Discusses the non‐dairy alternatives to milk and dairy products. Looks at a range of products suitable for the “vegan dairy” and compares the nutrient profiles with those of traditional milk and dairy products. Concludes that vegans should choose non‐dairy alternative products which have been fortified. The way forward is to expand the range of fortified “vegan dairy” products, to increase the availability of these foods and, in time, to reduce their price.
Discusses the need for a food guide for vegans. Looks at the nutritional information and advice found in current popular vegan cookery books, including: sample menus; food…
Discusses the need for a food guide for vegans. Looks at the nutritional information and advice found in current popular vegan cookery books, including: sample menus; food groupings; food descriptions and recipes. Suggests a possible approach to a vegan food guide (VFG) incorporating foods suitable for this group. Concludes that more work needs to be undertaken in this area to develop the VFG and to ensure that the VFG is made readily available to vegans.
Discusses the plant‐based alternatives to meat. Looks at the production and uses of a range of meat alternatives from different sources including: soya beans; wheat protein; pea…
Discusses the plant‐based alternatives to meat. Looks at the production and uses of a range of meat alternatives from different sources including: soya beans; wheat protein; pea and wheat protein; and myco‐protein. Compares the nutrient profiles with those of meat. Concludes that the way forward is to create new products based on plant proteins and to veganise existing vegetarian meat alternatives.
Considers the relevance of the National Food Guide to vegans. Looks at various groupings, e.g. meat, fish and alternatives, and suggests improvements to the information currently…
Considers the relevance of the National Food Guide to vegans. Looks at various groupings, e.g. meat, fish and alternatives, and suggests improvements to the information currently presented in the guide, e.g. an increased emphasis on the protein value of pulses. Concludes that an alternative guide would be a good idea for people on a strict vegetarian diet, mentioning the Vegan Food Guide to be presented in a later issue of the journal.
– The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which risk is addressed in the risk management planning process of those convicted of sexual offending.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which risk is addressed in the risk management planning process of those convicted of sexual offending.
Data were collected from a risk assessment and management system called the Offender Assessment System (OASys), used by the National Offender Management Service, in England and Wales. The records of 216 clients were accessed and each risk management plan analysed. The study aimed to understand if first, general and sexual risk factors identified by assessors were recorded and detailed in subsequent plans; second, if specialist sexual offending risk assessment tools were used to inform risk management strategies; and third, if both a balance of control and support mechanisms were in place to tackle identified risk and needs of clients.
Inconsistencies were found in relation to practitioners transposing risks identified, into the subsequent risk management plans. Strategies were therefore deemed, inadequate as there was a significant omission of the use of specialist sexual risk assessment tools to inform and ensure risk assessment to be robust. In addition risk management plans were often overbearing in nature, as assessors tended to utilise control strategies to assist the reintegration process, in contrast to a combination of both control and support.
This sample was taken from only one probation trust in England and Wales. The findings might therefore be unique to this organisation rather than be representative of national practice. This study should therefore, be replicated in a number of other probation areas. In addition, it is important to note that this study only reviewed one electronic tool used by practitioners. Therefore, while it might appear for example that the RM2000 tool was not routinely completed; this cannot be assumed as practitioners might have adopted local custom and practice, recording RM2000 scores elsewhere.
These findings highlight the need for some understanding as to why there is a lack of consistency throughout the risk management planning process. Practitioners should receive ongoing risk management training, development and supportive supervision. In particular, practitioners require supervision that supports and develops their skills when applying RM2000 classifications to their clients’ risk management plans. Likewise initiatives which develop practitioner’s awareness and application of strengths based approaches such as the Good Lives Model should be encouraged. These will help practitioners develop plans that address both the risks while supporting their development of the strengths a client presents.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of its kind, which examines the risk management plans of those convicted of sexual offending, completed by practitioners in England and Wales using the OASys tool.