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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Byoungho Ellie Jin, Heesoon Yang and Naeun Lauren Kim

Built on the prototype and cue theories, the purpose of this study is to understand how a country's prototypical brand, a corporate brand that most consumers associate…

Abstract

Purpose

Built on the prototype and cue theories, the purpose of this study is to understand how a country's prototypical brand, a corporate brand that most consumers associate with a country (e.g. Samsung), contributes to forming two dimensions of country image – overall country image (i.e. macro country image) and product-specific country image (i.e. micro country image) – and how country image impacts the product quality evaluations of Korean cosmetics, along with the moderating effect of national culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 491 US and Chinese consumers ages 20 and older and analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings confirmed the positive influence of prototypical brand image on macro and micro country image. Macro country image also had a positive effect on micro country image. However, only micro country image yielded a positive influence on the quality evaluations of Korean cosmetics. Analyses of the moderating effect of national culture showed that the positive influence of prototypical brand image on macro and micro country image was found to be stronger in China than in the US.

Originality/value

These findings provided new theoretical perspectives for country image studies, and practical insights for companies and governments, especially those in countries whose country image is less distinctive, to help develop effective marketing strategies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Byoungho Ellie Jin, Naeun Lauren Kim, Heesoon Yang and Minji Jung

It is critical to understand how global consumers evaluate the quality of Asian products while marketing Asian products in the global marketplaces. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

It is critical to understand how global consumers evaluate the quality of Asian products while marketing Asian products in the global marketplaces. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Korea’s macro and micro country image and global consumers’ materialism level on the quality evaluation of Korean cosmetics among consumers in four countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 900 participants were collected from consumers aged 20 or older living in economically developed countries (the USA and France) and economically developing countries (China and Vietnam) via professional online survey firms. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Along with the direct effect of macro and micro country image and materialism on product quality evaluation, a moderating effect of materialism and the respective country was discovered. Subsequently, the effect of macro country image on quality evaluation was found to be only significant in the USA and France and not in China and Vietnam. In contrast, the impact of micro country image was robust across all four countries. Furthermore, the effect of materialism on product quality was significant only in Vietnam. This implies that materialistic consumers in emerging markets might have favorable perceptions regarding the quality of Korean cosmetics.

Originality/value

This study advances country image research by providing new theoretical and managerial implications for countries whose image is less distinctive with respect to the effective marketing of products by the destination countries’ development status and consumers’ familiarity.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2019

Jae-Eun Chung, Byoungho Jin, So Won Jeong and Heesoon Yang

The purpose of this study is to examine the branding strategies of SMEs from NIEs, juxtaposing the different strategies used to specifically target developed and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the branding strategies of SMEs from NIEs, juxtaposing the different strategies used to specifically target developed and developing countries with regard to brand-building approach, type and number of brands and degree of standardization.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-study approach is used. In-depth interviews are conducted with 10 Korean consumer-goods SMEs exporting their own in-house brands.

Findings

Clear differences emerge between the strategies of SMEs entering developed countries and those entering developing countries, particularly regarding brand identity development, use of foreign sales subsidiaries and number and types of brands used. The authors find an interaction effect between product characteristics and host market levels of economic development, both of which influenced the degree of product standardization.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to uncover the branding strategies of NIE consumer-goods SMEs. The findings contribute to the field by extending our understanding of branding strategies used by consumer-goods SMEs from NIEs, thereby providing useful insight for other NIE enterprises when establishing branding strategies aimed at foreign markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Byoungho Jin, Jae-Eun Chung, Heesoon Yang and So Won Jeong

Contrary to the mainstream born global (BG) perspective, some previous studies report the incremental expansion of BGs. In addition, the reasons behind BGs initiating…

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Abstract

Purpose

Contrary to the mainstream born global (BG) perspective, some previous studies report the incremental expansion of BGs. In addition, the reasons behind BGs initiating specific steps, if any, and BGs’ entry market choices are still unknown or rather contrasting. This study views that such contrasting findings may be attributed to the contexts in which BGs operate. Within the context of consumer goods BGs, the purpose of this paper is to examine the entry market choices and post-entry growth patterns, and investigate the underlying reasons.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted in-depth historiographic case research from seven Korean BGs in the consumer goods sector that demonstrated success in internationalization. Multiple sources were used to gather data from each case. A total of 14 interviews, approximately two one-on-one interviews per firm, were the major means of data collection.

Findings

The findings revealed that first entry market choices among BGs functioned largely as attempts at emergent opportunities. However, after the first wave of entry into countries with available selling opportunities, entry market choice became a simultaneous pursuit of strategic markets and emergent selling opportunities. BGs focusing on image-oriented consumer goods appeared more strategic when entering the world’s leading markets to gain brand reputation. The analyses of internationalization processes revealed three patterns, which collectively implied that each move to the next stage came from a strategic decision to solve the problems related to survival and strategic visions for growth.

Originality/value

One contribution of this paper is the provision of empirical evidence for entry market choices among consumer goods BGs. The findings suggest that BGs’ entry market choices may not be a simple matter of simultaneous expansion to the world’s lead market. Instead, they may comprise more strategic decision. While previous studies have suggested such evolutionary or path-dependent internationalization processes, this study is among the first to reveal specific growth patterns and the possible reasons behind them.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Byoungho Jin, Moudi O. Almousa, Heesoon Yang and Naeun Kim

While country image consists of two hierarchical images – macro country image at the country level and micro country image at the specific product level – previous studies…

Abstract

Purpose

While country image consists of two hierarchical images – macro country image at the country level and micro country image at the specific product level – previous studies have largely failed to detail its varying effects by product category and by the level of a country’s economic development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the macro and micro country images of four countries (USA, Italy, Korea, and Malaysia) on Saudi consumers’ purchase intentions in two product categories (symbolic and functional product).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from shoppers older than 20 years of age at several shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia via mall intercept method.

Findings

Analyses of 496 data revealed that the effects of macro and micro country images differ by product category. In particular, both macro and micro country images were equally relevant to the purchase intention of symbolic goods (i.e. handbags), while micro country image played a greater role in the purchase intention of functional goods (i.e. cell phones). A partial country moderating effect was found. The effects of micro country image on the purchase intention of handbags were valid only in Italy, where product-country match is high.

Originality/value

This study advances country image research by highlighting how the effects of macro and micro country images on purchase intention differ by product category and by country. The findings suggest which aspect of country image (i.e. macro vs micro) should be actively communicated in the marketing of symbolic and functional goods.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Byoungho Jin, Heesoon Yang and Naeun Kim

To extend the understanding of country image to the country whose image is less distinctive, the purpose of this paper is to examine two salient factors: one country’s…

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1026

Abstract

Purpose

To extend the understanding of country image to the country whose image is less distinctive, the purpose of this paper is to examine two salient factors: one country’s prototypical brand and its cultural influence (i.e. Korean Wave) on shaping the country’s image in the context of Korea and its subsequent impact on product evaluation and purchase intention. Built on the prototype and schema theories, a research framework is proposed and empirically tested on two product categories (cosmetics and tires).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from US consumers ages 20 and older and analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings largely supported the proposed framework with two additional paths (Korean Wave to product quality and Korean Wave to purchase intention). In both product categories, the findings confirmed that the image transfers from the prototypical brands (e.g. Samsung) to the country image (i.e., Korea), from Korean Wave to country image, and from the macro country image to the micro country image. The influence of the prototypical brand image was greater than that of the Korean Wave. However, some differences were found across product categories; the positive impact of the macro image on product quality evaluation was supported only for tires, not in the case of the cosmetics. The path from the Korean Wave to product quality evaluation was significant only for the cosmetics, and not for the tires.

Originality/value

These findings provided new theoretical perspectives for country image studies, and practical insights for companies, especially in countries whose image is less distinctive, to help develop effective marketing strategies in different product categories.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Hye Jung Jung, Yuri Lee, HaeJung Kim and Heesoon Yang

This paper aims to identify the dimensionality of country image (CI) for luxury fashion brand and examine the multi-faceted impacts of CI on brand awareness, perceived…

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9495

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the dimensionality of country image (CI) for luxury fashion brand and examine the multi-faceted impacts of CI on brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand loyalty in accordance with the brand resonance model. By identifying the constructs and conceptualizing and comparing the luxury fashion-brand resonance model between countries, this study demonstrates the pertinent CI impacts on luxury fashion-brand resonance in addition to exposing the cultural discrepancies between the Korean and the US samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on three studies conducted in South Korea and the USA, the Luxury Fashion Brand Resonance scale was validated. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling revealed the 18 scales consisting of CI, brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand loyalty dimensions. Additionally, the country effect was controlled by comparing the composition of structural models between the Korean and US samples.

Findings

Analysis of online data (n=466) collected from the USA and Korea identifies the underlying dimensions of the CIs including cultural assets, fashion equity, and technology advancement. Findings also support all hypothesized relationships among CI, brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. Upon a comparison of the country disparities, it is evident that technology advancement is the determinant of the increase in luxury fashion brand awareness for the Korean group, while cultural asset and fashion equity are pertinent to the enhancement of luxury fashion brand awareness for the US group.

Research limitations/implications

The structural relationships among the six dimensions of brand resonance may vary when different countries and brands are compared. To improve the generalizability of empirical findings, varied consumer samples should be employed, and other control effects, such as price and product categories, should be considered.

Originality/value

To provide insight into the transition toward a global consumer market, this study provides a theoretical orientation to account for multi-dimensional CI effects on the luxury fashion-brand resonance model and an empirical validation of the theoretical orientation which is useful for developing competitive global luxury branding strategies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Zafar U. Ahmed, Irfan Ahmed and Tan Hui Min

Previous research has posited country image to operate at two levels: the country’s macro image, based on general politico-economic descriptors of the country, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has posited country image to operate at two levels: the country’s macro image, based on general politico-economic descriptors of the country, and the country’s micro image, based on perceptions of products from the country. The purpose of this paper is to further explore this premise in a practical study, using a psychometric assessment of macro and micro country images by ascertaining the nature of differences in macro and micro images of leading exporters, the USA and China, for consumers in Malaysia, a top import destination of US and Chinese goods; the images of Malaysian goods were similarly assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a systematic sample, with questionnaires distributed to adult respondents using a street intercept. Interviewers asked every other passer-by to fill out a questionnaire, and stood in close proximity to address any questions from respondents. The study hypothesized that there is a significant difference between country macro and micro image, respectively for the USA, China and Malaysia, and that there is significant relationship between country macro image and country micro image in each country, respectively, USA, China and Malaysia.

Findings

The study found support for the reliability of existing country micro and macro image measures, and further refined them for increased validity. The study compared between the countries and found significant differences on both macro and micro dimensions of country image. The US scored highest on technological research, high quality products, standards of living, labor costs, welfare system, industrialization, civilian government, development, literacy, free-market system and democracy, followed by China on technological research, industrialization, development and free-market system, with Malaysia scoring higher on product quality, labor costs, welfare system, civilian government is civilian/non-military, literacy, free-market system and democracy.

Research limitations/implications

A broader study of countries that share geopolitical and cultural similarities might offer additional insights into country macro and micro image.

Practical implications

The study cautions marketers to assess the acceptance of their products in the context of their country’s macro and micro image perceptions in target markets, and steer those perceptions in a manner that would be beneficial to their marketing efforts.

Originality/value

The conceptualization of the macro and micro aspects of country image has been one of the less studied dimensions of country image. This study is the first to address these dimensions from an emerging-market perspective, suggesting that, at the macro level, country perceptions regarding technology, economy, and politics contribute to an overall impression of the country, which would then influence the desirability of its products originating there. For the micro country image, products from countries perceived as innovative, excelling in product design, and producing prestigious products, are likely to be perceived as desirable.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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