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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Helen Beckett and Jenny Pearce

Abstract

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Kate D'Arcy and Roma Thomas

A number of reports on child sexual exploitation (CSE) have pointed to the importance of community awareness raising as a preventative measure, a means of extending the…

Abstract

Purpose

A number of reports on child sexual exploitation (CSE) have pointed to the importance of community awareness raising as a preventative measure, a means of extending the reach of CSE services and widening the scope of social responsibility to protect children. However, little has been said about how to undertake such activities; how to do this well and the potential pitfalls to avoid. The purpose of this paper is to draw out critical questions about the notion of community and highlight what can be learnt from historical debates about multiculturalist practice. While the paper does not focus solely on ethnic minority communities, the authors do take stock of pertinent points from that literature in relation to issues of engagement, power and representation and applicable learning for awareness raising around CSE. In the second half of the paper, the authors consider the issue of awareness raising within communities. The authors draw on the limited literature on community awareness raising in CSE, contextualising this with reference to relevant learning from other pertinent bodies of work, to reflect on implications for practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper based on a review of various bodies of literature. The first half reviews the literature about community, community engagement, and multiculturalism as policy and practice. The second half draws evidence from the literature on forms of awareness raising on CSE and other sensitive social issues to discuss implications for practice arising from the authors’ reflections on the literature.

Findings

The review produces three key findings. First, the need to transfer historic insights into the limits of “community” and multiculturalism and apply these to the emergent field of CSE. Second, despite theoretical distinctions between “community” and “society”, evidence from the literature suggests that the term “community” is being applied more generally to refer to a wide range of events and practices. Third, the authors conclude with some points about what may work well for CSE professionals developing work in this field; that is, clear aims and objectives, nuanced approaches and targeted messages.

Research limitations/implications

This is an under-researched area where there are currently no published evaluations of community awareness raising interventions for CSE. Effective evidence-based strategies for engaging communities are urgently needed for CSE prevention work to be extended in positive ways which protect those affected.

Originality/value

This paper is original in drawing insights from historical debates about multiculturalist practice to inform thinking on community awareness raising on CSE. It makes a valuable contribution by bringing together insights from a number of distinct bodies of literature in ways which can inform practice.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Nadia Marie Wager

The purpose of this paper is to examine adult survivors’ of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) retrospective reflections on their motives for not disclosing their abuse. The aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine adult survivors’ of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) retrospective reflections on their motives for not disclosing their abuse. The aim was to identify factors that might facilitate early disclosure in order to both enhance the future safety of young people who have experienced sexual victimisation and to offer a means of reducing the numbers of future victims.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a retrospective web-based, mixed-methods survey which was completed by 183 adult survivors of CSA. The data presented here is in relation to answers offered in response to an open-ended question which were thematically analysed.

Findings

In all, 75 per cent of the survivors of CSA indicated that they had not told anyone of the abuse whilst they were a child. Analysis of the responses revealed five barriers to disclosure which included: a lack of opportunity, normality/ambiguity of the situation, embarrassment, concern for others and a sense of hopelessness. Additionally, some respondents highlighted implicit attempts to disclose and others reported later regret over non-disclosure.

Practical implications

A timely disclosure of CSA, which is appropriately responded to, has the potential to reduce the risk for subsequent sexual exploitation/revictimisation, and to foreshorten the predations of offenders. To achieve this, responsible and trusted adults in the lives of children need to learn how to invite a genuine disclosure of CSA.

Originality/value

This paper offers practical suggestions for parents and teachers on what signs indicate that an invitation might be warranted and for creating the right context for their invitation to be accepted.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Lucie Elizabeth Shuker

The purpose of this paper is to report on an evaluation of a pilot of specialist foster care for children at risk, or victims, of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and/or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on an evaluation of a pilot of specialist foster care for children at risk, or victims, of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and/or trafficking.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted a multi-case study approach, gathering placement documentation, interviews and weekly monitoring logs throughout the duration of the 13 placements.

Findings

This evaluation found that safety for those at risk, or victims, of CSE within the in-care population has both a physical and a relational element. The most successful placements were able to deploy restrictive safety measures effectively by tipping the balance of care and control towards demonstrations of compassion and acceptance. Good relationships in these foster homes unlocked other positive outcomes, including reduced missing incidences and increased awareness of exploitation.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size within this pilot project suggests the need for further research to test the applicability of the notion of multi-dimensional safety to young people’s welfare more generally.

Practical implications

The findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of stable relationships in child protection. They have implications for current tendencies to commission short-term CSE interventions that are unlikely to create the relational security that can improve community safety for young people.

Originality/value

This is the first published evaluation of specialist accommodation for those affected by CSE in the UK, and its findings will therefore be of most value to commissioners and providers of care to looked after young people. The concept of multi-dimensional safety will be relevant to those with responsibility for child welfare/safeguarding.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Claire Cody

The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential use of creative, arts-based methods to address child sexual exploitation (CSE) through connecting with and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential use of creative, arts-based methods to address child sexual exploitation (CSE) through connecting with and supporting young people affected by CSE; and engaging the wider community through awareness-raising and education to help keep young people safe. The use of the arts in building understanding, promoting agency, educating and countering negative portrayals of those affected by CSE are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review identified that there is currently a limited evidence-base surrounding the use of arts in addressing the negative outcomes for young people affected by CSE and promoting the inclusion and safety of young people in the community. To explore the potential use of the arts in engaging young people and the communities they inhabit, this paper draws from research with other “hard to engage” and stigmatised groups, and learning from efforts to tackle other sensitive and challenging issues that impact on communities.

Findings

The paper suggests that despite the relatively young evidence base concerning the role of creative, arts-based methods to tackle CSE, there is relevant transferable learning that suggests that there is potential in utilising the arts to help prevent CSE and promote community safety.

Research limitations/implications

There is a clear need to consider the ethical implications of this work and to further examine how the arts may be utilised to tackle CSE and bring about positive outcomes for both individuals and for the wider community.

Originality/value

The paper brings together bodies of literature from other fields to explore the potential use of creative arts-based methods to tackle a significant contemporary issue of community safety.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Debra Sue Allnock

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a study of support received by 60 young adults who experienced sexual, physical or emotional abuse and neglect in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a study of support received by 60 young adults who experienced sexual, physical or emotional abuse and neglect in childhood. It is focussed on the support provided by friends in particular, and draws out relevant learning for child sexual exploitation (CSE).

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 60 young people completed a questionnaire, complemented by a two hour follow-up interview to explore experiences of formal and informal support in disclosing abuse. In total, 13 young people were recruited on the basis of their prior participation in a larger, associated study of child abuse and neglect, with the remainder recruited via open invitation.

Findings

There is rich information in the interviews about the ways that friends provided support to participants. Friends provided practical, moral and emotional support. They intervened to keep their friends safe. They offered emotional “escape” and a conduit to adults who could help keep them safe. Importantly, friends recognised that participants were in distress even when they did not know the participants were being abused.

Practical implications

The results highlight that friends have a crucial role to play in helping children to keep safe and to feel safe, provided that they are equipped with information and knowledge of how to respond and where to seek help.

Originality/value

The paper is original in considering the role of friends within a community safety framework. In addition, the study sample is larger than other studies of its kind, and considers a wider variety of child maltreatment experiences than previous studies, making clear links to CSE.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Nicola Sharp

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between forced marriage, running away/going missing and child sexual exploitation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between forced marriage, running away/going missing and child sexual exploitation.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive research review and interviews with experts and practitioners across the three fields identified a total of 22 cases in which young people (aged 18 and under) had experienced some combination of all three issues. Of these, nine case studies involving South Asian young people were explored in depth using a case study methodology.

Findings

Through adopting constitutive intersectionality as an analytical framework, the power of “community” emerged as a distinct theme within the cases. Concern about both family and community “honour” impacted young people’s decision making and help seeking processes. “Honour” also impacted parental responses to the young people as well as how they engaged with the professionals seeking to support them.

Research limitations/implications

The safety of mothers also emerged as an issue, suggesting that this is an area for further research.

Practical implications

Practical implications for practice included: the need to address barriers to young people disclosing abuse and entering into the criminal justice process; difficulties associated with finding safe spaces to work with young people; the need to identify effective ways of working with abused young people who are unable to draw on relational and social support; and dangers associated with accessing support services.

Originality/value

An extensive review of the relevant research literature failed to uncover links between forced marriage, going missing and child sexual exploitation. This led the author to assert that the risk of child sexual exploitation as it relates to young South Asian young people who run away from home to escape forced marriage has been both under-acknowledged and under-explored (Sharp, 2013). Empirical research undertaken by the author over a 15-month period confirmed this assertion.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Matthew Denny

This chapter explores the role of postmodern intertextuality in Neil Jordan’s 2012 vampire film Byzantium. This intertextuality serves to place the film in dialogue with…

Abstract

This chapter explores the role of postmodern intertextuality in Neil Jordan’s 2012 vampire film Byzantium. This intertextuality serves to place the film in dialogue with earlier vampire fiction, in particular the 1970s cycle of British and European erotic vampire films such as Daughters of Darkness and The Vampire Lovers from Hammer Films. Byzantium recalls these earlier texts structurally and thematically, both through direct reference and more oblique allusions.

While Fredric Jameson characterizes postmodern intertextuality as mere nostalgia and the imitation of ‘dead styles’, feminist postmodern theorists such as Linda Hutcheon contend argue for the political potential of postmodernism. This chapter proposes that the postmodern intertextuality of Byzantium is a critical intertextuality, and that the foregrounding of storytelling, writing, and rewriting in the film draws attention to the ways in which the intertextuality of Byzantium is not merely a return to past forms but also a reworking of them.

Taking up the work of Linda Hutcheon and Catherine Constable, this chapter demonstrates the ways in which Byzantium critically reworks aspects of earlier vampire fiction in order to critique and expand the representation of the female vampire and through this explore issues relating to female subjectivity and community.

Details

Gender and Contemporary Horror in Film
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-898-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Womba Kamuhuza, Junjie Wu, George Lodorfos, Zoe McClelland and Helen Rodgers

This paper aims to provide insights on the void between the needs and demands of bank finance from female entrepreneurs and the supply, as well as the approaches of banks…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide insights on the void between the needs and demands of bank finance from female entrepreneurs and the supply, as well as the approaches of banks for that finance. In addition, it creates a conceptual framework recognising a tripartite and dynamic partnership amongst female entrepreneurs, banks and governments as essential to female entrepreneurship-development, based on Zambia as the context.

Design/methodology/approach

Concepts and theories are explained to construct a conceptual framework using the lens of multi-polar network theory and stakeholder engagement theory. In-depth discussions are facilitated through a bilateral partnership between each party and tripartite partnerships amongst female entrepreneurs, banks and governments.

Findings

The framework presents how female entrepreneurs, banks and governments are interconnected in the network as mutually benefiting stakeholders and shows their collective contribution to female entrepreneurship-development within certain contexts. The findings suggest that the sustainable development of female entrepreneurship depends on a dynamic tripartite partnership amongst female entrepreneurs, banks and governments.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual framework has important implications when setting up a nation’s enterprise development strategies and policies promoting inclusivity and diversity amongst a nation’s entrepreneurs. The contributions and the dynamic relationship of the three stakeholder groups should be acknowledged and considered to achieve sustainable development in female entrepreneur enterprises. The framework can be generalised to other emerging economies with similar social, economic and cultural profiles to Zambia, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries with patriarchal norms.

Originality/value

This paper extends multi-polar (network) theory and stakeholder management engagement theory, previously explained in homogeneous firms, to more complex and dynamic partnerships amongst heterogeneous organisations, i.e. female entrepreneurs, banks and governments.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Helen Graham, Katie Hill, Tessa Holland and Steve Pool

This paper comes from workshop activities and structured reflection by a group of artists and researchers who have been using artistic practice within research projects…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper comes from workshop activities and structured reflection by a group of artists and researchers who have been using artistic practice within research projects aimed at enabling researchers to collaborate with communities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Three out of four in the group have a practicing creative background and their own studio/workshop space.

Findings

Artists are often employed – whether in schools or research projects – to run workshops; to bring a distinctive set of skills that enable learning or collaboration to take place. In this paper the authors reflect on the different meanings and connotations of “workshop” – as noun (as a place where certain types of activity happen, a bounded space) and a verb (to work something through; to make something together). From there the authors will then draw out the different principles of what artistic practice can offer towards creating a collaborative space for new knowledge to emerge.

Research limitations/implications

Key ideas include different repertories of structuring to enable different forms of social interaction; the role of materal/ality and body in shifting what can be recognised as knowing; and the skills of “thinking on your feet”, being responsive and improvising.

Originality/value

The authors will conclude by reflecting on aspects to consider when developing workshops as part of collaborative research projects.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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