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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Varuna Kharbanda and Archana Singh

The purpose of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of the hedging with futures currency contracts. Measuring the effectiveness of hedging has become mandatory for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of the hedging with futures currency contracts. Measuring the effectiveness of hedging has become mandatory for Indian companies as the new Indian accounting standards, Ind-AS, specify that the effectiveness of hedges taken by the companies should be evaluated using quantitative methods but leaves it to the company to choose a method of evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares three models for evaluating the effectiveness of hedge – ordinary least square (OLS), vector error correction model (VECM) and dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH (DCC-MGARCH) model. The OLS and VECM are the static models, whereas DCC-MGARCH is a dynamic model.

Findings

The overall results of the study show that dynamic model (DCC-MGARCH) is a better model for calculating the hedge effectiveness as it outperforms OLS and VECM models.

Practical implications

The new Indian accounting standards (Ind-AS) mandates the calculation of hedge effectiveness. The results of this study are useful for the treasurers in identifying appropriate method for evaluation of hedge effectiveness. Similarly, policymakers and auditors are benefitted as the study provides clarity on different methods of evaluation of hedging effectiveness.

Originality/value

Many previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of the Indian currency futures market, but with rising importance of hedging in the Indian companies, Reserve Bank of India’s initiatives and encouragement for the use of futures for hedging the currency risk and now the mandatory accounting requirement for measuring hedging effectiveness, it has become more relevant to evaluate the effectiveness of hedge. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is one of the first few papers which evaluate the effectiveness of the currency future hedging.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Chyi Lin Lee and Ming‐Long Lee

The hedging effectiveness of real estate investment trust (REIT) futures as a critical issue in response to the global REIT market has been extremely volatile in recent…

1877

Abstract

Purpose

The hedging effectiveness of real estate investment trust (REIT) futures as a critical issue in response to the global REIT market has been extremely volatile in recent years, however few studies have been placed on this area. This study aims to fill in this gap and examine the hedging effectiveness of Australian and Japanese REIT futures over 2002‐2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of this study involves two stages. The first stage is to estimate optimal hedge ratios. A variety of hedging methods is employed, including a traditional hedge, an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and a bivariate GARCH model. Thereafter, the hedging effectiveness of these strategies is assessed individually.

Findings

The empirical results show REIT futures are effective hedging instruments in which a risk reduction of 37 per cent‐78 per cent (34 per cent‐52 per cent) for Australian (Japanese) REITs is evident. Importantly, the results also reveal that REIT futures outperform other hedging instruments in which a weaker risk reduction is found by stock, interest rate and foreign currency futures contracts. Moreover, the hedging effectiveness of REIT futures is dynamic and varies over time.

Practical implications

The findings enable more informed and practical investment decision‐making regarding the role of REIT futures in risk management.

Originality/value

This paper, as far as the authors are aware, is the first study to offer empirical evidence of the risk‐reduction effectiveness of REIT futures. The hedging effectiveness of REIT futures is also compared to other hedging instruments for the first time.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Varuna Kharbanda and Archana Singh

Corporate treasurers manage the currency risk of their organization by hedging through futures contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate treasurers manage the currency risk of their organization by hedging through futures contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of hedging by US currency futures contracts by taking into account the efficiency of the currency market.

Design/methodology/approach

The static models for calculating hedge ratio are as popular as dynamic models. But the main disadvantage with the static models is that they do not consider important properties of time series like autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity of the residuals and also ignore the cointegration of the market variables which indicate short-run market disequilibrium. The present study, therefore, measures the hedging effectiveness in the US currency futures market using two dynamic models – constant conditional correlation multivariate generalized ARCH (CCC-MGARCH) and dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH (DCC-MGARCH).

Findings

The study finds that both the dynamic models used in the study provide similar results. The relative comparison of CCC-MGARCH and DCC-MGARCH models shows that CCC-MGARCH provides better hedging effectiveness result, and thus, should be preferred over the other model.

Practical implications

The findings of the study are important for the company treasurers since the new updated Indian accounting standards (Ind-AS), applicable from the financial year 2016–2017, make it mandatory for the companies to evaluate the effectiveness of hedges. These standards do not specify a quantitative method of evaluation but provide the flexibility to the companies in choosing an appropriate method which justifies their risk management objective. These results are also useful for the policy makers as they can specify and list the appropriate methods for evaluating the hedge effectiveness in the currency market.

Originality/value

Majorly, the studies on Indian financial market limit themselves to either examining the efficiency of that market or to evaluate the effectiveness of the hedges undertaken. Moreover, most of such works focus on the stock market or the commodity market in India. This is one of the first studies which bring together the concepts of efficiency of the market and effectiveness of the hedges in the Indian currency futures market.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Andrea L. DeMaskey

Exposure risk managers can hedge exchange rate risk with either currency futures or currency options. It is generally suggested that hedgers should choose a hedge

Abstract

Exposure risk managers can hedge exchange rate risk with either currency futures or currency options. It is generally suggested that hedgers should choose a hedge instrument that matches the risk profile of the underlying currency position as closely as possible. This advice, however, ignores the possibility that the hedging effectiveness may differ for the alternate risk management tools. This study compares the effectiveness of currency futures and currency options as hedging instruments for covered and uncovered currency positions. Based on Ederington's portfolio theory of hedging, the results show that currency futures provide the more effective covered hedge, while currency options (used to construct a synthetic futures contract) are more effective for an uncovered hedge. Hence, exposure risk managers do not have to sacrifice hedging effectiveness to obtain the desired risk profile. Corporations engaged in international business transactions are commonly exposed to exchange rate risk. Since management is concerned with currency exposure, it can hedge the anticipated exchange rate risk either with futures or options. The choice of the appropriate hedging tool is generally influenced by the type of currency exposure (transaction, translation, or economic risk), the size of the firm, the industry effect, the risk preference of the manager or the firm and his/her familiarity with the available financial instruments and techniques. It is also suggested that a hedger should choose a hedge instrument that matches the risk profile of the underlying currency position as closely as possible. Hence, futures contracts are more suitable for covered hedges, while option contracts are best used for uncovered hedges. Hedging effectiveness of these two hedge instruments must be considered as well in order to evaluate the cost of obtaining the desired risk profile. Some empirical research has shown that the futures contract provides both an appropriate risk profile and a more effective hedge than an options contract for covered positions. If these findings also hold for uncovered currency positions, then the hedging decision involves a trade‐off between the desired risk profile and hedging effectiveness. That is, a hedger would have to decide whether the extra risk protection afforded by the attractive risk profile of options is worth the loss in hedging performance. This study compares the hedging effectiveness of currency futures and currency options for both covered and uncovered positions. Ederington's risk‐minimizing approach is applied to estimate the hedging effectiveness and the least risk hedge ratios which, in turn, are used to assess the trade‐off between risk profile and hedging performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Book part
Publication date: 5 July 2012

John Cotter and Jim Hanly

We examine whether the hedging effectiveness of crude oil futures is affected by asymmetry in the return distribution by applying tail-specific metrics to compare the…

Abstract

We examine whether the hedging effectiveness of crude oil futures is affected by asymmetry in the return distribution by applying tail-specific metrics to compare the hedging effectiveness of both short and long hedgers. The hedging effectiveness metrics we use are based on lower partial moments (LPM), value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR). Comparisons are applied to a number of hedging strategies including ordinary least square (OLS), and both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH models. We find that OLS provides consistently better performance across different measures of hedging effectiveness as compared with GARCH models, irrespective of the characteristics of the underlying distribution.

Details

Derivative Securities Pricing and Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-616-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2008

Donald Lien and Mei Zhang

A futures contract may rely upon physical delivery or cash settlement to liquidate open positions at the maturity date. Contract settlement specification has direct…

Abstract

A futures contract may rely upon physical delivery or cash settlement to liquidate open positions at the maturity date. Contract settlement specification has direct impacts on the behavior of the futures price, leading to different effects of liquidity risk on futures hedging. This chapter compares such effects under alternative settlement specifications with a simple analytical model of daily price change. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that capital constraint reduces hedging effectiveness and tends to produce a lower optimal hedge ratio. As the futures contract proceeds toward the maturity date, hedgers will take larger hedge position in order to achieve better hedging effectiveness. Finally, optimal hedge ratios are higher (resp. lower) under cash settlement for the bivariate normal (resp. lognormal) assumptions, whereas hedging effectiveness is almost always greater under cash settlement.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-549-9

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Lu Zhang, Difang Wan, Wenhu Wang, Chen Shang and Fang Wan

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of four different incentives in improving hedging effectiveness and propose an alternative regulatory mechanism for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of four different incentives in improving hedging effectiveness and propose an alternative regulatory mechanism for China’s futures market.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method that this study uses is a laboratory experiment, and this study follows the basic norms of experimental research. In addition, this paper designs and conducts a game experiment between hedgers and futures brokerage firms (FBFs) under different incentive mechanisms.

Findings

By analyzing the experimental data, it is found that compared with other incentive mechanisms, hedgers’ willingness to hedge and FBFs’ regulatory intention are both significantly higher for the dynamic linkage updating mechanism, indicating that hedgers have a stronger willingness to follow their hedging plan, and FBFs are more responsible for their regulatory behaviors. Additionally, the dynamic linkage updating mechanism has a long-term impact on effective hedging in the futures market.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that the dynamic linkage updating mechanism is beneficial for effectively restricting both hedgers’ over-speculation and FBFs’ regulatory slack and improving the hedging efficiency of the futures market.

Practical implications

To solve the problem of inefficient hedging in China’s futures market, i.e., hedgers’ over-speculation and FBFs’ passive collusion with hedgers, the regulators of China’s futures market should reform the existing incentives and adopt a dynamic linkage updating mechanism to encourage all the participants to actively improve hedging effectiveness.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes and verifies, for the first time, the role of the dynamic linkage updating mechanism in the investing behaviors of hedgers and the regulatory behaviors of future brokerage firms. The futures market experiment that was designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment that applies game theory and mechanism design theory to the field of behavioral finance.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Patrick Lecomte

The paper aims to conduct an empirical study of three models of property derivatives: index-based derivatives, factor hedges, and combinative hedges based on index and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to conduct an empirical study of three models of property derivatives: index-based derivatives, factor hedges, and combinative hedges based on index and factors. The objective is to test whether the latter two models introduced by Lecomte dominate the index-based model used for existing property derivatives such as EUREX futures contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on investment property database (IPD) historical database covering 224 individual office properties from 1981 to 2007, the study assesses ex ante hedging effectiveness of the three models. Nine simulations are run under different hypotheses involving individual buildings and portfolios. The 17 factors included in the study cover both macro-factors (e.g. macroeconomic indicators) and micro-factors linked to the properties (e.g. age).

Findings

Atomization and periodic rebalancing of property derivatives' underlying make it possible to substantially increase hedging effectiveness for a large majority of buildings in the sample. However, combinative hedges are overall superior to factor hedges owing to the overriding role played by IPD indices in capturing risk.

Research limitations/implications

Due to confidentiality requirements inherent to the use of property level data, the study downplays the role of micro-factors on real estate risk at the property level.

Practical implications

The paper introduces a typology of optimal hedges aimed at individual property owners and portfolio holders in the City office property market.

Originality/value

This is the first time a comprehensive analysis of different models of property derivatives is conducted. The value of the paper stems from the use of property level data.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Rui Zhou, Johnny Siu-Hang Li and Jeffrey Pai

The application of weather derivatives in hedging crop yield risk is gaining more interest. However, the further development of weather derivatives – particularly…

Abstract

Purpose

The application of weather derivatives in hedging crop yield risk is gaining more interest. However, the further development of weather derivatives – particularly exchange-traded – in the agricultural sector has been impeded by concerns over their hedging performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework to derive the optimal hedging strategy and evaluate hedging effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

This framework incorporates a stochastic temperature model, a crop yield model, a risk-neutral pricing method and a profit optimization procedure. Based on a large number of simulated scenarios, the authors study crop yield hedge for a future year. The authors allow the hedger to choose from different types of exchange-traded weather derivatives, and examine the impact of various factors on the optimal hedging strategy.

Findings

The analysis shows that hedging objective, pricing method and geographical location of the hedged exposure all play important roles in choosing the best hedging strategy and assessing hedging effectiveness.

Originality/value

This framework is forward-looking, because it focusses on the crop yield hedge for a future year rather than on the historical hedging effectiveness often studied in literature. It utilizes the most up-to-date information related to temperature and crop yield, and hence produces a hedging strategy which is more relevant to the year under consideration.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Mohamed Fakhfekh, Ahmed Jeribi, Ahmed Ghorbel and Nejib Hachicha

In a first place, the present paper is designed to examine the dynamic correlations persistent between five cryptocurrencies, WTI, Gold, VIX and four stock markets (SP500…

Abstract

Purpose

In a first place, the present paper is designed to examine the dynamic correlations persistent between five cryptocurrencies, WTI, Gold, VIX and four stock markets (SP500, FTSE, NIKKEI and MSCIEM). In a second place, it investigates the relevant optimal hedging strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirically, the authors examine how WTI, Gold, VIX and five cryptocurrencies can be applicable to hedge the four stock markets. Three variants of multivariate GARCH models (DCC, ADCC and GO-GARCH) are implemented to estimate dynamic optimal hedge ratios.

Findings

The reached findings prove that both of the Bitcoin and Gold turn out to display remarkable hedging commodity features, while the other assets appear to demonstrate a rather noticeable disposition to act as diversifiers. Moreover, the results show that the VIX turns out to stand as the most effectively appropriate instrument, fit for hedging the stock market indices various related refits. Furthermore, the results prove that the hedging strategy instrument was indifferent for FTSE and NIKKEI stock while for the American and emerging markets, the hedging strategy was reversed from the pre-cryptocurrency crash to the during cryptocurrency crash period.

Originality/value

The first paper's empirical contribution lies in analyzing emerging cross-hedge ratios with financial assets and compare hedging effectiveness within the period of crash and the period before Bitcoin crash as well as the sensitivity of results to refits choose to compare between short term hedging strategy and long-term one.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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