women, more than explicit discrimination, is a cultural factor engrained in their daily lives, meaning that women exclude themselves, tacitly accepting this discrimination.
The research focuses only on Portuguese women. Further studies should evaluate the pertinence of these factors amongst other nationalities and cultures.
The low participation of women in golf is acknowledged by golf stakeholders in Portugal, but this has not been the object of research; thus, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper about this subject in Portugal.
This primer defines and describes conscious and nonconscious perception and assessment processes by tourists. The primer links the field of tourism perception studies to…
This primer defines and describes conscious and nonconscious perception and assessment processes by tourists. The primer links the field of tourism perception studies to the literature of experimental social psychology. The primer describes the important roles that metaphors play in connecting conscious and nonconscious thinking and how both tourism brand managers and tourists use metaphors to use stories to enable enactments and favorable outcomes of archetypal motivations. The primer introduces formal implementable models of the major tenet in Urry’s tourist gaze – visitors’ home culture automatically and mostly nonconsciously profoundly influences their perceptions, assessments, and interpretations of what they see when traveling and visiting away destinations. Model implementation includes applying Boolean algebra-based asymmetric tests instead of symmetric matrix algebra-based statistical tests – the asymmetric tests examine for the consistency of high scores in perceiving, assessing, and behaviors of complex configurations of antecedent conditions. A detailed empirical example of asymmetric testing includes consistent high scores for Americans, Brits, Canadians, and Germans for not shopping for gifts to take home during their visits to Australia. This primer also introduces the concept of the tourist meta-gaze – seeing and assessing outside the automatically activated culturally based tourist gaze.