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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2018

Michelle Li and Helen Roberts

This paper aims to examine the relation between CEO board membership and firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relation between CEO board membership and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the relationship between firm performance and CEO board membership, applying two-stage least squares, propensity score matching and correcting for self-selection bias across a unique sample of publicly listed New Zealand firms that demonstrate a definitive variation in CEO board membership.

Findings

This study finds that CEO board membership has a positive impact on firm performance, and these benefits are greater for more complex firms.

Research limitations/implications

Firms with CEOs independent of the board are associated with lower firm performance. The results are consistent with CEO board members providing an important information transfer mechanism to the board, resulting in an increase in average firm performance. This benefit is greater for larger firms with more business segments.

Originality/value

The paper tests for the impact of CEO board membership using a data set that demonstrates a definitive variation in CEO board membership.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Michelle Li and Helen Roberts

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board independence and firm performance for publicly listed New Zealand (NZ) firms over the period 2004-2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board independence and firm performance for publicly listed New Zealand (NZ) firms over the period 2004-2016.

Design/methodology/approach

To address endogeneity concerns, the relationship between firm performance and board independence is modelled using three different approaches: firm fixed-effect estimation, difference-in-difference estimation and two-stage least squares estimation, while controlling for firm and governance characteristics.

Findings

The main finding is that the mandated board independence introduced by the Best Practice Code does not improve operating or market performance for listed NZ firms.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that NZ firms choose greater board independence than required is puzzling. Research examining director characteristics and connectedness, not captured by the NZX Code, may be a fruitful area for future research when disclosure allows.

Practical implications

Regulators may need to review reasons for mandating changes in factors affecting firm governance before implementing further regulations concerning board structure.

Social implications

The findings cast doubt on the benefit of mandated board independence for NZ firms. The results imply that “good” governance practices proposed by regulators are not universal.

Originality/value

This paper tests the impact of mandated board independence following the adoption of the Best Practice Code in 2004 using methodologies that account for endogeneity using 13 years of data.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Mahnoor Sattar, Pallab Kumar Biswas and Helen Roberts

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board gender diversity and private firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board gender diversity and private firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the association between board gender diversity and private firm performance by estimating pooled multivariate regressions using an unbalanced panel data set of 115,253 firm-year observations.

Findings

The authors find that younger, less busy and local women directors enhance private firm performance. Firms with 40% or more women directors report triple the economic benefits compared to boards with at least 20% women directors. Considering firm size, women directors significantly increase small firm profitability, and the effect is more pronounced for high-risk firms. Greater board gender diversity enhances small firm performance as the monitoring role of women directors benefits the firm even in the presence of busy men directors. Consistent with the agency theory framework, the authors find that women directors improve small firm profitability in the presence of agency costs.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of availability of data about private firms, many factors are not directly observable. The analysis uses accounting-based performance measures that may be subject to managerial discretion. Nevertheless, the authors report highly significant results using cash-based performance measures that substantiate the overall findings.

Practical implications

The results of the present study point to the need for private firms to increase board gender diversity and consider women director busyness, age, nationality and firm size when making board director appointments.

Originality/value

This study adds to the scarce existent literature investigating private firms. The results contribute to the understanding of gender-diverse boards as well as the attributes of women directors that enhance private firm performance.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Haileslasie Tadele, Helen Roberts and Rosalind Whiting

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of MFI-level governance on microfinance institutions' (MFIs’) risk in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of MFI-level governance on microfinance institutions' (MFIs’) risk in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data from a sample of 151 MFIs operating in 21 SSA countries during 2005–2014. The Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) regression model is applied to investigate the relationship between MFI level governance mechanisms and risk.

Findings

The study provides new evidence that board characteristics have differential effects on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) MFI risk. Board independence reduces credit risk of NFP MFIs. Foreign director presence increases MFI failure risk. Furthermore, greater female director representation reduces (increases) FP (NFP) financial risk whereas female CEOs are associated with higher (lower) FP (NFP) financial risk.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to existing literature on microfinance governance and risk, by exploring the impact of governance on MFI risk based on MFIs profit orientation. In addition, the study uses three different risk measures unlike previous microfinance studies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Pallab K. Biswas, Helen Roberts and Rosalind H. Whiting

Based on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective and agency theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine how the introduction of the 2006 Corporate Governance (CG…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective and agency theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine how the introduction of the 2006 Corporate Governance (CG) Guidelines and family governance affected the level of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting of non-financial companies in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use multivariate regression to analyse 2,637 firm-level annual observations, from 1996 to 2011 annual reports of Bangladeshi publicly listed non-financial-sector companies, to investigate how firm-level CG quality affects CSR disclosure in family and non-family firms.

Findings

CG quality significantly increases the level of CSR disclosure and this relationship is stronger prior to the new CG Guidelines. Family firms’ CSR reporting levels are significantly lower than non-family firms’, and this effect is stronger after the change in the CG Guidelines. CEO duality, the presence of an audit committee and profitability improve family-firm CSR reporting in Bangladesh, while non-family CSR disclosures are positively associated with board size and firm competition. Board independence is not related to CSR disclosure.

Originality/value

The authors provide evidence of the benefit of the CG Guidelines’ introduction on company CSR disclosure in an emerging economy and the importance of specific governance mechanisms that differentiate family and non-family-firm CSR disclosures in Bangladesh using a SEW framework.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Pallab Kumar Biswas, Helen Roberts and Rosalind Heather Whiting

This paper aims to investigate the impact of female director affiliations to governing families on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of female director affiliations to governing families on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures in the context of Bangladeshi firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative empirical research method grounded in Socioemotional Wealth (SEW) theory. Data was sourced from Bangladeshi publicly listed non-financial sector companies’ annual reports and stock exchange trading and publication reports and consists of 2,637 firm-year observations from 1996 to 2011. Pooled multivariate regression models are used to test the association between corporate social and environmental disclosure and female directors, and the family affiliation (or not) of those directors.

Findings

The findings provide strong evidence that female directors who are affiliated to the governing family, founders and other board members reduce CSR disclosure in family firms; unaffiliated female board directors enhance CSR disclosure, and this effect is significant in both family and non-family firms.

Research limitations/implications

Definitions of family firms and affiliated directors may lead to over-generalization in the results.

Originality/value

The study highlights variation in the nature of female board appointments in emerging market family-controlled firms. The findings bring attention to the role of affiliated female director appointments in family ownership structures and speak directly to family business owners, advisors and policy makers about the importance of unaffiliated female directors as catalysts of improved CSR disclosure in family and non-family firms.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Helen Roberts

This article describes the background to the What Works initiative launched by Barnardo's in the early 1990s, with a focus on the What Works for Children series of reports…

142

Abstract

This article describes the background to the What Works initiative launched by Barnardo's in the early 1990s, with a focus on the What Works for Children series of reports published from 1995 onwards. The author describes the intellectual and social context of the initiative, the approach taken, and some of the barriers to and levers for the adoption of research in practice are identified. The article describes more briefly the ways in which those in the Research and Development (R&D) team at Barnardo's worked towards knowledge transfer, both inside and outside the organisation. The article concludes with reflections on the impact of Barnardo's initiatives, the journey still to be travelled to strengthen the knowledge base of those providing services to children in education, health and social work, and the need for further work both to strengthen the evidence base and to increase synergies between research, policy and practice.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Glenn Boyle, Stefan Clyne and Helen Roberts

From 2007, New Zealand firms must report the cost of granting employee stock options (ESOs). Market‐based option pricing models assume that option holders are…

Abstract

From 2007, New Zealand firms must report the cost of granting employee stock options (ESOs). Market‐based option pricing models assume that option holders are unconstrained in their portfolio choices and thus are indifferent to the specific risk of any firm. By contrast, ESO holders are frequently required to hold portfolios that are over‐exposed to the firm that employs them and so adopt exercise policies that reflect their individual risk preferences. Applying the model of Ingersoll (2006) to hypothetical ESOs, we show that ESO cost can be extremely sensitive to employee characteristics of risk aversion and under‐diversification. This result casts doubt on the usefulness of any market‐based model for pricing ESOs, since such models, by definition, produce option values that are independent of employee characteristics. By limiting employee discretion over the choice of exercise date, vesting restrictions help reduce the magnitude of this problem.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Emma Casey

This article represents an attempt to uncover a suitable method of sociological enquiry, which can best understand and explore the experiences of the older, working class…

504

Abstract

This article represents an attempt to uncover a suitable method of sociological enquiry, which can best understand and explore the experiences of the older, working class women of my research. Noting the historical, frustrating sense of absence of women in dominant knowledge claims (for example Beauvoir, 1997; Woolf, 1993; Rowbotham, 1973), the article seeks to complement post‐modern critiques of the autonomy of reason with feminist accounts of knowledge or “epistemologies”. The article documents the dislocation between my own epistemological assumptions and the women’s ways of knowing, and their attempts to defend themselves against my middle class interpretations of their working class lives. It offers a reflexive account of my own ethnographic research experiences, in order to help resolve some of the practical dilemmas faced by feminist researchers (Ribbens and Edwards, 1988). The article highlights some of the pains and pleasures of the feminist research experience.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 23 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2008

Tim Hobbs, Matthew Carr, Marc Holley, Nathan Gray and Nick Axford

The need for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support evidence‐based services to improve outcomes for children is increasingly recognised by researchers and…

Abstract

The need for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support evidence‐based services to improve outcomes for children is increasingly recognised by researchers and policy‐makers. However, this brings a pressing requirement to build research capacity for conducting RCTs and to address the concerns of practitioners who may be suspicious about the method. This article reviews a variety of texts on the subject, ranging from analyses of the historical and political context of RCTs, to concise introductions of the key methodological and practical issues, to more in‐depth discussions of complex designs and statistics. The article seeks to help readers navigate these resources by focusing on seven questions that seem particularly salient for those considering whether and how to commission, undertake, participate in or use results from RCTs.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

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