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People with a history of depression are more likely to smoke and less likely to achieve abstinence from smoking long term. The purpose of this paper is to understand the…
People with a history of depression are more likely to smoke and less likely to achieve abstinence from smoking long term. The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation among patients with depression.
This paper reports on smoking prevalence and cessation in a cohort of 789 primary care attendees with depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of=16) recruited from 30 randomly selected Primary Care Practices in Victoria, Australia in 2005.
At baseline, 32 per cent of participants smoked. Smokers were more likely to be male, unmarried, receive government benefits, have difficulty managing on available income, have emphysema, a chronic illness, poor self-rated health, to have more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, to be taking anti-depressants, to be hazardous drinkers, to report suicidal ideation and to have experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse. At 12 months, 20 participants reported quitting. Females and people with good or better self-rated health were significantly more likely to have quit, while people with a chronic illness or suicidal ideation were less likely to quit. Smoking cessation was not associated with increases in depression or anxiety symptoms. Only six participants remained quit over four years.
Rates of smoking were high, and long-term cessation was low among primary care patients with depressive symptoms. Primary care physicians should provide additional monitoring and support to assist smokers with depression quit and remain quit.
This is the first naturalistic study of smoking patterns among primary care attendees with depressive symptoms.
The main purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how the productivity of SMEs is affected by qualified human capital, digital capabilities, and innovation…
The main purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how the productivity of SMEs is affected by qualified human capital, digital capabilities, and innovation activities. In doing so, we use a rich data survey of 3,500 Greek SMEs in the year 2012 and we perform conditional quantile regression analysis. The main findings of this study suggest that although human capital knowledge, ICT infrastructure, and organizational innovation are significantly affecting productivity at the mean of the distribution, the effects are highly differentiated in the quantiles. Thus, qualified human capital facilitates substantially the productivity of SMEs only in the middle and the higher quantiles of the productivity distribution. In addition, SMEs in some high and low quantiles seem to increase their productivity when they participate in R&D collaborations. Furthermore, a higher degree of ICT infrastructure and organizational innovation favors the labor productivity of SMEs in the low and middle quantiles. On the contrary, the internet usage by the employees of SMEs at the lowest quantile is harmful for their productivity. SMEs should adopt the most appropriate policies to increase productivity and enhance performance.
This article describes a research study conducted in Brisbane, Australia, that sought to establish older people's views on what contributes to their quality of life in…
This article describes a research study conducted in Brisbane, Australia, that sought to establish older people's views on what contributes to their quality of life in residential settings. Focus group interviews were used to explore the key aspects of residential life that equated with a high‐quality experience. A number of key themes were identified, particularly relating to issues about autonomy, control and staff‐resident interactions. The article concludes with recommendations for those working in, or providing, residential care.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the organisational impact of the New to Forensic Mental Health education programme, developed for use across all forensic services…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the organisational impact of the New to Forensic Mental Health education programme, developed for use across all forensic services in Scotland. To date, 267 have been trained as a trainer or mentor; 502 have completed the programme and 375 are yet to complete. The programme is designed to promote self‐directed learning and is multi‐disciplinary and multi‐agency in approach. It includes case studies and problem‐based learning relating to patients in a variety of settings, from the community to high secure care.
As part of a larger longitudinal study to assess the value of this New to Forensic Mental Health education programme, organisational impact was assessed using semi‐structured interviews with (n=13) senior staff working in forensic services. Participants were purposively selected for interview.
Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis, which revealed three themes: “Acquiring knowledge: what you learn and how you learn”, “Developing skills” and “Shift in attitudes and behaviour”. The results demonstrate the positive impact the programme has had at an organisational level and what changes can occur when staff become more knowledgeable, skilful and confident. The implications for practice, along with the limitations of the study, are discussed. One of the weaknesses of this type of analysis is that it is always dependent on the analyst's interpretation, and is thus the product of that person's bias, filters or prejudices.
This evaluation is one of the limited few that explore organisational impact of an education programme.
Undergraduate, postgraduate and corporate education.
Undergraduate, postgraduate and corporate education.
This case describes Ayanda Mbatha’s response, attitudes and beliefs after retrenched from his position as a technician and draughtsman at Rheinmetall Denel Munition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mbatha responded with resilience to losing his job. Mbatha’s attitudes and beliefs enabled him to creatively search for a new job amidst escalating retrenchments. The case examines the factors important for resilience and demonstrates why resilience is an essential skill for individuals dealing with adversity. The case dilemma involves the choices Mbatha had to make during and after the retrenchment process initiated by his employer.
Expected learning outcome
We designed this case to facilitate the understanding of what is resilience and why resilience is an essential skill for individuals facing adversity. Specifically, the case aims to help students to: 1. Describe the construct of resilience in the context of individuals. 2. Identify factors that promote resilience. 3. Explain what resilient individuals do in the face of adversity. 4. Evaluate the importance of resilience during adversity. 5. Evaluate the role of prior adversity in the development of resilience.
Teaching Notes are available for educators only.
CSS 6: Human Resource Management.
The idea that relational processes are central to knowledge creation and knowledge sharing is an idea in good currency (Bouwen & Taillieu, 2004; Brown & Duguid, 1996; Wenger, 1998). Rather than considering knowledge as a commodity that can be transferred from one mind to another, when knowledge is viewed as a relational practice, it resides in social interactions and is actualized in common practices that evolve within a particular community of practice (Sternberg & Horvath, 1999; Van Looy, Debackere, & Bouwen, 2000). Thus, knowledge is both embedded and emergent — subject to change as participants in a community interact with one another. To understand what is known, it becomes necessary to study how members of an organizational community interact and how their knowledge shifts over time.