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The purpose of this paper is to explore physical environmental, medical environmental, and individual factors in a sample of ethnic minority adults with or at-risk for…
The purpose of this paper is to explore physical environmental, medical environmental, and individual factors in a sample of ethnic minority adults with or at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua.
The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design guided by a community-based participatory research framework. Three coastal communities in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) of Nicaragua were sampled. Inclusion criteria were: lay adult with or at-risk for T2D, ⩾21 years of age, self-identification as Creole or Miskito, and not pregnant. Convenience sampling procedures were followed. Data were collected via objective (A1C, height, and weight) and self-report (Pan American Health Organization surveys, Diabetes Care Profile subscales, and Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-12 (MOS SF-12) measures. Univariate and bivariate statistics were computed according to level of measurement.
The sample (N=112) was predominately comprised of Creoles (72 percent), females (78 percent), and mid-age (M=54.9, SD±16.4) adults with T2D (63 percent). For participants with T2D, A1C levels, on average, tended to be elevated (M=10.6, SD±2.5). Those with or at-risk for T2D tended to be obese with elevated body mass indices (M=31.7, SD±8.1; M=30.2, SD±6.0, respectively). For many participants, fresh vegetables (63 percent) and fruit (65 percent) were reported as ordinarily available but difficult to afford (91 and 90 percent, respectively). A majority reported that prescribed medication(s) were available without difficulty (56 percent), although most indicated difficulty in affording them (73 percent). A minority of participants with T2D reported receipt of diabetes education (46 percent). A1C levels did not significantly vary according to diabetes education received or not (M=10.9, SD±2.9; M=10.4, SD±2.5; t=−0.4, p=0.71). Participants at-risk for T2D were infrequently instructed, by a provider, to follow an exercise program (4.8 percent) or meal plan (4.8 percent) and receive diabetes education (2.38 percent). MOS SF-12 findings revealed participants with T2D (M=41.84, SD=8.9; M=37.8, SD±8.5) had significantly poorer mental and physical health quality of life relative to at-risk participants (M=45.6, SD±8.4; M=48.1, SD±9.5) (t=−2.9, p<0.01; t=−2.5, p=0.01).
Salient physical environmental, medical environmental, and individual factors were identified in a sample of adults with or at-risk for T2D on Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast.
Findings informed the development of community-based clinics to address the problem of T2D locally.
The community-based clinics, housed in trusted church settings, provide culturally competent care for underserved ethnic minority populations with or at-risk for T2D.
This is the first quantitative assessment of the T2D problem among diverse ethnic groups in Nicaragua’s underserved RAAS.
The voluntary sector has an important role to play in the provision of services for people with mental health needs of lesser severity, thus complementing statutory…
The voluntary sector has an important role to play in the provision of services for people with mental health needs of lesser severity, thus complementing statutory services, as suggested by recent national policy. This article describes such a service for young homeless people, and discusses the perceptions of key stakeholders of the benefits and challenges of such a service. The service largely met the mental health needs of young people who would not have easily accessed statutory mental health services, and who fulfilled the criteria (low/moderate need) of the service. Challenges for the future included the different organisational cultures, the professional isolation of the mental health practitioners and the lack of operational and commissioning links with statutory mental health services.
This study examines community policing in Virginia. The methodology included (1) a telephone survey to identify programs and (2) questionnaires mailed to police agencies with community policing, and serving populations over 100,000. Information was collected to examine community policing, and departmental influence on both program strategies and community involvement. The nine programs identified had varying strategies, features, and activities. Most reported permanent assignment of officers in neighbourhoods, problem solving, and foot patrol. Neighbourhood substations were less common. Although not significant, a correlation was found between departmental commitment to community policing and community involvement. Policy implications of the study are also presented.
Young homeless people have mental health needs. Research and national policies have highlighted that accommodation providers need to offer holistic interventions to…
Young homeless people have mental health needs. Research and national policies have highlighted that accommodation providers need to offer holistic interventions to encourage this vulnerable group to break the cycle of homelessness. Currently no research literature documents how homeless shelters respond to mental health needs. This research was intended to address this research question.A postal questionnaire was sent to 132 managers of homeless shelters, achieving a response rate of 64.4%. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were calculated, and written data was analysed using content analysis. Mental health problems were highly prevalent, and homeless shelters responded in a variety of ways (use of GP services, internal services, referring to external services, in‐house outreach services, no service provision, etc). Only 27.1% of managers of homeless shelters reported that their services were sufficient to meet their young people's needs. These findings reflect the need for inclusion of mental health in homeless shelters' strategic objectives, and development of commissioning of local partnerships with health agencies.
The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of Texas female police officers toward their colleagues. Further, the study measures respondents’ perceptions…
The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of Texas female police officers toward their colleagues. Further, the study measures respondents’ perceptions regarding work‐related stress. An independent sample t‐test analysis was conducted while controlling for the percentage of female officers working at participating Texas law enforcement agencies. Overall, the findings suggest that the percentage of female officers employed in a particular law enforcement agency did not produce a statistically significant impact on respondents’ perceptions of their male/female counterparts or stress‐related issues.
Organisational change, for some employees, can pose threat, for others challenge. It has been found that, given the same organisational stressors, certain individuals fall…
Organisational change, for some employees, can pose threat, for others challenge. It has been found that, given the same organisational stressors, certain individuals fall victim to stress and ill‐health, whereas others remain healthy. In order to seek a clearer understanding of this phenomenon, the personality/stress/health relationship is explored with reference to individual differences in Type A behaviour, locus of control, hardiness, extraversion, neuroticism, and tension discharge rate. It is suggested that organisational change management should be within the framework of communication, control and counselling. Future research should pursue a multidimensional, interactive course to gain a greater insight into this highly complex relationship.
THIS bibliography is an attempt at bringing together some of the current or most useful writings on women and employment in Britain, to facilitate much needed research and also as a practical aid to those actively involved in campaigning for women's equality in employment. Since it has been necessary to limit the scope of this piece of work, I have excluded material on women's work inside the home and on the situation in other countries. I have also tended to concentrate on current sources of information dealing with the general situation, disregarding the historical dimension and material on one occupation only.
SEPTEMBER this year will be unique in the history of the librarian in England in that for the first time in nearly sixty years the annual conference of the Library Association has already become a memory only. There are those who profess to believe that the conference should be restored to the autumn months. It may be suggested on the other hand that the attendance at Margate lent no assistance to that point of view; indeed, the Margate conference was one of the most pleasant, one of the most successful, of which we have record. Nevertheless, if it can be proved that any large body of librarians was unable to be present owing to the change of month, it appears to us that the matter should be considered sympathetically. Although no one holds any longer the view that one week's attendance at a conference will teach more than many months' study in hermit‐like seclusion—the words and sentiments are those of James Duff Brown—because to‐day there is much more intimate communication between librarians than there was when that sentiment was expressed, there is enormous value, and the adjective is not an exaggeration, in one large meeting of librarians in body in the year. It is an event to which every young librarian looks forward as the privilege to be his when he reaches a high enough position in the service; attendance is a privilege that no librarian anywhere would forego. And this, in spite of the fact that there is usually a grumble because the day is so full of meetings that there is very little chance of such recreation as a seaside, or indeed any other, place visited, usually provides for the delegates.