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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Iestyn Williams, Daisy Phillips, Charles Nicholson and Heather Shearer

The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate a novel approach to citizen engagement in health priority setting carried out in the context of Primary Care Trust (PCT…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate a novel approach to citizen engagement in health priority setting carried out in the context of Primary Care Trust (PCT) commissioning in the English National Health Service.

Design/methodology/approach

Four deliberative events were held with 139 citizens taking part in total. Events design incorporated elements of the Twenty-first Century Town Meeting and the World Café, and involved specially-designed dice games. Evaluation surveys reporting quantitative and qualitative participant responses were combined with follow-up interviews with both PCT staff and members of the public. An evaluation framework based on previous literature was employed.

Findings

The evaluation demonstrates high levels of enjoyment, learning and deliberative engagement. However, concerns were expressed over the leading nature of the voting questions and, in a small minority of responses, the simplified scenarios used in dice games. The engagement exercises also appeared to have minimal impact on subsequent Primary Care Trust resource allocation, confirming a wider concern about the influence of public participation on policy decision making. The public engagement activities had considerable educative and political benefits and overall the evaluation indicates that the specific deliberative tools developed for the exercise facilitated a high level of discussion.

Originality/value

This paper helps to fill the gap in empirical evaluations of deliberative approaches to citizen involvement in health care priority setting. It reports on a novel approach and considers a range of implications for future research and practice. The study raises important questions over the role of public engagement in driving priority setting decision making.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Heather Carrasco and Andrea M. Romi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of blockchain technology in contested markets. The authors specifically consider the development and utilization of this accounting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of blockchain technology in contested markets. The authors specifically consider the development and utilization of this accounting system as a device that might democratize contested markets for vulnerable populations, supporting contested entrepreneurs while “cooling” the moral contestation to the market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the relationship between vulnerable populations and contested market activities, the inclusive development and potential trust created by a blockchain accounting information system and how this interaction potentially creates support for economic and social systems.

Findings

This paper demonstrates that, in an era of decreased trust especially as it relates to a digital, globalized marketplace, blockchain has the potential to create democracies of access, trust and agency. This system overcomes many of the deficiencies associated with transparency and accountability and connects market participants with society, strengthening its potential to bridge two opposing vulnerable population viewpoints necessary for possible contested market development.

Research limitations/implications

The authors contribute to a deeper understanding of the role of emerging technologies in the interconnectedness between vulnerable populations in a contested market. Recognizing that blockchain is an imperfect version of its ideal intention, the authors also discuss the limitations of the system with respect to corruption, collusion and potential issues of adoption, and how this reduces the influence of blockchain as a “cooling” device within contested markets.

Practical implications

The authors provide an illustrative example whereby an entire industry might be persuaded from avoidance to promotion of new traceability devices and supported in the development of an accessible market.

Social implications

Global government's economic support for social systems continues to experience significant declines. With ever-degrading healthcare, infrastructure, public education, childcare, etc., new sources of economic influx are often desired. One potential source of additional funds is from the tax revenues derived from contested market transactions, those stigmatized industries often operating illegally. With substantial public distrust, blockchain potentially provides such industries with democratization and the trust necessary to transition the industry into a legal environment, with tax revenues benefiting various social systems.

Originality/value

This study goes beyond the preliminary discussions of the benefits and consequences of blockchain. Instead, the authors focus on the use of blockchain within contested markets and its ability to influence vulnerable populations. The authors also consider the use of blockchain-based accounting information systems to provide a holistic and more democratic platform from a regulatory, market participant and societal standpoint.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Beth St. Jean, Paul T. Jaeger, Gagan Jindal and Yuting Liao

This chapter introduces the focus of this volume – the many ways in which libraries and librarians are helping to increase people’s health literacy and reduce health disparities…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the focus of this volume – the many ways in which libraries and librarians are helping to increase people’s health literacy and reduce health disparities in their communities. The rampant and rapidly increasing health injustices that occur every day throughout the world are, in large part, caused and exacerbated by health information injustice – something which libraries and librarians are playing an instrumental role in addressing by ensuring the physical and intellectual accessibility of information for all. This chapter opens with an introduction to the central concepts of health justice and health information injustice, focusing on the many information-related factors that shape the degree to which individuals have the information they need to be able to have a sufficient and truly equitable chance to live a long and healthy life. Next, the authors present a timely case study to emphasize the importance of health information justice, looking at the dire importance of health literacy as we navigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors then provide a brief glimpse into their 13 contributed chapters, grouped into five categories: (1) Public Libraries/Healthy Communities; (2) Health Information Assessment; (3) Overcoming Barriers to Health Information Access; (4) Serving Disadvantaged Populations; and (5) Health Information as a Communal Asset. In conclusion, the authors discuss their aims for this volume, particularly that readers will become more aware of librarians’ efforts to address health disparities in their communities and excited about participating in and expanding these efforts, moving us closer to health justice.

Details

Roles and Responsibilities of Libraries in Increasing Consumer Health Literacy and Reducing Health Disparities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-341-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Brendan Luyt

The astonishing thing about Wikipedia is that despite the way it is produced, the product is as good as it is and not far worse. But this is no reason for complacency. As others…

Abstract

Purpose

The astonishing thing about Wikipedia is that despite the way it is produced, the product is as good as it is and not far worse. But this is no reason for complacency. As others have documented, Wikipedia has representational blind spots, produced by the nature of its editorial community and their discursive conventions. This article wishes to look at the potential effect of sources on certain of these blind spots.

Design/methodology/approach

The author used an extended example, the Wikipedia article on the Philippine–American War, to illustrate the unfortunate effects that accompany a lack of attention to the kind of sources used to produce narratives for the online encyclopaedia. The Philippine–American War article was chosen because of its importance to American history. The war brought to the fore a debate over the future of the USA and the legitimacy of a republic acquiring overseas colonies. It remains controversial today, making it essential that its representation on Wikipedia is soundly constructed.

Findings

Inattention to sources (a lack of bibliographical imagination) produces representational anomalies. Certain sources are privileged when they should not be and others are ignored or considered as sub-standard. Overall, the epistemological boundaries of the article in terms of what the editorial community considers reliable and what the community of scholars producing knowledge about the war think as reliable do not overlap to the extent that they should. The resulting narrative is therefore less rich than it otherwise could be.

Originality/value

While there exists a growing literature on the representational blind spots of Wikipedia (gender, class, geographical region and so on), the focus has been on the composition of the demographics of the editorial community. But equally important to the problem of representation are the sources used by that community. Much literature has been written that seeks to portray the social world of the marginalized, but it is not used on Wikipedia, despite it easily meeting the criteria for reliability set by the Wikipedia community. This is a tragic oversight that makes Wikipedia's aim to be a repository for the knowledge of the world, a laudable goal to strive for, even if in reality unobtainable, even harder to achieve than ever.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 78 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2023

Vili Nosa, Linda Palavi and Maryann Heather

The purpose of this study is to examine the views from Pacific addiction service providers with the aim of exploring perceived barriers and solutions for Pacific substance and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the views from Pacific addiction service providers with the aim of exploring perceived barriers and solutions for Pacific substance and behavioural addiction services in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Pacific alcohol other drugs and gambling health professionals in New Zealand. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A general inductive thematic analysis was then used to identify themes.

Findings

Pacific alcohol other drugs (AOD) services have adapted well to the COVID climate; stigma and time remain persistent barriers to access for clients. Pacific AOD services expressed concerns regarding their disconnect with primary health care and the need for collaboration and partnership. Pacific AOD models of care and workforce development would be encouraged, supported and provisioned with increased and stable funding within the sector.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of prioritisation and adequate funding that Pacific AOD services continue to face needs to be addressed. This will ensure that the expansion of Pacific AOD services is not only sustainable in regards to growing the Pacific AOD workforce but can also safeguard the responsiveness of the Pacific AOD sector to the changing demographics and increasing AOD needs of future Pacific populations in New Zealand.

Practical implications

Stigma, timing of AOD services and the disconnect between primary and secondary Pacific addictions continue to hinder accessibility to AOD services for Pacific people. The findings highlight that Pacific AOD services require a health system embedded in equity, operating to protect, foster, enhance Pacific models of addiction care and service delivery.

Social implications

The lack of prioritisation and adequate funding that Pacific AOD services continue to face needs to be addressed. This will ensure that the expansion of Pacific AOD services is not only sustainable in regards to growing the Pacific AOD workforce but can also safeguard the responsiveness of the Pacific AOD sector to the changing demographics and increasing AOD needs of future Pacific populations in New Zealand.

Originality/value

It has been over a decade since the last study identifying the effectiveness of Pacific AOD services. The findings highlight that Pacific AOD services require a health system embedded in equity, operating to protect, foster, enhance Pacific models of addiction care and service delivery. The lack of prioritisation and adequate funding that Pacific AOD services continue to face needs to be addressed. This will ensure that the expansion of Pacific AOD services is not only sustainable in regards to growing the Pacific AOD workforce but can also safeguard the responsiveness of the Pacific AOD sector to the changing demographics and increasing AOD needs of future Pacific populations in New Zealand.

Details

Drugs, Habits and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Heather Tolland and Emma Drysdale

The purpose of this paper was to explore the well-being and experiences of working from home (WFH) for psychology staff across a range of specialties working within one health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to explore the well-being and experiences of working from home (WFH) for psychology staff across a range of specialties working within one health board in Scotland during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 161 clinical psychology professionals took part in an online survey that explored experiences of WFH during the COVID-19 pandemic and assessed well-being during this period.

Findings

A number of challenges with WFH were identified, including challenges with carrying out clinical work (e.g. communication difficulties, risk assessment) and fewer opportunities for collaborative working and technical/equipment issues. During the WFH period, 46% experienced fatigue, 45% felt stressed and anxious and 30% felt lonely and isolated, compared to normal. Physical health complaints were also common with 37% experiencing aches/pains in back compared to normal and 40% experiencing headaches or migraines.

Practical implications

Remote therapy should be directed to those with less complex needs or who require straightforward assessments. There should be increased access to occupational health assessments and provision of ergonomic furniture when WFH, and all staff should be supported to access well-being resources available within the health board. Further evaluation should be carried out to support evidence-based practice of remote clinical work.

Originality/value

Few studies have explored the experiences of WFH and/or remotely from the perspectives of clinical psychologists in a Scottish health board. It is expected that this way of working will continue, albeit to a smaller extent; therefore, WFH policy will be informed by the findings.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Stephen C. Rea

This paper aims to offer practical guidance on teaching about digital extremism – defined here as the intersection of digital disinformation campaigns with political extremism …

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer practical guidance on teaching about digital extremism – defined here as the intersection of digital disinformation campaigns with political extremism – by highlighting four pedagogical challenges: the danger of unintentionally “redpilling” students; the slippery slope to false equivalency and “bothsidesism” in turbulent partisan waters; the difficulty of separating empirical analyses from prescriptive debates circulating in popular media; and the trouble of getting students to understand digital extremism as a sociotechnical problem rather than as a social-or-technical problem. The conclusion proposes opportunities for educators to integrate practical approaches to confronting digital extremism with digital civics curricula.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews pedagogical challenges and outlines a curricular program for teaching about digital extremism drawn from the author’s experience designing undergraduate courses and open teaching modules between 2016 and 2021.

Findings

Educators should shift focus from the substance of digital extremism to its tools – social media platforms’ surveillance and data-gathering methods, advertising technologies and monetized user-generated content, personalized recommendation algorithms and media manipulation strategies that amplify some narratives while suppressing others – and the media and political institutions that benefit most from it. Proposed lessons include: how digital extremists manipulate social media metadata; engagement with data creation and targeting practices; and analysis of information production, circulation and consumption exploring media manipulation tools and their effects.

Originality/value

This paper’s added values are the insights and practical recommendations for undergraduate educators teaching on a topic of urgent contemporary concern: digital extremism.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 123 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Paul Nisbet

Many learners with disabilities and special educational needs have difficulty reading or accessing traditional paper examinations at school. The most common method of…

Abstract

Purpose

Many learners with disabilities and special educational needs have difficulty reading or accessing traditional paper examinations at school. The most common method of accommodating these candidates, in Scotland, is the use of reader and scribe. This paper aims to define a specification for digital examination papers for candidates with disabilities, identify a suitable electronic format, and report on trials of these digital assessments.

Design/methodology/approach

The support needs of candidates with disabilities were investigated through interviews with teaching staff and students, analysis of the type of requests made for accommodations, and the reasons for the requests. Findings from this exercise, together with consideration of the requirements of the examination context, were used to construct a specification for digital examination papers. Pilot trials using digital papers were then undertaken.

Findings

Adobe portable document format (PDF) was judged to match the specification most closely. Successful pilot trials in 2005, 2006 and 2007 led to the introduction of digital papers by the Scottish Qualifications Authority in 2008.

Research limitations/implications

There is some evidence that digital papers provide a more independent and less costly alternative to reader/scribes; this requires further research.

Practical implications

Between 2008 and 2011, the number of requests for digital papers increased fivefold, indicating that digital question papers in PDF offer a practical and cost effective method of accommodation in examinations.

Originality/value

This research is of interest to examination boards, assessment designers, educators and learners. It demonstrates that candidates with disabilities can successfully access assessments in digital format.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

S.G. Elkhuizen, M. Limburg, P.J.M. Bakker and N.S. Klazinga

Business process redesign (BPR) is used to implement organizational transformations towards more customer‐focused and cost‐effective care. Ideally, these innovations should be…

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Abstract

Purpose

Business process redesign (BPR) is used to implement organizational transformations towards more customer‐focused and cost‐effective care. Ideally, these innovations should be carefully described and evaluated so that “best practices” can be re‐applied. To investigate this, available evidence was collected on patient care redesign projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The Ebsco Business Source Premier, Embase and Medline databases were searched. Studies on innovations related to re‐engineering patient care that used before‐after design as minimum prerequisites were selected. General characteristics, logistic parameters and other outcome measures to determine the objectives and results and interventions used were looked at.

Findings

A total of 86 studies that conformed to the criteria were found: a minority mentioned measurable parameters in their objectives. In the majority of studies, multiple interventions were combined within single studies, making it impossible to compare the effects of individual interventions. Only three randomized controlled trials were found. Furthermore, inconsistencies were noted between the study objectives and the reported results. Many more issues were reported in the results than were mentioned in the study aims. It would appear that publications were hard to find owing to a lack of specific MeSH headings. Nearly 7,500 abstracts were scanned and from these it was concluded that clear and univocal research methods, terms and reporting guidelines are advisable and must be developed in order to learn and benefit from BPR innovations in health care organizations.

Originality/value

This appears to be the first time available evidence about redesign projects in hospitals has been systematically collected and assessed.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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