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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Christopher Schlembach and Susanne Kaiser

The present chapter puts one perspective center stage and looks at the relationship between TSC and its manifestation in individuals. More specifically, we are concerned…

Abstract

The present chapter puts one perspective center stage and looks at the relationship between TSC and its manifestation in individuals. More specifically, we are concerned with the relationship between processes of attitude formation and attitude change. The concept of attitudes is one out of several psychological constructs which are known to have mediating influence on actual behavior. Thus, it is a possible starting point to positively influence behavior in road traffic toward higher levels of (commitment to) safety. Understanding how safety culture is internalized by individuals and how it shapes safe conduct shall be theoretically described and practically exemplified to show how this approach can become useful and relevant for practitioners in the field of road safety.

The argument is developed in three parts. In the first part, Herbert Kelman’s (1958) conceptual scheme of three stages of attitude change is presented in which the levels of compliance, identification, and internalization of values are distinguished. In the second part, it is argued that these different levels of value integration correspond with three different kinds of psychological theories which address the relationship between attitudes and deliberately conducted behavior (action). It is a well-known fact in the science of human action that there is no direct relationship between attitudes, decision making, and action. Using Kelman’s three levels of value internalization as a scheme of reference, the conditions under which persons act in line with their attitudes can be conceptualized more precisely. From a normative point of view, it is argued that persons who align their actions and attitudes with reference to socially appreciated values are said to be elaborated. They orient their conduct by an ethos of safety to which they feel committed and they are able to interact in mindful ways. We discuss some of the basic constructs at each level and underpin their importance with reference to behavioral change toward higher levels of safety with empirical findings that have been published. In a third part, we present our findings in a summarizing table and suggest a list of factors and themes which mainly correspond to one of the three stages of attitudinal change and value internalization. Finally, we outline some examples of how traffic safety interventions can be conceptualized at these different levels.

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Jan Ketil Arnulf

The purpose of this study is to show that the presence of strong personality traits in management teams may have limiting effects on the teams' ability to adapt to…

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3345

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show that the presence of strong personality traits in management teams may have limiting effects on the teams' ability to adapt to critical changes in their business environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The financial operations characterizing ten management teams have been traced over three years, and the personalities of all managers were measured during the first phase of the project. A critical incident in the market signalled a need to adapt after about 20 months. The ensuing adaptation was analysed and related to the presence of strong personality traits, plotting all data in two‐dimensional space to visualize the relationship between personality and business operations.

Findings

The intra‐team maximum traits were systematically related to a tendency to perform habitual business in the teams. Only intelligence and stability were related to better performance after the crisis, suggestion that other strong traits may impose rigidity.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is limited to ten management teams, but these are followed for three years through 33 observation points. Also, a visualization technique based on factor analysis is used in addition to regression equations as one of the main methodological tools.

Practical implications

Managers composing teams should observe the presence of strong traits and take action to prevent obstructing adaptation after crises. This knowledge may induce efforts to overcome rigidity and understand the value of reflection‐in‐action for teams.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new way of conceptualizing the role of personality in management teams and shows its immediate impact on business performance in a real‐life setting.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Alexander Styhre, Sanne Ollila, Jonas Roth, David Williamson and Lena Berg

The purpose of the paper is to report a study of knowledge sharing practices in the clinical research organization in a major pharmaceutical company. While knowledge

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1372

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to report a study of knowledge sharing practices in the clinical research organization in a major pharmaceutical company. While knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer is often conceived of in terms of codification and storage in databases accessed through information technology, there is less experience in industry from working with knowledge sharing in face‐to‐face communication settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A collaborative research methodology including academic researchers, consultants and company representatives was used to examine and develop a knowledge‐sharing model. Interview and participative observations were used as data collection methods.

Findings

The study suggests that the use of so‐called knowledge facilitators, organizing and leading knowledge sharing seminars among clinical research teams, needs to develop the capacity to interrelate heedfully, that is, the dispositions to act with attentiveness, alertness, and care, to fully explore the insights, experiences, and know‐how generated in the clinical research teams. Heed precedes successful sharing of knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

It is concluded that the literature on knowledge sharing needs to pay closer attention to the practices on the micro level in knowledge sharing, in the day‐to‐day collaborations between different professional groups.

Originality/value

The paper applies the concept of “heedful interrelation” in a practical knowledge management project in a major pharmaceutical company.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Sizwe Timothy Phakathi

This paper aims to examine the interaction between formal and informal organisation of work inside the pit, with reference to the informal working or coping strategy of…

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1555

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interaction between formal and informal organisation of work inside the pit, with reference to the informal working or coping strategy of “making a plan” (planisa).

Design/methodology/approach

The research for this paper was ethnographic in nature and the participant observation was the main research technique used in the field.

Findings

The underground gold miners make a plan or engage in planisa to offset the production bottlenecks which affected their capacity to achieve their production targets and increase their bonus earnings. They “get on and get by” underground in order to cope with organisational constraints and management inefficiencies.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the limits of formal organisation of work and the significance of gold miners’ informal work strategy of making a plan (planisa) as an existing and alternative working practice that shapes their subjective orientation, agency and resilience to work structures and managerial strategies. Any strategy designed to improve the health, safety and productivity of underground miners must recognise, elaborate and systematically articulate the workplace culture of planisa as an existing work practice in the day‐to‐day running of the production process down the mine.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-617-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

A.R. Zeinelabdin

Before I embark on the economic cooperation experience among the Islamic countries, members of the Organisation of Islamic Conference, I would like to dwell briefly on the…

Abstract

Before I embark on the economic cooperation experience among the Islamic countries, members of the Organisation of Islamic Conference, I would like to dwell briefly on the history of OIC and its organisational set‐up.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Gudela Grote

Despite air travel having become a widely used means of transportation, the technological sophistication and human skill required for flying an aircraft remains a source…

Abstract

Despite air travel having become a widely used means of transportation, the technological sophistication and human skill required for flying an aircraft remains a source of fascination and admiration. Aviation has been coined an ultra-safe system, coping with the duality of safety and efficiency by emphasizing expertise and learning, but also standardization and automation. Highly selected and continuously trained pilots have to work with increasingly complex and autonomous technology, which creates tensions between routinization and responsible action. Research on leadership and coordination in aircrews is reviewed in light of these tensions, pointing to the benefits of a functional approach to leadership which promotes optimal use of all resources in the team toward adaptive coordination. Furthermore, the leadership requirements arising from the fact that aircrews are ad hoc teams, usually only formed for a few flights, are discussed in terms of fast team-building coupled with the reliance on shared knowledge stemming from high levels of standardization. Due to the complex demands for leadership in aircrews, special training programs were developed early on, which have become a standard that many other high-risk industries are still striving for. The generalizability and need for further development of concepts embedded in successfully leading aircrews is scrutinized, focusing especially on leadership in ad hoc teams, the interplay of standardization and leadership, and the balance between shared and formal leadership.

Details

Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-942-8

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2017

Sizwe Timothy Phakathi

This chapter examines the interaction between formal and informal organisation of work in a deep-level mining workplace. In response to organisational constraints…

Abstract

This chapter examines the interaction between formal and informal organisation of work in a deep-level mining workplace. In response to organisational constraints, underground mining teams make a plan (planisa) to offset production bottlenecks which affected the daily running of the production process at the rock-face down the mine. They ‘get on and get by’ inside the pit to cope with organisational dysfunctions and management inefficiencies. The chapter highlights the limits of formalised work methods and the significance of the frontline miners’ informal work practice of making a plan (planisa) as an existing and alternative working practice that shapes their subjective orientation, agency and resilience to deep-level mining work processes and managerial initiatives. While the informal work practice of planisa has pros and cons, any managerial strategy designed to improve organisational productivity, safety and teamwork must recognise and systematically articulate the frontline miners’ work culture of planisa. This is especially important if we are to fully understand the limits of contemporary organisational strategies and workers’ orientations towards modernised work processes and managerial practices.

Details

Production, Safety and Teamwork in a Deep-Level Mining Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-564-1

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2013

Reuben R. McDaniel, Dean J. Driebe and Holly Jordan Lanham

We discuss the impact of complexity science on the design and management of health care organizations over the past decade. We provide an overview of complexity science…

Abstract

Purpose

We discuss the impact of complexity science on the design and management of health care organizations over the past decade. We provide an overview of complexity science issues and their impact on thinking about health care systems, particularly with the rising importance of information systems. We also present a complexity science perspective on current issues in today’s health care organizations and suggest ways that this perspective might help in approaching these issues.

Approach

We review selected research, focusing on work in which we participated, to identify specific examples of applications of complexity science. We then take a look at information systems in health care organizations from a complexity viewpoint.

Findings

Complexity science is a fundamentally different way of understanding nature and has influenced the thinking of scholars and practitioners as they have attempted to understand health care organizations. Many scholars study health care organizations as complex adaptive systems and through this perspective develop new management strategies. Most important, perhaps, is the understanding that attention to relationships and interdependencies is critical for developing effective management strategies.

Research and practice implications

Increased understanding of complexity science can enhance the ability of researchers and practitioners to develop new ways of understanding and improving health care organizations.

Originality/value

This analysis opens new vistas for scholars and practitioners attempting to understand health care organizations as complex adaptive systems. The analysis holds value for those already familiar with this approach as well as those who may not be as familiar.

Details

Annual Review of Health Care Management: Revisiting The Evolution of Health Systems Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-715-3

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Christian Bach, Jing Zhang and Salvatore Belardo

The paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the intellectual bandwidth model (IB model) and expand its basic foundation to the bioscience industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the intellectual bandwidth model (IB model) and expand its basic foundation to the bioscience industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a real work example from the bioscience industry is presented.

Findings

The study discusses an end‐user information system and reveals that the information assimilation dimension can be meaningfully extended, adding automated utilization and implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The vertical research approach does not provide certainty that the case is truly representative.

Practical implications

Practical implications of the study include having a useful management tool to plan solutions for complex business problems and investment decisions.

Originality/value

The extension of the IB model is useful to practitioners and organizations seeking to manage scientific networks in knowledge‐intensive and complex collaborative environments.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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